CONSCIOUS URBANISM

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DYNAMICS OF GREEN DESIGN IN MACRO SCALE – A QUESTION OF SUSTAINABILITY

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  • Green and sustainable cities present fundamental opportunities to both apply new technologies, such as public transit, greening community spaces & green building designs along with bringing about major lifestyle changes such as walking, bicycling and reductions in consumptions.
  • Principle 1: Manage CongestionCongestion is a fact of life in successful urban places. By definition, a place that supports a great concentration of economic and social activities within a pedestrian-scaled environment is going to be congested.
    Principle 2: Balanced/Active StreetsDowntown streets must balance the needs of pedestrians, bicycles, transit and the automobile in creating an attractive and viable urban core. Downtown streets are for people first, commercial second, parking third and through traffic fourth.Principle 3: Streets as PlacesThe Great Streets Program envisions downtown as a vital focus of city life, and as a primary destination. Our downtown streets are our most important and pervasive public space and common ground.Principle 4: Interactive Streets Urban Streets are the stages on which the public life of the community is acted out.Principle 5: Pride of PlaceVisible, caring and upkeep are critical to the vitality of urban street life.Principle 6: Public ArtArt in the public environment can help to establish a stronger sense of place and a continuity between the past, present and future.
  • CONSCIOUS URBANISM

