transformational leadership.transactional leadership.interpersonal leadership


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transformational leadership.transactional leadership.interpersonal leadership

  2. 2. TOPICS <ul><li>Educational Mgt. and leadership theories : </li></ul><ul><li>Transactional Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Transformational Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Leadership </li></ul>12/16/11
  3. 3. Leadership 12/16/11
  4. 4. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP <ul><li>Guiding Question : </li></ul><ul><li>How could transformational leadership be implemented within an organization? </li></ul>12/16/11
  5. 5. OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Define transformational leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze characteristics of transformational leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze competencies needed for transformational leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze a transformational leadership case study </li></ul>12/16/11
  6. 6. DEFINITIONS <ul><li>Transformational leadership is </li></ul><ul><li>A leadership style that focused on effecting revolutionary change in organizations through a commitment to the organizations vision </li></ul><ul><li>(Sullivan & Decker, 2001) </li></ul>12/16/11
  7. 7. DEFINITIONS CONT… <ul><li>Transformational leaders have the ability to clearly articulate a vision of the future… </li></ul><ul><li>They are the myth-makers, the storytellers </li></ul><ul><li>They capture our imagination with the vivid descriptions of the wonderful future we will build together </li></ul><ul><li>(Trofino, 1992) </li></ul>12/16/11
  8. 8. CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>Leaders & followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality </li></ul><ul><li>Empowering others to achieve a shared vision – transforms both </li></ul><ul><li>Appeal to individuals to better themselves </li></ul>12/16/11
  9. 9. CHARACTERISTICS CONT… <ul><li>Fosters followers inborn desires for higher values, morals, humanitarian ideals </li></ul><ul><li>Moves individuals beyond transactions & interpersonal exchanges to perform beyond basic expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Uses power to instill a belief followers can do exceptional things </li></ul>12/16/11
  10. 10. CHARACTERISTICS CONT <ul><li>Commit people to action </li></ul><ul><li>Convert followers into leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Convert leaders into change agents, innovators </li></ul><ul><li>Are courageous </li></ul>12/16/11
  11. 11. CHARACTERISTICS CONT… <ul><li>Believe in people </li></ul><ul><li>Are value driven </li></ul><ul><li>Are lifelong learners </li></ul><ul><li>Can deal with complexity </li></ul>12/16/11
  12. 12. Elements of Transformational Leadership <ul><li>1) Inspiration and Charisma </li></ul><ul><li>2) Intellectual Stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>3) Individual Consideration </li></ul>12/16/11
  13. 13. 1) Inspiration and Charisma <ul><li>Create an emotional bond between leader and group </li></ul><ul><li>How can you do this ? </li></ul>12/16/11
  14. 14. 2) Intellectual Stimulation <ul><li>Challenge the group to identify and solve challenges (out of the box) </li></ul>12/16/11
  15. 15. 3) Individual Consideration <ul><li>Develop appropriate personal relationships with members </li></ul><ul><li>Treat members differently but equitably </li></ul>12/16/11
  16. 16. CONT… <ul><li>Inspiration and Charisma : builds and sustains an emotional bond that overcomes the psychological and emotional resistance to change </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual Stimulation : provides the new solutions and inovations that empowers members </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Consideration : encourages members because they actually know the leaders </li></ul>12/16/11
  17. 17. 5 PRACTICES OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP <ul><li>Each practice can be tested, learned and </li></ul><ul><li>taught : </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge the process </li></ul><ul><li>Inspire a shared vision </li></ul><ul><li>Enable others to act </li></ul><ul><li>Model the way </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage the heart </li></ul><ul><li>(Kouzes & Posner, 1988 ) </li></ul>12/16/11
  18. 18. Transformational Leadership <ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><li>It has been widely researched since 1970’s </li></ul><ul><li>It has an intuitive appeal (consistent with society’s popular notion of what leadership means) </li></ul><ul><li>It treats leadership as a process that occurs between followers and leaders </li></ul><ul><li>It provides a broader view of leadership that augments other leadership models </li></ul><ul><li>It places a strong emphasis on followers needs, values, and morals </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence supports this theory – it does work! </li></ul>12/16/11
  19. 19. Transformational leadership <ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><li>- lacks clarity – it is difficult to define the parameters </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to measure. Idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration are all similar and can be hard to make distinct from each other </li></ul><ul><li>Transformational leadership can be seen as a personality trait or personal disposition rather than a behavior in which people can be instructed </li></ul>12/16/11
