Storage and Storage Devices             By         Nilabh Verma
Storage Measurement   Bit (b)   Nibble (n)   Byte (B)   Kilo Byte (KB)   Mega Byte (MB)   Giga Byte (GB)   Tera Byt...
Storage Characteristics   Can be Internal, External & Remote   Are nonvolatile   Two main things for storage:    –   De...
Magnetic Disk   Most commonly used in todays storage systems.   Use mangnetic particles to store data on disk surface. ...
Floppy Disk & Drive   Low capacity removable disk.   Mostly of 3.5” and holds 1.44/2.8 MB.   Not widely used today.   ...
Hard Disk Drive   High capacity disk.   Most common media of storage.   Use one or more metal magnetic disks.   Can be...
Hard Disk Drive   High capacity disk.   Most common media of storage.   Use one or more metal magnetic disks.   Can be...
Optical Disk Drive   High capacity disk which store data optically.   Can be internal or external.   Can be read only, ...
Optical Disk Drive   Read only disks can be    –   Read but no write.    –   CD/DVD of same storage capacity.   Recordab...
Optical Disk Drive   Read only disks can be    –   Read but no write.    –   CD/DVD of same storage capacity.   Recordab...
Flash Memory Systems   No moving parts, less vibration, less power, makes no    sound, ultra portable, easy to use.   Ca...
Storage for Large Computers   Usually use a storage server.   Containing multiple high spped HDDs.   Generally used in ...
DAS, NAS and SAN   Direct Attached Storage (DAS)    –   Most basic type of storage.    –   Simple storage which is direct...
RAID   Redundant Arrays of Indipendent Discs (RAID) is a    method of storing data on two or more hard drives    that wor...
Magnetic Tape Systems   Works similar as magnetic disk.   Primarily used for backup.   Low cost per MB.   Mostly in fo...
Storage and storage devices
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Storage and storage devices

  1. 1. Storage and Storage Devices By Nilabh Verma
  2. 2. Storage Measurement Bit (b) Nibble (n) Byte (B) Kilo Byte (KB) Mega Byte (MB) Giga Byte (GB) Tera Byte (TB) Peta Byte (PB) Exa Byte (EB) Zetta Byte (ZB) Yotta Byte (YB)
  3. 3. Storage Characteristics Can be Internal, External & Remote Are nonvolatile Two main things for storage: – Device – Media Mainly of four types: – Magnetic Disks – Optical Disks – Tape – Mobile Storage
  4. 4. Magnetic Disk Most commonly used in todays storage systems. Use mangnetic particles to store data on disk surface. Data held on a disc in block fomed by tracks and sectors. Tracks and sectors are created when disk is first formatted. Data written and read by read/write heads. Common types: – Hard disks – Floppy disks – Zip disks Important to keep away from magnetic field.
  5. 5. Floppy Disk & Drive Low capacity removable disk. Mostly of 3.5” and holds 1.44/2.8 MB. Not widely used today. Sometimes reffered as a legacy drive. Generally use PATA interface. Also available in USB. Zip drive works similar with 100 to 250 MB of storage.
  6. 6. Hard Disk Drive High capacity disk. Most common media of storage. Use one or more metal magnetic disks. Can be internal, external or remote. Typically holds 80 GB to several Tbs. Generally use following interface: – PATA – SATA – SCSI – USB
  7. 7. Hard Disk Drive High capacity disk. Most common media of storage. Use one or more metal magnetic disks. Can be internal, external or remote. Typically holds 80 GB to several Tbs. Generally use following interface: – PATA – SATA – SCSI – USB
  8. 8. Optical Disk Drive High capacity disk which store data optically. Can be internal or external. Can be read only, recordable or rewritable. Standard sized disk is 120 mm. Minis are 80 mm. Standard CD holds upto 700 MB of data. Standard DVD holds 4.7 GB (single layer) or 8.5 GB (double layer) of data. High definition DVD or blue-ray disks can hold upto 50 GB typically (17-27 GB) of data. Generally use following interface: – PATA – SATA – USB
  9. 9. Optical Disk Drive Read only disks can be – Read but no write. – CD/DVD of same storage capacity. Recordable disks can be – Written to but cant be erased or resuse. – CD/DVD of same storage capacity. Rewritable disks can be – Written, erased and overwritten just like a magnetic disk. Needs software to write (not necessary). – CD/DVD of same capacity. All disks use the appropriate device to perform task. DVD writer can handle almost kind of tasks.
  10. 10. Optical Disk Drive Read only disks can be – Read but no write. – CD/DVD of same storage capacity. Recordable disks can be – Written to but cant be erased or resuse. – CD/DVD of same storage capacity. Rewritable disks can be – Written, erased and overwritten just like a magnetic disk. Needs software to write (not necessary). – CD/DVD of same capacity. All disks use the appropriate device to perform task. DVD writer can handle almost kind of tasks.
  11. 11. Flash Memory Systems No moving parts, less vibration, less power, makes no sound, ultra portable, easy to use. Can be in form of USB or card flash disks. Can be directly connected with system or through appropriate card reader. Flash cards can be of 1 GB to 8 GB or higher. Commonly used in mobiles, gaming systems. USB flash drive can be of 2 GB to 64 GB or higher. Commonly used as a magnetic disks.
  12. 12. Storage for Large Computers Usually use a storage server. Containing multiple high spped HDDs. Generally used in big corporates having – Multiple servers. – Hundreds of users. – Tremendous amount of data.
  13. 13. DAS, NAS and SAN Direct Attached Storage (DAS) – Most basic type of storage. – Simple storage which is directly connect to the server. Network Attached Storage (NAS) – Storage server connect to a network to provide storage for computer on that network. – Use TCP/IP protocol, Low performance. Storage Area Network (SAN) – Network of storage devices that provides storage for another network of computers. – Use fiber channel. – Generally use RAID, Backup and restore, High performance, less load on network.
  14. 14. RAID Redundant Arrays of Indipendent Discs (RAID) is a method of storing data on two or more hard drives that work together to do the job of larger drive. – Usually involves recording redundant copies of stored data. – Most commonly used • RAID 0: Stripping (atleast 2 disks, usage n). • RAID 1: Mirroring (atleast 2 disks, usage n/2). • RAID 5: Stripping with distributed parity (atleast 3 disks, usage n-1).
  15. 15. Magnetic Tape Systems Works similar as magnetic disk. Primarily used for backup. Low cost per MB. Mostly in form of cartridge tape. Can be individual or with tape library. Capacity from 4 GB to several TBs.
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