    1. 1. C ONSCIOUS URBANISM DYNAMICS OF GR EEN DESIGN IN MACRO SCALE – A QUESTION OF SUSTAINABILITY Nilanjan Bhowal Arunima Chatterjee
    2. 2. Any discussion of urban design which does not address environmental issues has little meaning at a time of declining natural resources, ozone layer destruction, increasing pollution & it’s far reaching impacts on the pattern of living in the urban fabric.
    3. 3. • IS THERE AN ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS ? • WHAT IS THE NATURE & EXTENT OF URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION ? • WHAT ARE THE UNDERLYING CAUSES ? • WHAT ARE THE OPTIONS TO IMPROVE URBAN ENVIRONMENT?
    4. 4. POLLUTION CONTROL IN CITIES ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS BIKE PATHS & PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC IMPORTANCE GREEN POCKETS TO REDUCE URBAN HEAT ISLAND EFFECT USABLE PUBLIC SPACES INTEGRATED APPROACH
    5. 5. URBAN ENVIRONMENTALISM • • • • • • • • Ethics and respect for the individual. Participation and democratization. Structuring through networks. A return to the natural world and sensory experience. Controlled urban density and mixed development. Respect for the g e nius lo c i , or spirit of place. Ecology and economy. International co-operation.
    6. 6. ENVIRONMENTAL HUMANISM • • • • • • • • Equilibrium between the built & open spaces Preservation Urban diversity. Social & community mixes. Traffic control Protection of water & air quality. Waste management Conservation of urban heritage.
    7. 7. Experiments in Community level….. ……. Township design
    8. 8. CIVANO : An experimental community development in American Southwest The Problems – Sprawl – Predominance of the automobile – Lack of community – Destruction of ecosystems, green spaces Techniques – Considering energy in Planning – New Urbanism – Transit-Oriented Development – Conservation Subdivision Design – Smart Growth Sustainability goals include: • Reducing potable water consumption by 65 % • Reducing home energy consumption by 50% • Reducing internal vehicle miles by 40% • Creating one job onsite for every two residences • Reducing landfill-destined solid waste • Providing 20 percent "affordable housing“ • Developing a cooperative city
    9. 9. Civano site plan : neighborhood growths - Pedestrian streets within community & parks / natural green spaces - Peripheral vehicular movements • Distinct separation of vehicular & pedestrian movement. • Green buffers.
    10. 10. MASTER PLAN & R OAD NETW ORK Functional open space Principle 1: Manage Congestion Natural open space Principle 2: Balanced/Active Streets Existing multi-use trail Enhanced side-walk Divided urban pathways Proposed multi-use trails Pedestrian connections Principle 3: Streets as Places Principle 4: Interactive Streets Principle 5: Pride of Place Principle 6: Public Art to enhance community integration Main roadway Arterial roadway
    11. 11. MICRO & MACRO GREEN STR ATEGIES SOLAR POWER GENERATION IN COMMUNITY LEVEL DESIGN GARAGES AS BUFFER ZONE WITH PV CELLS AS GREEN ENERGY DESIGN WATER CONSERVATION/RAIN WATER HARVESTING & PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN XERISCAPE & INDEGENIOUS PLANT LANDSCAPING IN COMMUNITY LEVEL TO CONSERVE WATER
    12. 12. ARCHITECTURAL VENTURES – Low Energy, passive design MATERIALS CONSTRUCTION DESIGN PLANNING STRAWBALE ADOBE RAMMED EARTH PRE-FAB CONSTRUCTION
    13. 13. AUROVILLE : An experimental township in South India Centrifugal plan with Spiritual foci. Line s o f fo rc e separating different zones surrounded by a natural green belt.
    14. 14. EVOLUTION OF THE URBAN FORM Roger Anger: "Mother had given a couple of parameters: the division of the city into four areas, or zones, and the number of people for whom the city is envisaged (50.000). The division into those four zones (industrial, residential, international and cultural) is unique, and has no precedent in town planning. Four-part master plan idea by Mirra Alfassa, "the Mother“ of Auroville. 1967 Galaxy Master Plan 1966 Nebula 1967 Emerging Galaxy
    15. 15. PRINCIPLES • Auroville is an attempt to develop a utopian city with an ideal community and self sustenance were the driving force would be to realize human unity in diversity. • This concept reflects in the city planning which integrates the new age metropolis as a mean to exercise ecological sustenance in living. • The Green Belt is a fertile zone for applied research. • The resulting innovative methods can be applied/extended in both rural and urban areas everywhere.
    16. 16. residences matrimandir INTERNATIONAL ZONE bharat niwas RESIDENTIAL ZONE CENTRAL ZONE GREEN BELT Spiritual center Experimental architecture International Pavilions Visitor’s activity zone Apartments & single dwellings Exploring global parameters
    17. 17. research facilities, factories Social Development Cultural Development Human Development INDUSTRIAL ZONE recreation, art & culture Environmental Development Climatically responsive, energy efficient architecture Low energy content building materials CULTURAL ZONE
    18. 18. GREEN ARCHITECTURE & PLANNING STRATEGIES RECHARGE RESERVOIR COMMUNITY WITHOUT BOUNDARIES RAMMED EARTH STRUCTURE STREET SCALE & TRAFFIC SEGREGATION PUBLIC CONVENIENCES IN VARIOUS SECTORS THATCH, WATTLE & DAUB, ADOBE & ORGANIC STRUCTURES
    19. 19. TWO GEOGRAPHICALLY DIFFERENT URBAN EXPERIMENTS W ITH SUSTAINABLE GOALS Conscious Urbanism in Auroville Civano is a direct implementation of a new development pattern allowing people to meet economic needs while maintaining social values and ecological harmony.  Civano's master plan anticipates construction of about 2,000 homes and apartments using significantly lower natural sources than conventional homes within a broad price range. Civano was designed to protect the environment and, every home at Civano is certified by the US Government to reduce the energy costs for heating and cooling by at least 50%. Harvested and reclaimed water is promoted. Extensive walking and biking paths reduce auto usage for internal circulation and create a livable community. addresses issues – from organic food generation to water, energy, architecture, construction materials, technology, waste management, pollution, traffic and even self – governance. Although originally intended to house 50,000, the actual population today is 1,829 Vehicular traffic (quantity, movement) needs to be planned and controlled (Civano is a good example for pedestrian and vehicular traffic segregation) Low-energy building materials and sustainable techniques adopted at the micro scale. (rammed-earth, compressed earth blocks, ferro cement, funicular shells etc. have been extensively tried at Auroville by various architects)
    20. 20. TH F E INAL QUE TION S EXPERIMENTAL TOW NSHIPS vs EXISTING CITY DYNAMICS : BALANCE? LESSONS? TIME?

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