Shifting Gender Norms, 2 Iccp (Nx Power Lite)

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Shifting Gender Norms, 2 Iccp (Nx Power Lite)

  1. 1. Shifting Gender Norms Emerging Community-Based Intervention Programs Nicholas T. Kaufmann II International Conference on Community Psychology Lisboa, Portugal University of Illinois at Chicago
  2. 2. Driving questions <ul><li>How do gender norms influence individual and community health and well-being? </li></ul><ul><li>Can gender norms change quickly enough to matter for this generation? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we engage young men in health and gender equity initiatives? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is doing what and where? Does it work? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we become engaged in promoting gender equality? </li></ul>
  3. 4. “ Fish swim in water. But they don’t know they’re swimming in water. We are walking around, bombarded by gender assumptions and stereotypes, and don’t know it.” -- Michael Kimmel
  4. 5. Health from a gender perspective <ul><li>Morbidity rates for young men (15 – 24 yrs) are 8%-15% higher than rates for young women; </li></ul><ul><li>50% of HIV infections worldwide are to young people under 25; </li></ul><ul><li>65,000 women worldwide die of pregnancy related conditions per year; </li></ul><ul><li>25%-50% of women worldwide have reported being abused physically by an intimate male partner. </li></ul>Sources: WHO, UNAIDS, USAID
  5. 6. International consensus <ul><li>International Conference on Population and Development (Cairo, 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, 1995) </li></ul><ul><li>UNAIDS 2000 World AIDS Campaign Men Make a Difference </li></ul><ul><li>World Health Organization (1999) What about boys? </li></ul><ul><li>Countries around the world initiated responses. </li></ul>
  6. 7. What research tells us… <ul><li>Increasing awareness that gender role socialization puts men and their partners at health risk (WHO, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Young men who support ‘traditional’ versions of manhood are more likely to use drugs, be violent, practice unsafe sex (Courtenay, 1998). </li></ul><ul><li>Gender norms are among the strongest influences on sexual behavior of young people (Marston & King, 2006, Lancet) </li></ul>
  7. 8. Why engage young men and boys? <ul><li>Power in sexual and intimate relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Early sexual initiation and multiple sexual partners </li></ul><ul><li>Poor health seeking behaviors and self-healthcare </li></ul><ul><li>Physical violence towards others </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescence and sexual relationships </li></ul>
  8. 9. Program Typology <ul><li>Gender neutral : no distinction between men & women; men just another target group </li></ul><ul><li>Gender sensitive : recognize gender norms but little attempt to transform them. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender norms transformative : seek to promote equitable relationships, somehow change gender norms. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Intervention framework
  10. 11. Emerging Intervention Programs <ul><li>Group educational workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Critical reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of themes </li></ul><ul><li>Youth-adult partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Youth participation </li></ul>
  11. 12. Emerging Intervention Programs <ul><li>Social Marketing Campaigns </li></ul><ul><li>Gender-equitable lifestyles </li></ul><ul><li>Young male peer promoters </li></ul><ul><li>Youth magazines, raps & skits </li></ul><ul><li>Impacting in strategic settings </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting condom use </li></ul>
  12. 13. Emerging Intervention Programs <ul><li>Male-friendly health services </li></ul><ul><li>Access to health services & health service usage; </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductive health services, including contraception, prenatal care, child birth and care; </li></ul><ul><li>Two level action-research approach: supply and demand. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Program H’s impact *p < 0.05 – t- test; No Significant Change In Control Group Support for inequitable gender norms decreased among intervention participants
  14. 15. Program H’s impact % harassed any girl Pre Test Post Test Behavior Attitudes A man can hit a woman if she cheats on him A man can hit a woman if she refuses sex A woman should tolerate violence to keep family together There are times when women deserve to be beaten
  15. 16. Program H’s impact <ul><li>Extracts from qualitative interviews: </li></ul><ul><li>Participant: “Used to be when I went out with a girl, if we didn’t have sex within two weeks of going out, I would leave her. But now [after the workshops], I think differently. I want to construct something [a relationship] with her.” </li></ul><ul><li>Partner: “…after the workshop…He even talked about getting a blood test [HIV test] and he said: ‘You should get one too’ and I said: ‘Okay, I’ll do it, we’ll go it together” </li></ul>
  16. 17. Program H’s adaptation <ul><li>Three steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Utility of manual activities </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance and acceptability of manual topics and methods to young men </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of manual activities on young men’s attitudes and behaviors </li></ul>
  17. 18. Lessons learned <ul><li>Explicit inclusion of discussions of manhood/masculinities in educational activities </li></ul><ul><li>Critical reflection about violence and traditional manhood </li></ul><ul><li>Creating an enabling environment (peers, social group that support change) </li></ul><ul><li>Alliance-building (using an ecological perspective to reinforce messages) </li></ul><ul><li>Need for evaluation research on attitude and behavior change, as well as cost-benefit analyses </li></ul>
  18. 19. The other half of gender <ul><li>Promoting health and empowerment of young women (15 – 24 yrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Educational workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Community campaigns </li></ul><ul><li>Field-tested in Brazil, Jamaica, Nicaragua and Mexico. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Promoting Diversities <ul><li>Program D </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing homophobia </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting respect for sexual diversity among young people </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging young men in critical reflections on social norms of masculinity. </li></ul>
  20. 21. “ Only dead fish float with the current; live fish swim against it.” -- Anonymous
  21. 22. Thank you!!! E-mail: nkaufm2@uic.edu

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