Industrial revolution
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Industrial revolution






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    Industrial revolution Industrial revolution Presentation Transcript

    • Harvesting Scene by Peter Brueghel
    • Villages feed themselvesOne of three fields left fallow (empty) to regain fertilityAnimals grazed in common pasturesDisadvantages• Land use inefficient• Farmers didn’t experiment with new farming methodsForces for Change• Population Growing – more food needed• French blockade –no corn– more food needed
    • Enclosure Movement• Wealthy landlords fenced in common pastures andexperimented with new farming technology• Villages lost common lands and political power, peasantsbecame poorerCrop Rotation• Fields depleted of nutrients by one crop replenished byplanting different crops• Fields not left inefficiently fallow
    • Other Discoveries• Seed Drill planted seeds efficiently• New crops: corn and potatoResults of Agricultural Revolution• More food available• Population increased
    • Merchants Role in Cottage Industry• Supplied materials—wool and cotton—to cottages tosell finished goods• Took supplies from spinning cottage to weavingcottage to dying cottage to sell finished cloth• Merchants sell product for more than material andlabor costs = profit + larger investment = higher profit
    • Capitalism• An economic system based on private ownership, freecompetition, and profits• Cottage industry is an example of early capitalismEffects of the Cottage Industry• Big profits for new class of merchants• Alternative source of income for peasants
    • Textile Industry Invented• Cottage industry couldn’t keep up with demand for textiles• Spinning jenny, water frame, spinning mule improvedspinning• Power loom sped up weaving• Cotton gin separated seeds from cotton
    • Rise of the Factory• New machines, often too big for homes,were put in factories• Factories located near power source: coal,iron, water
    • Effects of Textile Factories in Britain• Price of mass-produced textiles were much lower than handproduced items• Britain’s textile industry increased enormously• Majority of villagers forced to leave to find work in urbanfactories
    • The Need for Energy• Early factories relied on horses, oxen, and water mills• Steam engine evolved in response to the increasing need forpowerEffect of Steam Engine• Steam power, used wherever coal existed, increased textileproduction• Improved mining which increased metals which in turnfueled other industries
    • The Need for Iron• Farming tools, new factory machinery, railways• Smelting makes iron more pure, but requires carbonThe Need for Coal• Carbon necessary for smelting iron• Steam engines powered by coalEffects of Iron and Coal• Britain produced more iron than all other countries of theworld combined• Coal powered Britain’s enormous navy
    • The Need for Better Transportation• Increased production increased need to transport goodsquickly and cheaply• Pre-Industrial society used horses, mules, and dirt roadsInventions• Stone and eventually asphalt roads• Canals• Railroad era ushered in with the Rocket in 1829
    • Effects of Railroads• Expanded rapidly throughout Britain• Cheaper transportation increased production and profits• Railways fueled other industries: coal, steam engines,iron, steel, and many manufactured products
    • Geography• Climate good for textile production• Plenty of natural resources such as iron and coal• Separation from the European continent kept themout of wars
    • Government• Internal trade encouraged• Population allowed to relocate• Helped build canals and roads
    • Advantages ofColonial Empire Industrialization First• Supplied raw material for • No other countries competingmanufactured goods for manufactured goods• Provided market for goods • Monopoly on technology