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Properties of Living things
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Properties of Living things

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  • 1. Properties of Living Things
  • 2. Biological OrganizationBiology is the study of life (living things) Biosphere Ecosystem Community Population Organism Organ System Organ Tissue Cell Molecules/Atoms/Ions
  • 3. Hierarchy of Life activity At your lab tables, work to complete the pyramid activity given to you by your teacher The main idea: life is organized into levels of organization and study from small (cell) to big (biosphere)
  • 4. Three Domains of Life p. 9 Prokaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells Contain no nucleus  Contain a nucleus to Are divided into two protect their DNA subgroups:  Are bigger and more Archaea (the ancient complex than bacteria, now found near prokaryotic cells deep sea vents, volcanoes)  Include plants, animals, Bacteria (those that live in fungus, and protists the same places we do now)
  • 5. The Three Domains of Life BacteriaArchaebacteria (Eubacteria) Eukaryotes (prokaryotes) (prokaryotes)
  • 6. Domains of Life review Now its your turn: in your Science Sketchbook (SSB), draw a Venn diagram outlining the similarities and differences between the three domains Domain Archaea Domain Domain Eukarya Bacteria
  • 7. Characteristicsof Living ThingsCellular Organization Metabolism Homeostasis Reproduction Heredity
  • 8. Cellular Organization All living things are made up of cells.  One celled organisms are known as unicellular  Organisms that contain more than one cell are called multicellular.  Cells with a nucleus are called eukaryotes  Cells without a nucleus are called prokaryotes
  • 9. Metabolism This term refers to the total number of chemical reactions that take place in an organism.  All chemical reactions require energy. They include breaking down food, building muscle and bone, and making enzymes and other things the body needs to function  All fuel comes from the sun‟s energy, which is converted into sugar compounds by plants (and some bacteria) which we then eat as food.
  • 10. Homeostasis This term refers to a “steady state.” All living things strive to maintain a balanced state for optimum health and growth.  Temperature regulation is a good example of how living things have developed mechanisms to maintain a steady state (sweating when we are hot, shivering when we are cold, etc.).
  • 11. Reproduction Living things produce offspring in order to ensure the survival of the species (more on this later!).  Reproduction can either be sexual (requiring a partner‟s DNA) or asexual (no partner DNA needed)
  • 12. Heredity All living things pass on their genes to their offspring  Genes are made up of short sections DNA and make up the directions that determine our traits  Think of genes as recipes in a cookbook. We each have our own set of recipes to make our specific traits
  • 13. Themes in Biology Biological Systems Cells Form & Function Reproduction & InheritanceInteraction with the Environment Energy & Life Regulation Adaptation & Evolution Biology & Society Scientific Inquiry
  • 14. Biological Systems Biological systems describe how life is organized It can refer to organ systems in our bodies or a variety of other systems in which individual parts work together toward a collective whole Systems thinking and research involves studying the parts as they work together rather than isolating a part to see how it functions in isolation For example, researchers now know that your genes alone do not determine traits; their expression is dependent upon the role of many other parts
  • 15. Cells Cells are the smallest form of living organism and are the basis for complex multicellular systems The basic cell structure is universal throughout the living world As our technology has improved, so has our understanding of the microscopic world
  • 16. Form & Function Form refers to the physical structures in an organism/cell Function refers to the job that physical structure does As the shape of a structure changes, so does its function
  • 17. Reproduction & Inheritance We inherit genes that direct our traits from our parents The process of inheritance and gene expression is complex and has multiple and diverse pathways This theme is one we will study in depth later on in the class 
  • 18. Energy & Life The energy in the food we eat comes from the sun Plants and other organisms with chloroplasts convert sunlight into sugar We take that sugar and convert into ATP, the energy currency of our cells
  • 19. Regulation Regulation refers to the way in which organisms maintain homeostasis Homeostasis is the „steady state‟ that allows systems to work at their optimum level Regulation is an essential part of all living systems
  • 20. Adaptation & Evolution The qualities of organisms that allow them to survive and reproduce in their environments are called adaptations Evolution is a major theme in biology and one that we will study in depth later in the year 
  • 21. Biology and Society This theme deals with  Some examples: how biology relates to  Global warming and our our everyday life „carbon footprints‟  Ethical decisions  Recycling  Legal cases  Genetic testing and  Political issues confidentiality (insurance, law enforcement) We will explore a variety  Reproductive science of issues related to this ethics issues theme throughout the year 
  • 22. Scientific Inquiry Scientific Inquiry is  Research a Subject  Pose a Questions another way of  Propose a feasible answer (the describing the Scientific hypothesis) Method  Create an experimental protocol  This is the system  Do an experiment scientists use and the  Collect data approach scientists take  Analyze data when studying a  Confirm/refute hypothesis biological question/issue  Draw broader conclusions  Investigate a related/addition question
  • 23. Themes Activity Your Ch. 1 Hwk sheet is due Friday, the day of our Ch. 1 exam. On it, be sure you are comfortable with the definition and examples for each theme (hwk question #3) Review your SSB for your comments on the Mark Dion tree large-scale installation and how the themes of biology relate to his work