Major climatic zones
it lies between tropic of cancer at 23 .5˚S.
Since direct ray of sun fall through out year in this zone.
Therefore it is temperate zone.
Sub tropical zone:
South temperate zone lies between tropic of Capricorn and
North temperate zone lies between tropic of cancer and
It is slightly temperate zone.
South polar zone lies between Antarctica
circle and south pole.
North polar zone lies between arctic circle
and north pole.
Day and night are of six months here.
A country is divided into five major
1. Hot and dry climate
2. warm and humid climate
3. Composite climate
4. Moderate climate
5. Cold climate
The word vernacular derived from
‘vernaculus’ means ‘native’.
Hence vernacular architecture – native
science of building.
The term "vernacular architecture" in general refers to the
informal building of structures through traditional building
methods by local builders without using the services of a
professional architect. It is the most widespread form of building.
The builders of this structure are unschooled in formal
architectural design and their work reflects the rich diversity of
India's climate, locally available material and the intricate
variation in social custom and craftsman.
Hot and dry climate
This zone lies in western and central part of India, jaisalmer,
This region is usually flat, sandy, rocky ground with spares
vegetation of cacti thorny bushes.
Water level is very low here.
The diurnal variation in temperature is quite high more than
The climate is dry because relative humidity is generally
The hot and dry regions receive less rainfall- the annual
precipitation being less than 500mm.
Hot winds blow during summer and sand storms are also
The absorbed radiation are dissipated to atmosphere at
Mud hut of
Due to low water level and spares vegetation the
houses are made using twigs, mud , clay, stone.
The air is cool at night.
Warm and humid climate
The warm and humid zone covers the coastal region.
Mumbai , Chennai, Kolkata lies under this region.
The high humidity encourages abundant vegetation.
The main design criteria in warm and humid region are
to reduce heat gained by providing shading.
The relative humidity is high about 70%-90% in year.
Here tropical cyclones and hurricanes are common
when wind speed are 45 to 70m/s.
High salt contents of atmosphere corrodes the
Vegetation is lighter green colour as per amount of
In most parts of the zone, summer will be
The temperate climate has mild to warm summers and cool
The need for winter home heating is greater than the need
for summer cooling.
It is a relatively comfortable climate, especially near the
coast, where summers are cooler and winters warmer than
In the mountains of the Great Dividing Range,
winters are cold and summers are pleasantly
Few opening on external side other than door.
Cooking and sleeping outdoor in summer were
as inside in winter.
Altitude: 921 m above
mean sea level
Building material used:
Floor : Lime concrete
Walls: Stone masonry with lime mortar
Roof: Stone slabs with lime concrete screed cover
for flat roof.
Mangalore tiles for sloping roof.
Reduction of solar
-by orientation of the
-By shading of east
and west walls by
- By shading the
windows and walls
with projecting stone
Reduction of internal heat gain:
- By placing the kitchen outdoors in summer(and
indoor in winter)
Reduction of heat
transfer to interior
- by insulating roof.
Increase of heat loss
- by ventilation and
smoke outlet through
The composite zone covers the central part of India.
Cities like Allahabad, Kanpur, new Delhi experience this
A variable landscape and seasonal vegetation characterize
The primary element was a single
interior living space, which may have
been sub- divided, multiplied, or
Second, an external space adjacent to
or surrounded by the dwelling was
emphasized by use of elements such
as low platforms or verandahs.
An average hut measured
approximately 5 to 6 meters long and
3 to 4 meters wide.
These huts were arranged in a linear
pattern along the main street of a
village, usually amidst a group of
The houses were normally
surrounded by a fence made
of bamboo, shrubs, or twigs
that defined the boundary
between the public street and
the semi-public courtyard
area in front and at the rear
of the hut.
This open-to-sky courtyard acted a
prime space for the house,
especially during the day in winter
and in the evenings in summer.
Most day to day activities occurred
in this space. Often there was a well
in this courtyard that served as the
source for water for drinking,
bathing, washing, and cooking.
People used this courtyard to dry
clothes, crops, and eatables during
the day time.
The house sat on a raised platform
made of compacted earth.
The high thermal mass helped keep
the house cool in the evenings in
summer which made it pleasant for
people to rest in the evenings.