  20. 20. Cont… <ul><li>It is elitist and antidemocratic because it gives the impression that the leader is acting independently of the followers </li></ul><ul><li>It has the potential to be abused </li></ul><ul><li>It only works in situations that require change! This may not work in an organization that is not open for a transformation . </li></ul>12/16/11
  21. 21. Case Study…transformational leadership in action <ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>in the </li></ul><ul><li>Nursing Saudization Department </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>12/16/11
  22. 22. Steps in Transformational Process <ul><li>Clarify responsibility & accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Identify & agree on responsibilities in Department </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous consultation & support of staff </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous update & feedback </li></ul>12/16/11
  23. 23. Steps cont…. <ul><li>Two Saudi Clinical Educators, one Western Education Coordinator </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledgement </li></ul><ul><li>Celebration of achievements </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfied Saudi & non-Saudi nurses </li></ul><ul><li>Protection & motivation of staff in Department: improved quality of nursing practice </li></ul>12/16/11
  24. 24. SUMMARY <ul><li>Transformational values & competencies are critical to support leadership in world wide </li></ul><ul><li>Current Saudi nursing workforce is young & oftentimes inexperienced </li></ul><ul><li>Without competent leaders, the workforce relies heavily on expatriates </li></ul><ul><li>It is thus imperative that senior managers and leaders including nurses, mentor Saudi nurses into positions of leadership. </li></ul>12/16/11
  25. 25. <ul><li>TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP </li></ul>12/16/11
  26. 26. LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Know the definition of transactional leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the dimensions of transactional leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Understand assumptions of transactional theory </li></ul><ul><li>Know the implication of transactional theory </li></ul><ul><li>Learn the differences between transformational leadership and transactional leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions of the theory </li></ul>12/16/11
  27. 27. TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP <ul><li>The transactional style of leadership was first described by Max Weber in 1947 and then by Bernard Bass in 1981. </li></ul><ul><li>This style is most often used by the managers. It focuses on the basic management process of controlling, organizing, and short-term planning. </li></ul><ul><li>The famous examples of leaders who have used transactional technique include McCarthy and de Gaulle. </li></ul>12/16/11
  28. 28. DEFINITION <ul><li>Transactional leadership is an exchange </li></ul><ul><li>process in which leaders clarify employee </li></ul><ul><li>roles and task requirements and then </li></ul><ul><li>reward or punish followers based on their </li></ul><ul><li>performance </li></ul>12/16/11
  29. 29. Cont… <ul><ul><li>Focus on the management of the organisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on procedures and efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on working to rules and contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing current issues and problems </li></ul></ul>12/16/11
  30. 30. Cont.. <ul><li>Involves motivating and directing followers primarily through appealing to their own self-interest. </li></ul><ul><li>The power of transactional leaders comes from their formal authority and responsibility in the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>The main goal of the follower is to obey the instructions of the leader. </li></ul>12/16/11
  31. 31. Cont… <ul><li>The style can also be mentioned as a ‘telling style’. </li></ul><ul><li>The leader believes in motivating through a system of rewards and punishment . </li></ul>12/16/11
  32. 32. Dimensions of transactional leadership <ul><li>These exchanges involve four dimensions: </li></ul><ul><li>Contingent Rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Active Management by Exception </li></ul><ul><li>Passive Management by Exception </li></ul><ul><li>Laissez-faire </li></ul>12/16/11
  33. 33. Assumptions of Transactional Theory <ul><li>Employees are motivated by reward and punishment. </li></ul><ul><li>The subordinates have to obey the orders of the superior. </li></ul><ul><li>The subordinates are not self-motivated. They have to be closely monitored and controlled to get the work done from them. </li></ul>12/16/11
  34. 34. Implications of Transactional Theory <ul><li>The transactional leaders overemphasize detailed and short-term goals, and standard rules and procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not make an effort to enhance followers’ creativity and generation of new ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>This kind of a leadership style may work well where the organizational problems are simple and clearly defined. Such leaders tend to not reward or ignore ideas that do not fit with existing plans and goals. </li></ul>12/16/11
