2. Causes of WWI 1. NATIONALISM – Austria-Hungary had built an empire by taking over small countries in the part of eastern Europe known as the Balkans. Nationalism inspired in the Balkan people a burning desire to be independent of Austrian rule.
3. Causes of WWI 2. MILITARISM – European powers looked for safety by glorifying military ideas and values. – When Germany built up its navy to challenge Britain’s fleet, Britain constructed more battleships. As Germany’s army grew, France built up its own army.
4. Causes of WW I 3. IMPERIALISM – The expansion of one nation’s authority by the establishment of colonies in another’s territory. – The more colonies a nation possesses, the richer and more powerful the nation often becomes. – Competition for the colonies was clearly a cause of WWI.
5. Causes of WWI 4. ALLIANCES – European countries also looked for safety in alliances. – In secret treaties, Germany and Austria- Hungary agreed to help each other in case if attack. – Britain, Russia and France made similar agreements. – Europe was dividing into armed camps.
6. THE SPARK: Assassination leads to war June 28, 1914—The heir to the Austro- Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, was visiting the city of Sarajevo in the province of Bosnia. (Many Bosnians were Serbs who wanted to be part of nearby Serbia) A Serbian nationalist jumped out of a crowd and fatally shot the archduke and his wife.
7. A Chain reaction Austria-Hungary accused Serbia of having a hand in the assassinations and pressured Serbia to give up its independence. Serbs refused and Austria-Hungary declared war. The Russians stepped in to defend the Serbs. The Germans came to the aid of Austria- Hungary by declaring war on Russia. Russia’s ally, France, began to prepare for war.
8. The Schlieffen Plan Germany’s military plan – In the event of a two-front war—Attack France and then Russia. Russia, with its lack of railroads, would take longer to mobilize. – Germany wanted to attack France from the Northern border through neutral Belgium. – Belgium did not allow German troops to pass. Germany declares war on Belgium. – Great Britain was an ally of Belgium and declared war on Germany.
9. European nations take sides 1. CENTRAL POWERS (Triple Alliance)= Austria-Hungary and Germany (Bulgaria and the Ottoman empire join later, Italy was initially part of the Triple Alliance but switched sides) 2. ALLIED POWERS (Triple Entente)=France, Russia and Britain (Japan and Italy join later)The US wanted to stay out of the war—neutral!Pres. Wilson ―impartial in thought as well as deed‖
10. By September 13, six million soldiers were on the march across Europe. WESTERN FRONT—Germany fought the French and British. EASTERN FRONT—Germany fought Russians.
11. Stalemate along the WesternFront – Battle of the Marne – By Sept. 2, 1914 the Germans had pushed to within 26 miles of Paris. • At the Battle of the Marne, the French halted the German advance. • When the Germans withdrew to a more defensible position and entrenched, the ―Race to the Sea‖ began. Each army tried to outflank the other with its trenches until the trenches extended all the way across France to the North Sea. • The Front remained basically unchanged for nearly 3 ½ years.
12. Trench Warfare The war in the west was fought from two parallel lines of trenches that stretched for 600 miles across France. Men ate, slept, fought, and died in these miserable ditches. Front trenches were protected with barbed wire and booby traps. Between the trenches lay ―no-man’s land‖. Thousands died trying to advance their line of trenches a few yards. Trenches were infested with rats, lice and disease.
13. New Weapons New machine-guns – Fired hundreds of bullets a minute. • By the end of 1914 the French had lost 300,000 men. Germany lost more than 130,000 soldiers in a single battle. Poison gas Tanks Plane warfare
14. War at Sea Warring nations bought goods from neutral countries. Each side tried to cut off the flow of supplies to its enemy. Most trade, especially with the US, was by sea. Germany had a strong navy, but its only access to the ocean was through the North sea. To stop Germany, Britain mined the North Sea. Unable to use its surface ships, the German navy tried to blockade Britain using submarines, called U-boats. Germany would strike any ship, fearing that the British would try to disguise their ships as neutral
15. Germany Sinks the Lusitania On May 7, 1915, a British Luxury liner was struck by a torpedo The ship exploded and sank, killing 1,298 people including 128 Americans. Germany said the Lusitania had been carrying arms. Germany apologized and promised not to attack merchant and passenger ships without warning in the future. US increased trade with the Allies—America had taken sides.
16. The Battle on the Eastern Front Russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austrians and Turks. Central powers gain the advantage – By 1916, Russia’s war effort was near collapse. • Russia was not industrialized—lacked supplies • Allies were unable to ship supplies to Russia’s ports. • Russia had one asset—its numbers. Throughout the war Russia suffered tremendous battlefield losses (2 million in 1915) but the army was able to rebuild its ranks. • The battered army managed to tie up the German troops in the East.
17. Fighting Rages Beyond Europe Gallipoli Campaign – Allies attack a region in the Ottoman empire known as the Dardanelles—a narrow strait that is the gateway to Constantinople. – Goal—defeat and establish a supply line to Russia – Ended in a stalemate
18. American Neutrality collapses Unrestricted Submarine warfare – Jan. 31, 1917 Kaiser Wilhelm II announced that U- boats would sink all ships in British waters— hostile or neutral—on sight. The Zimmerman note – A telegram sent by the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico. – The Telegram suggested an alliance between Mexico and Germany and promised that if war with the US broke out, Germany would support Mexico in recovering‖the lost territory in TX, NM and Arizona.‖ Sinking of 4 unarmed American merchant ships with a loss of 36 lives.
19. Americans prepare to fight April 6, 1917 Congress declared war. The Allies rejoiced, hoping for American suppliers—and soldiers. When the US entered the war, it had only 200,000 soldiers. Congress quickly authorized a national draft. Soon, 3 million men were drafted. Another 2 million volunteered. American troops (called the American Expeditionary Force (AEF)) were rushed to France to fill the gaps left by nearly three years of war.
20. The Tide Turns Breaking the blockade – The Convoy system—was developed to defeat the German U-boats. • US Merchant vessels would travel in a large group with a guard of circling destroyers. With the US finally in the war, the balance, tipped in the favor of the allies. – Their freshness and enthusiasm helped win the war.
21. Russia withdraws from the war By 1917, civil unrest in Russia had brought the czar’s government to the brink of collapse. Czar Nicholas abdicated his throne. November 1917, Communist leader Vladimir Ilyich Lenin seized power. Lenin ended Russia’s involvement in the war. Russia’s new government made peace with Germany.
22. A Failed Final push by theGermans ends in an Alliedvictory In March 1918, The Germans mounted one final, massive attack on the Allies in France. By late May they were within 40 miles of Paris—but the German troops were weakened. The Allies with the help of 140,000 fresh American troops—launched a counterattack. July—Allies and Germans met at the Second Battle of The Marne—the central powers crumbled. November 11, 1918—Germany signs armistice: World War I ends.
23. The Struggle for Peace On November 11, 1918 at 11:00 AM World War I ended. The Treaty of Versailles ended WWI.
24. The Final Toll Lasted four years Involved 30 nations Bloodiest war in history to that time. 26 million died 20 million wounded 20 million refugees Cost: $350 billion