The huts normally had minimal fenestration. Often the
only opening on the external walls was the main door. Some houses
had windows, but
they were small and placed high to ventilate the indoors while, at the
same time, acting as
a visual barrier for the private spaces. The small windows also served
to keep the hot
summer sun and cold winter winds out.
Mud wall with
wooden posts of
Special mud blocks left with
vegetable waste matter to
mature for wall
The roof rested on nine
wooden posts erected in
three rows, with three
posts per row. These
posts were sunk into the
raised platform and tied
with wooden beams and
purlins that supported the
roof structure. The huts
usually had a gabled
Bamboo sticks formed
the mullions to support
The thick thatch used as
prevented rain from
entering the house and at
the same time provided
insulation to the building.
Typical hut construction.
View of decayed thatch roof in a
hut over a period of time.
Section of house
Painting on the wall of a hut
Use evaporative cooling.
Protect against summer heat gain.
Keep the sun out in summers to reduce heat gain and glare.
Flatten day-to-night temperature swings to reduce cooling in summers.
Use vegetative cover to prevent reflected radiation and glare.
Expand use of outdoor spaces during the night.
Night time flush ventilation to cool thermal mass.
Let the winter sun in to reduce heating needs.
Protect from cool winter winds to reduce heating.
Expand use of outdoor spaces during the day.
Use natural ventilation to cool in spring.
In part, the specific climate of Jharkhand has given rise to particular
These types will be explored in the next chapter.
Trees to shade the west wall
Interlocking burnt clay tiles
used for sitting
in winter and to
shade the light
Light colored walls to reflect
Door and window placed
opposite to each other for
Use of courtyard for drying
clothes and food.
View of attic
space and used
The spaces too lack windows which
reduces heat gain inside the house but
Thick mud walls to increase the thermal
capacity of the wall
Roof with interlocking burnt clay tiles to
block rain from
entering the house.
Cold and sunny
Cold and cloudy
This type of climate is experienced in Leh (Ladakh).
The region is mountainous and little vegetation considered
as a cold desert.
The solar radiation is generally intense with very low
percentage of diffuse radiation.
The building is an innovative articulation of material like
stone mud clay.
In ladak houses are very close to each other.
Mud and clay house in ladak
The most conspicuous of the
migratory birds is the hoopoe,
the Indian redstart.
The brown-headed gull is a
surprise of sorts in this region.
Other migratory birds which
breed in Ladakh are the
brahmini duck (ruddy
Sheldrake), the bareheaded
goose, and the great crested
The foxes, along with other small
carnivores like marten, weasel and
otter, are sought after for their fur.
Apart from these, the brown bear is
also found in Ladakh near Dras and
the upper Suru Valley.
The smaller animals found in
Ladakh are marmots, voles and
hares and several varieties of
pika, also known as the mousehare, a small animal common in
the mountains of central Asia.
Ladakh is an extremely cold and dry desert with rocky and uneven terrain.
The harsh climate and low temperatures limit the number and type of
vegetation found here.
There are certain narrow valleys in the region which are quite fertile.
Certain plants and agricultural crops are grown apart from this, greenish
patches of vegetation can be seen round the riverbanks and along the
snow line, certain varieties of willow groves, wild roses and herbs are
For plinth and floor: stone masonry with mud mortar or
cement mortar finish
For walls: unburnt bricks masonry with mud mortar and cow
For ceiling and roof: wooden planks and twigs with a layer of
dry grass, covered with mud
Increase of solar heat gain
- By direct gain through thermal storage walls exposed to the sun
- Glazed windows on east, west, south sides.
Increase of internal heat gain
- By utilizing heat produced by smokeless stove
- By utilization of warmth developed by livestock
Decrease of heat loss
- by high thermal insulation of roof and walls
- By high compound wall providing shelter from wind
- by absorption/desorption of unburnt brick walls.
Balance of temperature fluctuation
- By massive wall construction
Cold and cloudy
Such climate prevails in
Kashmir , Sikkim, upper
part of Assam hill station
from the southern India.
dalhouse are best
represented by this climate.
Located at shimla at above
2000m above sea level in
The climate requires building
to be heated through out the
Thin mud and bamboo wall for upper floor and for
ground floor brick or bamboo.
Roof is out of thick stone slab or country tiles.
Roof over hang from all the sides protecting the core
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