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  • On Basque
  • On Basque
  • Writing reform in Turkey from Arabic to the Roman alphabet The Turkish reform came about as part of Kemal Ataturk's sweeping social and economic changes, and were imposed with dictatorial imperative. However, the ground had been prepared by 75 years of discussions of alphabetic reform. Educated Turks had taken twelve years to become literate in their medieval Arabic orthography. They observed the prosperity and universal literacy of their Armenian minority with their Graeco-Roman alphabet. The literate 9% of Turks who were bilingual or even polyglot were also aware of other options. Finally a commission in the 1920s replaced the 612 Arabic symbols with 29 Roman-style letters plus diacritics, that gave almost complete one-letter-to-one-sound phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Dictator Kemal Ataturk was not bothered at all about questions of dialects, derivations or homophone distinctions. In 1928 he ordered all Arabic lettering to vanish overnight from public places. Public Blackboards set up in public demonstrated the roman script, theatres showed educational comedies about it, and school openings were postponed while teachers learnt the new system and acquired new books. Imported printing presses which were ready tooled for the new alphabet immediately produced 2-month-long adult courses for the literate and 4-month-long courses for the illiterate. Deadlines were set for changes, with the final transition set for January 1, 1931. Ataturk's slogan was that ' the Turkish language has been a prisoner for centuries and is now casting off its chains .' The political motives of the spelling reform were to divorce Turkey from Moslem and conservative traditions, to facilitate communication and social programs, and to enter the modern Western world, - hence the international roman alphabet rather than nearer ones such as Greek, Russian or Armenian, or an Arabic reform.
  • Culture

    1. 1. Culture:Folk vs Popular, Language, Religion
    2. 2. Culture• shared set of values and meanings practiced in everyday life• displays a social structure – a framework of roles and interrelationships of individuals and established groups.• transmitted within a society by imitation, instruction, and example (it is learned, not biological).• Cultural Geography looks at -how place shapes culture. -how culture shapes place. -how places acquire meaning
    3. 3. CULTURAL IDENTITIES• Language• Race• Religion• Subculture• Ethnicity• Region
    4. 4. Roots of Culture• End of Ice Age - ~11,000 years ago – plant, animal, and human populations began to spread since they had more availability of land. Paleolithic (Old Stone Age) marks this period – small scattered groups began to develop regional variations. All were hunter-gatherers, tools and traits were indicative of their environment.
    5. 5. Cultural divergence• Following end of Ice Age, cultures went through periods of cultural evolution from hunt/gather, through development of agriculture and animal domestication (husbandry), to eventually urbanization and industrialization in modern times. Since not all cultures passed through all stages at the same time, or even at all, this divergence became evident
    6. 6. Cultural Hearths• - centers of innovation and invention from which key culture traits and elements moved to influence surrounding regions.• Multilinear evolution – each major environmental zone (arid, high altitude, midlatitude steppe, etc) tended to induce common adaptive traits in the cultures of those who exploit it. Idea developed by Julian Steward, anthropologist (1902- 72) to explain the common characteristics around the world. Similar traits did not always mean identical traits• Cultural convergence - sharing of technologies, organizational structures, and cultural traits and artifacts that is evident among widely separated societies in modern world.
    7. 7. Culture is a web of behaviors and attitudes• habit – action by single person• custom – action by many over time• culture traits – units of learned behavior ranging from the language spoken to the tools used or the games played. – object (fishhook) – technique (weaving and knitting of a fishnet) – belief (in the spirits resident in water bodies) – attitude (a conviction that fish is superior to other animal protein) They are the most basic expressions of culture (building blocks)
    8. 8. • Culture complex – individual cultural traits that are functionally interrelated. – keeping cattle was a trait of the Masai of Kenya and Tanzania • related traits include, measurement of personal wealth by the number of cattle owned, a diet containing milk and the blood of cattle, and disdain for labor not related to herding.• Cultural systems – grouping of complexes together that have traits in common. Ethnicity, language, religion, define a cultural system
    9. 9. Structure of Culture• 3 subsystems of culture devised by anthropologists (White and Huxley)• Mentifacts: Ideological Subsystem – consists of the ideas, beliefs, and knowledge of a culture and of the ways in which these things are expressed in speech or other forms of communication. – (Myths, theologies, legend, literature, philosophy, folk wisdom). – These are passed on from generations as mentifacts, or abstract belief systems (or world view), • tell us what we should believe, value, and how we ought to act. (Language and religion)
    10. 10. • Artifacts: Technological subsystem – composed of the material objects, together with the techniques of their use, by means of which people are able to live. The objects are tools and other instruments that enable people to feed, clothe, house, defend, transport, and amuse ourselves. These basic needs are artifacts aka things people make.• Sociofacts: Sociological subsystem – sum of those expected and accepted patterns of interpersonal relations that find their outlet in economic, political, military, religious, kinship, and other associations. These are the sociofacts that define the social organization of a culture aka social structures.
