Uses power to instill a belief followers can do exceptional things
Commit people to action
Convert followers into leaders
Convert leaders into change agents, innovators
Believe in people
Are value driven
Are lifelong learners
Can deal with complexity
Elements of Transformational Leadership
1) Inspiration and Charisma
2) Intellectual Stimulation
3) Individual Consideration
1) Inspiration and Charisma
Create an emotional bond between leader and group
How can you do this ?
2) Intellectual Stimulation
Challenge the group to identify and solve challenges (out of the box)
3) Individual Consideration
Develop appropriate personal relationships with members
Treat members differently but equitably
Inspiration and Charisma : builds and sustains an emotional bond that overcomes the psychological and emotional resistance to change
Intellectual Stimulation : provides the new solutions and inovations that empowers members
Individual Consideration : encourages members because they actually know the leaders
5 PRACTICES OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
Each practice can be tested, learned and
Challenge the process
Inspire a shared vision
Enable others to act
Model the way
Encourage the heart
(Kouzes & Posner, 1988 )
It has been widely researched since 1970’s
It has an intuitive appeal (consistent with society’s popular notion of what leadership means)
It treats leadership as a process that occurs between followers and leaders
It provides a broader view of leadership that augments other leadership models
It places a strong emphasis on followers needs, values, and morals
Evidence supports this theory – it does work!
- lacks clarity – it is difficult to define the parameters
Difficult to measure. Idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration are all similar and can be hard to make distinct from each other
Transformational leadership can be seen as a personality trait or personal disposition rather than a behavior in which people can be instructed
It is elitist and antidemocratic because it gives the impression that the leader is acting independently of the followers
It has the potential to be abused
It only works in situations that require change! This may not work in an organization that is not open for a transformation .
Case Study…transformational leadership in action
Nursing Saudization Department
Steps in Transformational Process
Clarify responsibility & accountability
Identify & agree on responsibilities in Department
Continuous consultation & support of staff
Continuous update & feedback
Two Saudi Clinical Educators, one Western Education Coordinator
Celebration of achievements
Satisfied Saudi & non-Saudi nurses
Protection & motivation of staff in Department: improved quality of nursing practice
Transformational values & competencies are critical to support leadership in world wide
Current Saudi nursing workforce is young & oftentimes inexperienced
Without competent leaders, the workforce relies heavily on expatriates
It is thus imperative that senior managers and leaders including nurses, mentor Saudi nurses into positions of leadership.
Know the definition of transactional leadership
Understand the dimensions of transactional leadership
Understand assumptions of transactional theory
Know the implication of transactional theory
Learn the differences between transformational leadership and transactional leadership
Conclusions of the theory
The transactional style of leadership was first described by Max Weber in 1947 and then by Bernard Bass in 1981.
This style is most often used by the managers. It focuses on the basic management process of controlling, organizing, and short-term planning.
The famous examples of leaders who have used transactional technique include McCarthy and de Gaulle.
Transactional leadership is an exchange
process in which leaders clarify employee
roles and task requirements and then
reward or punish followers based on their
Focus on the management of the organisation
Focus on procedures and efficiency
Focus on working to rules and contracts
Managing current issues and problems
Involves motivating and directing followers primarily through appealing to their own self-interest.
The power of transactional leaders comes from their formal authority and responsibility in the organization.
The main goal of the follower is to obey the instructions of the leader.
The style can also be mentioned as a ‘telling style’.
The leader believes in motivating through a system of rewards and punishment .
Dimensions of transactional leadership
These exchanges involve four dimensions:
Active Management by Exception
Passive Management by Exception
Assumptions of Transactional Theory
Employees are motivated by reward and punishment.
The subordinates have to obey the orders of the superior.
The subordinates are not self-motivated. They have to be closely monitored and controlled to get the work done from them.
Implications of Transactional Theory
The transactional leaders overemphasize detailed and short-term goals, and standard rules and procedures.
Do not make an effort to enhance followers’ creativity and generation of new ideas.
This kind of a leadership style may work well where the organizational problems are simple and clearly defined. Such leaders tend to not reward or ignore ideas that do not fit with existing plans and goals.
The transactional leaders are found to be quite effective in guiding efficiency decisions which are aimed at cutting costs and improving productivity.
The transactional leaders tend to be highly directive and action oriented and their relationship with the followers tends to be transitory and not based on emotional bonds.
The theory assumes that subordinates can be motivated by simple rewards.
The only ‘transaction’ between the leader and the followers is the money which the followers receive for their compliance and effort.
Differences between Transactional and Transformational Leaders 12/16/11 Transactional leadership Transformational Leadership
Leadership is responsive
Leadership is proactive
Works within the organizational culture
Work to change the organizational culture by implementing new ideas
Transactional leaders make employees achieve organizational objectives through rewards and punishment
Transformational leaders motivate and empower employees to achieve company’s objectives by appealing to higher ideals and moral values
Motivates followers by appealing to their own self-interest
Motivates followers by encouraging them to transcend their own interests for those of the group or unit
The transactional style of leadership is viewed as insufficient, but not bad, in developing the maximum leadership potential.
It forms as the basis for more mature interactions but care should be taken by leaders not to practice it exclusively, otherwise it will lead to the creation of an environment permeated by position, power, perks, and politics.
What is interpersonal intelligence?
There are numerous models and permutations of definitions available. Two of the most widely known are Goleman (1998) and Stein and Book (2000).Their respective models can be summarized thus:
CONT… 12/16/11 GOLEMAN STEIN and BOOK Self-awareness Intrapersonal Self-resolution Interpersonal Motivation Adaptability Empathy Stress Management Social Skills General Mood
Interpersonal intelligence is the authentic range of intuitive behaviors derived from sophisticated self awareness ,which facilitates effective engagement with others .
(West Burnham 2001,p.1)
The specific behaviours might include:
the ability to respond with empathy
elucidating the motivation of others
effective listening, questioning, synthesizing and explaining
the ability to engage with others, to show genuineness and regard.
Central to this model is the notion of authenticity in other words these are not skills to be acquired,
they are behaviours which are rooted in the essential integrity of the individual.
The more we practice virtue, for whatever reason, the more likely we are to become virtuous in an inner sense as well (p 200).
Interpersonal Intelligence is a moral issue as much as a means of efficient communication
The behaviours can be viewed as a pragmatic toolkit but, in reality, they are manifestations of a moral perspective.
Interpersonal intelligence is essentially about being human – it is the most direct and public demonstration of values in action.
Why is Interpersonal Intelligence important in educational leadership?
is the notion of the leader as exemplar, as a model of appropriate behaviour. The natural reticence and shyness of many senior staff in schools leads them to underestimate the importance of their behaviour both as a model and as a sanction i.e. implicitly condoning certain patterns of behaviour .
The second factor is both principled and pragmatic. Decision-making, even in a close relationship, is a problematic and complex process
the mental landscape of the individual is at least as important as the public arena.
The definition of interpersonal intelligence offered above stressed that it starts with personal awareness and understanding and this dimension of leadership is often neglected.
Leadership effectiveness is a product of personal effectiveness, which is in turn grounded in emotional self-awareness and interpersonal intelligence
John West-Burnham Interpersonal Leadership
Northouse, P.G. (2007) Leadership Theory and Practice Sage Publications, Inc. Thousand Oaks
Tony Bush , Theories of educational leadership and management , 3 rd edition, Sage Publication Ltd