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# Nomenclature

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### Nomenclature

1. 1. NOMENCLATURE
2. 2. HOW DO I KNOW THE ION FORMED BYVARIOUS ELEMENTS? The periodic table group numbers signify the number of valence electrons members of that group each have. The valence electron number will indicate whether or not that element/group will lose or gain electrons, and how many  Groups 1-3 and the transition elements lose electrons to become positive ions  Groups 5-7 gain electrons to become negative ions  Group 4 and 8 do not form ions
3. 3. THE PERIODIC TABLE AS A USEFUL TOOL
4. 4. NAMING BASICS: IONIC COMPOUNDS Ionic compounds are formed between a metal and a nonmetal  Metals: groups 1, 2, 3, & the transition metals (short rows)  Nonmetals: primarily groups 5, 6, & 7 To name them: Cation + Anion + ide  Cation: positive ion  Anion: negative ion  Na + Cl = Sodium Chloride
5. 5. DETERMINING THE MOLECULAR FORMULA OFAN IONIC COMPOUND Compounds are by definition neutral. When combining ions to form an ionic compound, the overall charge of the compound must equal zero Subscripts are used to indicate the number of each element needed in order to have a neutral compound For example:  Na + Cl = NaCl (+1, -1 equals zero)  Mg + Br = MgBr2 (+2, -1, -1 equals zero)
6. 6. COMPOUND WITH POLYATOMIC IONS Polyatomic ions are groups of atoms that act together as one unit
7. 7. COMPOUNDS WITH POLYATOMIC IONS When naming compounds with polyatomic ions, use the name of the polyatomic ion with no –ide suffix For example: K2S = Potassium sulfide while K3PO4 = Potassium phosphate In the example above, the rules for determining subscripts remains the same: the goal is for the compound to be neutral (no electrical charge) K = +1 charge, PO4 = -3 charge and so I will need three K+ ions to bond with one PO4 polyatomic ion in order to reach an electrical charge of zero (neutral
8. 8. COMPOUNDS WITH ELEMENTS THAT FORM MORETHAN ONE TYPE OF ION (MULTIPLE CHARGES) When naming a compound containing an element that can form more than one type of ion, a Roman numeral is used to indicate the charge of that ion in that particular compound Copper (II) Oxide: Copper has a +2 charge, and therefore the formula will be CuO Copper (I) Oxide: Copper has a +1 charge and therefore the formula will be Cu2O
9. 9. COMMON TRANSITION ELEMENTS WITH MORETHAN ONE ION FORMATION
10. 10. NAMING COMPOUNDS CONTAINING ONLYNONMETALS When nonmetals combine, the naming system is different.  Because you cannot necessarily use the PT to indicate the quantities of each atom in the compound, the name must indicate the amounts using standard prefixes: mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, and deca The only time a prefix is not used is for the first element of the name when there is only one of that element in the compound.  CO carbon monoxide  N2O4 dinitrogen tetraoxide