    11. 11. • Material vs.made of artifacts (tangible things) and Material culture is Non-material Culture Non-material culture is made up of mentifacts and sociofacts – a dwelling is an artifact, providing shelter for its occupants. It can also be a sociofact reflecting the nature of the family or kinship group and a mentifact summarizing a culture group’s convictions about appropriate design, orientation, and building materials.• When cultures change, first thing to go is artifact, then sociofact, then mentifact (ex. Europeans visiting New World – natives give beads, etc)• Nothing in culture stands totally alone, so when changes occur in the ideas that a society holds, it may affect the sociological and technological systems just as changes in technology force adjustments in the social system. This interlocking nature of all aspects of culture is known as cultural integration.
    12. 12. Cultural Landscape• (Carl Sauer) – a characteristic and tangible outcome of the complex interactions between a human group and a natural environment
    13. 13. Sauer’s Cultural Landscape Theory Culture is the “agent” Natural area is the “medium” Cultural landscape is the “result”
    14. 14. How culture shapes land English grid systemFrench “long lots” system
    15. 15. Masai Village, Kenya
    16. 16. Ordinary (Vernacular) Landscapes
    17. 17. Symbolic Landscapes
    18. 18. FOLK CULTURE•Small homogeneous groups living in isolated rural areas •Culture derived from local, natural elements
    19. 19. Folk Customs • Create “material culture” • Usually agrarian or rural • Highly regionalized • Adapted to local conditions • Example: haystackers
    20. 20. Folk Housing• Constructed of local materials• Adapted to local environmental conditions• Built by hand• Most recognizable by floorplan• Other elements to notice – Gable position – Chimney position – Roof type – Decorative elements
    21. 21. Folk Housing andLOCAL MATERIALS
    22. 22. Shotgun House• Common in the American South• Associated with African-Americans and plantations• Probably derives from Haiti• Design – Gable front – Row of rooms extending back from street• Named because one could fire a shotgun in the front and hit all rooms
    23. 23. Shotgun houses in the South today
    24. 24. FOLK HOUSING STYLES of the Northeastern USMAJOR TYPES• Cape Cod style house• Salt Box house• Double pile (two chimney) house• New England “Yankee” Large House• Front gable and wing house
    25. 25. CAPE COD HOUSE• One and a half stories• Gable to the side• Central chimney
    26. 26. SALT BOX HOUSE• Gable to side• 2 ½ stories on street• 1 ½ stories added behind
    27. 27. DOUBLE-PILE HOUSE or TWO-CHIMNEY HOUSE• 2 stories tall• 4 rooms on each floor• Each floor’s ceiling is same height• Gable to the sides• Chimneys on both gable ends
    28. 28. YANKEE “LARGE” HOUSE or NEW ENGLAND LARGE• Two and a half stories• Two rooms deep• Gable to side• Central chimney John Johnson House – from Joseph Smith’s history
    29. 29. FRONT GABLE and WING• L-shaped floorplan• 1 or 2-story home with gable to front• Single story wing extends with gable to side
    30. 30. FOLK CULTURE IN THE US• No true folk culture still exists in the US• Folk traditions are practiced only by individuals (mainly as hobbies)• HOWEVER, regions with some distinctive folk traditions can still be identified
    31. 31. FOLK REGIONS in the US
    32. 32. Cultural RegionAreas in which a particular cultural system prevailsDominant cultural practices, beliefs, values
    33. 33. Culture region• a portion of the earth’s surface occupied by populations sharing recognizable and distinctive cultural characteristics. – cultural characteristics – political organization, religions, economic form, clothing worn, eating utensils, etc• Culture traits have an areal extent – can be plotted on maps to show spatial distribution, thus creating culture regions.