  35. 35. Implications cont… <ul><li>The transactional leaders are found to be quite effective in guiding efficiency decisions which are aimed at cutting costs and improving productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>The transactional leaders tend to be highly directive and action oriented and their relationship with the followers tends to be transitory and not based on emotional bonds. </li></ul>12/16/11
  36. 36. Implications cont… <ul><li>The theory assumes that subordinates can be motivated by simple rewards. </li></ul><ul><li>The only ‘transaction’ between the leader and the followers is the money which the followers receive for their compliance and effort. </li></ul>12/16/11
  37. 37. Differences between Transactional and Transformational Leaders 12/16/11 Transactional leadership Transformational Leadership <ul><li>Leadership is responsive </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership is proactive </li></ul><ul><li>Works within the organizational culture </li></ul><ul><li>Work to change the organizational culture by implementing new ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Transactional leaders make employees achieve organizational objectives through rewards and punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Transformational leaders motivate and empower employees to achieve company’s objectives by appealing to higher ideals and moral values </li></ul><ul><li>Motivates followers by appealing to their own self-interest </li></ul><ul><li>Motivates followers by encouraging them to transcend their own interests for those of the group or unit </li></ul>
  38. 38. Conclusion <ul><li>The transactional style of leadership is viewed as insufficient, but not bad, in developing the maximum leadership potential. </li></ul><ul><li>It forms as the basis for more mature interactions but care should be taken by leaders not to practice it exclusively, otherwise it will lead to the creation of an environment permeated by position, power, perks, and politics. </li></ul>12/16/11
  39. 39. <ul><li>INTERPERSONAL LEADERSHIP </li></ul>12/16/11
  40. 40. What is interpersonal intelligence? <ul><li>There are numerous models and permutations of definitions available. Two of the most widely known are Goleman (1998) and Stein and Book (2000).Their respective models can be summarized thus: </li></ul>12/16/11
  41. 41. CONT… 12/16/11 GOLEMAN STEIN and BOOK Self-awareness Intrapersonal Self-resolution Interpersonal Motivation Adaptability Empathy Stress Management Social Skills General Mood
  42. 42. DEFINITION <ul><li>Interpersonal intelligence is the authentic range of intuitive behaviors derived from sophisticated self awareness ,which facilitates effective engagement with others . </li></ul><ul><li>(West Burnham 2001,p.1) </li></ul>12/16/11
  43. 43. <ul><li>The specific behaviours might include: </li></ul><ul><li>the ability to respond with empathy </li></ul><ul><li>elucidating the motivation of others </li></ul><ul><li>effective listening, questioning, synthesizing and explaining </li></ul><ul><li>emotional self-management, understanding one’s responses </li></ul><ul><li>the ability to engage with others, to show genuineness and regard. </li></ul>12/16/11
  44. 44. CONT.. <ul><li>Central to this model is the notion of authenticity in other words these are not skills to be acquired, </li></ul><ul><li>they are behaviours which are rooted in the essential integrity of the individual. </li></ul>12/16/11
  45. 45. <ul><li>The more we practice virtue, for whatever reason, the more likely we are to become virtuous in an inner sense as well (p 200). </li></ul><ul><li>(Aristotle) </li></ul>12/16/11
  46. 46. CONT… <ul><li>Interpersonal Intelligence is a moral issue as much as a means of efficient communication </li></ul><ul><li>The behaviours can be viewed as a pragmatic toolkit but, in reality, they are manifestations of a moral perspective. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal intelligence is essentially about being human – it is the most direct and public demonstration of values in action. </li></ul>12/16/11
  47. 47. Why is Interpersonal Intelligence important in educational leadership? <ul><li>is the notion of the leader as exemplar, as a model of appropriate behaviour. The natural reticence and shyness of many senior staff in schools leads them to underestimate the importance of their behaviour both as a model and as a sanction i.e. implicitly condoning certain patterns of behaviour . </li></ul>12/16/11
  48. 48. CONT… <ul><li>The second factor is both principled and pragmatic. Decision-making, even in a close relationship, is a problematic and complex process </li></ul>12/16/11
  49. 49. CONT… <ul><li>the mental landscape of the individual is at least as important as the public arena. </li></ul><ul><li>The definition of interpersonal intelligence offered above stressed that it starts with personal awareness and understanding and this dimension of leadership is often neglected. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership effectiveness is a product of personal effectiveness, which is in turn grounded in emotional self-awareness and interpersonal intelligence </li></ul>12/16/11
  50. 50. Conclusion
  51. 51. REFFERENCES <ul><li>John West-Burnham Interpersonal Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Northouse, P.G. (2007) Leadership Theory and Practice Sage Publications, Inc. Thousand Oaks </li></ul><ul><li>Tony Bush , Theories of educational leadership and management , 3 rd edition, Sage Publication Ltd </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>12/16/11
  52. 52. <ul><li>THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION AND PATIENCE !!! </li></ul>12/16/11