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Nomenclature

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  • 1. NOMENCLATURE
  • 2. HOW DO I KNOW THE ION FORMED BYVARIOUS ELEMENTS? The periodic table group numbers signify the number of valence electrons members of that group each have. The valence electron number will indicate whether or not that element/group will lose or gain electrons, and how many  Groups 1-3 and the transition elements lose electrons to become positive ions  Groups 5-7 gain electrons to become negative ions  Group 4 and 8 do not form ions
  • 3. THE PERIODIC TABLE AS A USEFUL TOOL
  • 4. NAMING BASICS: IONIC COMPOUNDS Ionic compounds are formed between a metal and a nonmetal  Metals: groups 1, 2, 3, & the transition metals (short rows)  Nonmetals: primarily groups 5, 6, & 7 To name them: Cation + Anion + ide  Cation: positive ion  Anion: negative ion  Na + Cl = Sodium Chloride
  • 5. DETERMINING THE MOLECULAR FORMULA OFAN IONIC COMPOUND Compounds are by definition neutral. When combining ions to form an ionic compound, the overall charge of the compound must equal zero Subscripts are used to indicate the number of each element needed in order to have a neutral compound For example:  Na + Cl = NaCl (+1, -1 equals zero)  Mg + Br = MgBr2 (+2, -1, -1 equals zero)
  • 6. COMPOUND WITH POLYATOMIC IONS Polyatomic ions are groups of atoms that act together as one unit
  • 7. COMPOUNDS WITH POLYATOMIC IONS When naming compounds with polyatomic ions, use the name of the polyatomic ion with no –ide suffix For example: K2S = Potassium sulfide while K3PO4 = Potassium phosphate In the example above, the rules for determining subscripts remains the same: the goal is for the compound to be neutral (no electrical charge) K = +1 charge, PO4 = -3 charge and so I will need three K+ ions to bond with one PO4 polyatomic ion in order to reach an electrical charge of zero (neutral
  • 8. COMPOUNDS WITH ELEMENTS THAT FORM MORETHAN ONE TYPE OF ION (MULTIPLE CHARGES) When naming a compound containing an element that can form more than one type of ion, a Roman numeral is used to indicate the charge of that ion in that particular compound Copper (II) Oxide: Copper has a +2 charge, and therefore the formula will be CuO Copper (I) Oxide: Copper has a +1 charge and therefore the formula will be Cu2O
  • 9. COMMON TRANSITION ELEMENTS WITH MORETHAN ONE ION FORMATION
  • 10. NAMING COMPOUNDS CONTAINING ONLYNONMETALS When nonmetals combine, the naming system is different.  Because you cannot necessarily use the PT to indicate the quantities of each atom in the compound, the name must indicate the amounts using standard prefixes: mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, and deca The only time a prefix is not used is for the first element of the name when there is only one of that element in the compound.  CO carbon monoxide  N2O4 dinitrogen tetraoxide