    34. 34. Culture realm• – a set of culture regions showing related culture complexes and landscapes are grouped to form culture realm. – Transition zones mark their contacts and they change over time – World Realms – European (Europe), Slavic (Russia), Anglo-America (North America), Latin America (two distinct realms according to some geographers – Middle and South), Islamic (North Africa/SW Asia), Sub- saharan Africa, Indic (South Asia – focused on India), Sino-Japanese (East Asia or Jakota Triangle), Southeast Asia, Austral European (Austral realm), Insular Oceanic (Pacific realm)
    35. 35. Global Culture Realms
    36. 36. Cultural Change (induced by innovation, diffusion, and acculturation)• –• Innovation – changes to a culture that result from ideas created within the social group itself and adopted by the culture.• Primitive and traditional societies are not innovative because they are usually at equilibrium with their environment.• All societies have a resistance to change, but when a group is inappropriately unresponsive (mentally, physically, economically) to changing circumstances and to innovation, it is said to have cultural lag
    37. 37. Diffusion• Diffusion Relocation – innovation or idea physically carried to new location by migrant or population that possesses it.• Expansion – spread of an item or idea from one place to others, and in the process, the thing that diffuses, remains, and is sometimes intensified in the area.• Contagious – when expansion diffusion affects nearly uniformly all individuals and areas outward from the source region (direct contact).• Hierarchical – transferring ideas first between larger places or prominent people then smaller places or less important people.• Stimulus – spread of an underlying principle, even though a characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse. It is not always possible to determine point of origin or the routes of diffusion, and it is difficult to tell if a trait in two distinct areas is the result
    38. 38. Types of Cultural Diffusion
    39. 39. Cultural Diffusion• Pop culture diffuses through hierarchical diffusion from nodes of innovation• Folk culture diffuses through relocation diffusion (migration)
    40. 40. • Acculturation – a culture group goes through changes by adopting some or all of the characteristics of another, dominant culture group.• Transculuration – equal exchange of traits or influence between two culture groups which are equal in numbers, strength, and complexity
    41. 41. Diffusion barriers• any conditions that hinder either the flow of information or the movement of people and thus prevent the acceptance of an innovation. (distance decay, distance friction)• Absorbing barrier – halting the spread (example is distance),• interrupting barriers – delaying or deflecting the path of diffusion( example is physical earth), permeable barriers – most barriers, they permit passage of at least some innovations.• Diffused ideas or artifacts usually go through some form of alteration of meaning or form to make them acceptable to the borrowing group, this process is called syncretism.
    42. 42. SUBCULTURES Punk
    43. 43. SUBCULTURES Rap
    44. 44. Spatial Diffusion of Rap:contagious? relocation? hierarchical?
    45. 45. “New” Cultural Geography Culture is socially constructed Culture is an arena for economic and political power Landscapes (and maps) are “texts” that can be read to exposeBrazilian “favela” power relations (slum)
    46. 46. GLOBALIZATIONAND CULTUREGlobalization changing,shaping local culturesBut local cultures alsochanging, shapingglobalization
    47. 47. Folk vs. Popular Culture Slow vs. Fast World
    48. 48. Slow vs Fast Worlds• Fast: people, regions directly involved as producers, consumers in transnational, modern industry, news, entertainment, etc.• Slow: (85%) limited participation . Periphery, rural areas, slums, etc. bypassed by modern world- systems.=>Increasing division between slow and fast worlds
    49. 49. Non-Western vs. Western World Views• Group cooperation • Individual competition• Achievement as it reflects • Achievement for group individual• Harmony with nature • Master and control nature• Time is relative • Adhere to rigid time• Accept affective • Limit affective expression expression • Nuclear family• Extended family • Dualistic thinking• Holistic thinking • Religion distinct from• Religion permeates other parts of culture culture • Feel their world view is• Accept world views of superior other cultures • Task oriented• Socially oriented
    50. 50. Jihad vs McWorld• According to Benjamin Barber…• McWorld: pop culture, shallow materialism, Western, Capitalist, modernization• Jihad: values underpinned by religious fundamentalism, traditional tribal allegiances, opposition to Western materialism• Modernization is understood as Westernization (Americanization)
    51. 51. Jihad vs McWorld
    52. 52. Pilgrims at Mecca KFC…
    53. 53. A Global Cuisine…
    54. 54. McNiffica Teriyaki McBurger McKroket Argentina JapanNetherlands McRye Finland Bulgogi Burger Korea VegiMacMcNiffica Switzerland Chile Tukbul Burger Korea KofteBurger Bacon Roll Turkey United Kingdom
    55. 55. BicaRed Bean Sunday PortugalHong Kong Shake Shake Fries Hong Kong Curry Potato Pie McFlurry Hong Kong Belgium
    56. 56. Dining Habits around the globe• SF Gate: Multimedia (image)
    57. 57. MATERIAL WORLDIn the early 1990s, after hearing a story about "Material Girl" Madonnas latestself-promotional enterprise, photojournalist Peter Menzel had a vision: Ratherthan take viewers into the mansions of the rich or the "cribs" of MTV celebrities,he wanted to capture the material life of average families around the globe. Hisresulting book, Material World, offers extraordinary images of families in front oftheir dwellings with all (or nearly all) of their possessions. Experts at the UnitedNations and World Bank helped determine the criteria for average familiesaccording to location (urban, rural, suburban, small town, or village), type ofdwelling, family size, annual income, occupation, and religion. Here, we presentfive of the photographs Menzel and his team produced, along with updatedstatistical data for each country.
