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Innovations on a technical level exist and have been implemented extensively in developing areas, some with great and some with lesser success. There are a number of successful technical solutions that can be imported both in terms of waste management and disposal (e.g. ECOTACT)
In our view, innovation needs to happen on a HOW rather than a WHAT level, meaning we will attempt to innovate a PROCESS rather than a PRODUCT.
Both factors of successful implementation need to be addressed: SUPPLY as well as DEMAND
Success needs to be measured by scalability and transferability; while the ideas here represent an approach for Ghana and its urban landscape, the ideas must be applicable to universal factors rather than merely geographical factors.
“ Who wants their name attached to toilets ”… Kumasi Assembly man on sanitation ACCOUNTABILITY
Toilets consistently have been poorly managed and have been the site of local political conflicts – toilet wars – despite efforts at franchising them and involving communities in their management. This is attributable to the politics of patronage at the urban level, the relationship between city government patronage and community level groups, and the failure of regulation. Public-private partnerships have not worked. TRUST
SKILLS While Ghana is a top 10 country according to the overall Ibrahim index, when it comes to key functions important to sanitation (urban private sector development, infrastructure and public management), the score is less impressive
The Women’s Sanitation Union of Kumasi is a neutral organization with a CHARTER signed by Unilever, the Kumasi government and the ‘population’ which will champion, promote and monitor healthy and safe sanitation solutions in Kumasi. The key functions of the Union will consist of:
‘ Moving people up the sanitation ladder’ through awareness and demand driving initiatives
Play and active role in designing alternative, transparent and improved supply chain and maintenance solutions
Act as a benevolent watch dog to ensure proper and ongoing maintenance standards
Be the financial broker or facilitator between good ideas and funding
In many developing countries, brands have the power, infrastructure and business acumen (along with social missions) to deliver services, create habits and maintain accountability of quality.
Their attachment makes sanitation to big to fail, thus creating faith amongst locals that change is possible to sustain.
A great example is the CEMEX “Patrimonio Hoy” program in Mexico, who have attached their name to improved living quarters and have started empowering civilians to do work themselves alongside the local government to great success.
A. OWNERSHIP & ACCOUNTABILITY: CREATING THE WOSUK
WOSUK CHARTER MEMBERS EXTERNAL Unilever: sponsor NGO/AID ORG: technology & funding INTERNAL KUMASI Govt: regulating support WOMEN’S LEAGUE Leading women champions/activists technology & know how regulation and administrative facilitation local representation regional/city district women’s chapters recruited by WOSUK representatives STEP 1: drafting and committing to a CHARTER on sanitation standards – this will create a sense of commitment but also an objective and measurable definition of what proper sanitation standards are
AUDIT OF CURRENT DEMAND AND SUPPLY STEP 2 : mapping out the Kumasi settlement, auditing current supply, identifying needs (e.g. number of latrines per square kilometer), regional special needs - e.g. school districts assessing current standards and developing an action plan for upgrades, new construction – additionally review existing technical solutions to source
ENERGIZE ALL PARTIES INVOLVED STEP 3: Planting a public flag that the WOSUK is here to stay and committed to improving the Kumasi sanitation situation. Not by creating aid dependency, but by being demand driven, implementation focused and aware that in order for sanitation to be improved other life aspects need to be better as well.
Non standard constructions which leads to inconsistent quality – sub standard quality
Corruption and lack of transparency
Poor maintenance - lack of upgrading on a systematic level (e.g. adaptation to new technologies)
Lack of funding (market driven or otherwise)
SUPPLY CHAIN INSPIRATION Objective: standardized for quality and economies of scale – construction materials, toilets, ventilation… Service offer: two tiered service – standard and premium. Both offer the agreed sanitation standards and cleanliness/functionality – the premium service would include added values services such as bathing facilities – this accounts for various income levels and price elasticity while creating aspiration to ‘move up’
AUDIT BEST PRACTICE IN AFRICA AND OTHER BOP MARKETS STEP 1: mapping out proven business models and practices that move people up the sanitation ladder. The UNION is not here to reinvent the wheel, but to improve the sanitation situation. If something works somewhere else, the UNION is eager the get those practices on board, obviously tailored to the Kumasi situation.
CREATING A NEW SUPPLY CHAIN STEP 2: creating an open bid for a new industry – latrine building materials (creating the latrine IKEA) The best business model (s) will receive venture capital to source and market standardized and quality assured construction materials This will be the supplier of record for entrepreneurs bidding for sites to build and operate neighborhood latrines A franchising model will create value throughout the supply chain. The WOSUK will act as a financial broker, facilitating the financing of sound business ideas.
CREATING A NEW SUPPLY CHAIN Local franchisees Open bid for contracts Local franchisees Open bid for contracts Local franchisees Open bid for contracts Local franchisees Open bid for contracts Local franchisees Open bid for contracts Local franchisees Open bid for contracts Local operators and maintenance crews Local operators and maintenance crews Local operators and maintenance crews Local operators and maintenance crews Local operators and maintenance crews Local operators and maintenance crews Local operators and maintenance crews Local operators and maintenance crews Local operators and maintenance crews Local operators and maintenance crews Local operators and maintenance crews Local operators and maintenance crews Local operators and maintenance crews Local operators and maintenance crews Local operators and maintenance crews
CREATING ADDITIONAL FUNDING STREAMS STEP 3: By being transparent about cost and allegiance, the UNION can now start tapping the Ashantee Diaspora for funding/seed money. The Ashantee (of which Kumasi is a part) receive highest remittance (average $412 p.p per year). But this money is often given without specific purpose and through informal channels. The UNION can be a channel that is secure, and provides and investment opportunity for the Diaspora and anybody else wanting to invest.
Members of the community can get a pre paid card that is valid for a predetermined number of uses. This to sustain and promote habitual use and make paying for proper latrines as part of everyday life. The cards can be for Standard or Premium service.
When topping up the card (via mobile device or ‘bank’) the user accumulates bonus points redeemable for other services of value: discounts on hygiene products, volume discounts for latrine use…
PR, EDUCATION AND COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT INCENTIVES
VALUE PRICING STRUCTURE WITH ‘UPGRADING’ OPTIONS
OUTCOME MOVING PEOPLE UP THE SANITATION LADDER 1. Starting point: sub standard public latrines 2. Standardized supply and organized maintenance operations 3. Standardized supply and organized maintenance operations 4. Two tiered ‘service’ offer that raises aspirations and demand 5. Value oriented pricing structure to push habit, high perceived utility or value 6. Seeding the desire, demand and expectation of home plumbing
FROM SANITATION TO SOCIAL HEALTH ownership and accountability WOSUK demand supply PR, EDUCATION, COMMUNITY INVOLVEMEMT VALUE PRICING MODEL WITH UPGRADING OPTIONS AUDIT OF BEST PRACTCE – SEARCH AND REAPPLY OPEN BIDS FOR STANDARDIZED RESOUCRES AND FRANSHISES INNOVATE FUNDING RECRUIT, ORGANIZE AND ‘OWN’ DEFINE STANDARDS AUDIT AND PLAN
Establish the UNION and CHARTER Audit of status quo and needs Open tender for sourcing and franchisees Awareness and education Habitual usage incentives Ongoing monitoring of best practices, technical advances in sanitation aspects for upgrading the system on an ongoing basis