    58. 58. CHINA
    59. 59. CHINA: The Wu FamilyThe nine members of this extended family—father Wu BaJiu (59), mother Guo Yu Xian (57), their sons, daughters-in-law, and three grandchildren—live in a three-bedroom,600-square-foot dwelling in rural Yunnan Province. Whilethey have no telephone, they get news and images of awider world through two radios and the familys mostprized possession, a television. In the future, they hope toget one with a 30-inch screen as well as a VCR, arefrigerator, and drugs to combat diseases in the carp theyraise in their ponds. Not included in the photo are their 100mandarin trees, vegetable patch, and three pigs.
    60. 60. INDIA
    61. 61. INDIA: The Yadev FamilyAt age 25, Mashre Yadev is already mother to fourchildren, the oldest of whom was born when she was 17.Each morning at their home in rural Uttar Pradesh, shedraws water from a well so that her older children canwash before school. She cooks over a wood fire in awindowless, six-by-nine-foot kitchen, and such labor-intensive domestic work keeps her busy from dawn todusk. Her husband Bachau, 32, works roughly 56 hours aweek, when he can find work. In rough times, familymembers have gone more than two weeks with little food.Everything they own—including two beds, three bags ofrice, a broken bicycle, and their most cherished belonging,a print of Hindu gods—appears in this photograph.
    62. 62. JAPAN
    63. 63. JAPAN: The Ukita FamilyLike many Japanese women, 43-year-old Sayo Ukita hadchildren relatively late in life. Her youngest daughter isnow in kindergarten, not yet burdened by the pressures ofexams and Saturday "cram school" that face her nine-year-old sister. Sayo is supremely well-organized, which helpsher manage the busy schedules of her children andmaintain order in their 1,421-square-foot Tokyo homestuffed with clothes, appliances, and an abundance of toysfor both her daughters and dog. She and her husbandKazuo, 45, have all the electronic and gas-poweredconveniences of modern life, but their most cherishedpossessions are a ring and heirloom pottery. The familyswish for the future: a larger house with more storage space.
    64. 64. MALI
    65. 65. MALI: The Natomo FamilyIt is not unusual in this West African country for men tohave two wives, as 39-year-old Soumana Natomo does.More wives mean more progeny—and a greater chanceyou will be supported in old age. Soumana now has eightchildren, and his wives, Pama Kondo (28) and FatoumaNiangani Toure (26), will likely have more. How many ofthese children will survive, though, is uncertain: Malisinfant mortality rate ranks among the ten highest in theworld. Some of the familys possessions are not included inthis photo—another mortar and pestle for pounding grain,two wooden mattress platforms, 30 mango trees, and oldradio batteries that the children use as toys. (Note: TheNatomos appear on the adobe roof of their house inKouakourou. An infant son is nestled in his mothers arms.One daughter is absent.)
    66. 66. UNITED STATES
    67. 67. USA: The Skeen FamilyRick and Pattie Skeens 1,600-square-foot house lies on acul-de-sac in Pearland, Texas, a suburb of Houston. Thefire hydrant in this photo is real, but not working—asouvenir from Ricks days as a firefighter. Rick, 36, nowsplices cables for a phone company. Pattie, 34, teachesschool at a Christian academy. To get the picture,photographers hoisted the family up in a cherry picker. Yetthe image still leaves out a refrigerator-freezer, camcorder,woodworking tools, computer, glass butterfly collection,trampoline, fishing equipment, and the rifles Rick uses fordeer hunting, among other things. Though rich withpossessions, nothing is as important to the Skeens as theirBible. For this devoutly Baptist family, like many familiesaround the world, it is a spiritual—rather than material—life that matters most.
    68. 68. Number of Films Produced Films Imported
    69. 69. Televisions per 1,000 Inhabitants (1970)
    70. 70. Televisions Per 1,000 Inhabitants (2001)
    71. 71. Language Atocha train station, Madrid- messages of peace in memoriam of those killed in the train bombings in 2004
    72. 72. Freezing Eskimos Have 47 Words for “This Sucks”• Um-waka-waka, Canada – A group of Harvard linguists studying the Eskimos of northern Canada have discovered that in addition to 34 words for snow, the arctic culture has over 47 words meaning “this sucks.”• Dr. Trisha Dean, who led the team said, “Language, like other social constructs, is environmentally influenced. For instance, there are ten Russian words for ‘starving’ and twelve for ‘mono-brow’. Naturally, the vocabulary of the Inuits reflects that living on frigid, barren glaciers and eating only fish heads for generations after generation is very sucky.”• She maintains that the many words allow the Inuits to convey rich nuances of suckiness that go unnoticed by English- speakers. Said Dean, “If an American woke up smelling like rotten tuna, he would say ‘this sucks’, the same thing he would say if he smelled like rotten herring instead. However, an Eskimo would say massak about a tuna-stench, while the latter would require the harsher aput.”
    73. 73. Dr. Dean supplied this list of common Eskimowords for suck and their English translations:• Tingenek This sucks.• Massalerauvok Long ago, my son, it did not suck, but that’s not really true at this time.• Mauja For many moons, it has sucked. Now it is no different.• Akkilokipok It is as if the great-snow tiger of suckiness has raped my sister.
    74. 74. Over 6,000 Living LanguagesApproximately 50% of the world’s people speak Chinese,English, Spanish,Russian, Hindi, orArabicMany smallerlanguages endangered
    75. 75. Language FamilyAncient commonorigin, split into:LanguagebranchesLanguagesRegionalDialects/accents
    76. 76. Major world language families Indo-European Austronesian Sino-Tibetan Niger-Congo Afro-Asiatic Uralic, Altaic, others
    77. 77. Language Families in Africa
    78. 78. Indo-European language family branchesMultiple tongues:Indo-IranianRomantic (Italic)GermanicBalticSlavicCelticUnique:AlbanianArmenianGreek
    79. 79. Indo-European Language Family(Kurgan Hearth Theory of diffusion)
    80. 80. Indo-European Language Family(Anatolian Hearth Theory of diffusion)
    81. 81. Indo-European Family of Languages
    82. 82. Romantic Branch of Indo-European Language Family
    83. 83. Germanic Branch of Indo-European Language Family
    84. 84. Nacht nachtIndo-European natt nightLanguage Tree noche nuit nótt nox noite noapte νύκτα ночь (noch) (nykta) noc natëFinnish (Uralic): yöTurkish (Altaic): gece naktis raath
    85. 85. Monat maandIndo-European månad monthLanguage Tree mese mois mês mis minas myesyats miesiac muajFinnish (Uralic): kuuTurkish (Altaic): ay mâh menuo mahina
    86. 86. Official languages
    87. 87. Official language not always spoken by all
    88. 88. Official Languages
    89. 89. Lingua francaA language used informally for communication in a multiethnic place Often a former colonial language
    90. 90. English-Speaking Countries
    91. 91. English-Speaking Populations Populations Google site languages
    92. 92. English asan official language?
    93. 93. What is English, anyway? WHAT DO THE WORDS• Bizarre IN THE LIST HAVE IN• Chocolate COMMON?• Hurricane• Petunia• Assassin• Barbecue• Chipmunk• Ammonia• Banjo• Tundra
    94. 94. What is English, anyway?• Bizarre (Basque for beard)• Chocolate (Nahuatl, the Aztec language)• Hurricane (Taino, a Caribbean language)• Petunia (Tupi, Peruvian Indian)• Assassin (Arabic, from hashish smokers)• Barbecue (Carib, a Caribbean language)• Chipmunk (Cree, Native American)• Ammonia (Ancient Egyptian for camel dung)• Banjo (Kimbundu in Northern Angola)• Tundra (Saami, formerly called Lapps)
    95. 95. Local Place Names• Mt. Diablo • Devil Mtn• Tiburon • Shark• Las Lomas • The hills• Tahoe • Washoe for Big Water
    96. 96. DIALECT(regional differences within a language)
    97. 97. U.S. regional dialects
    98. 98. Urban Dialects in North American English
    99. 99. 2. What is this?
    100. 100. 3. What is in these cans?
    101. 101. Is it Soda, Pop or Coke ?
    102. 102. Wisconsin Dialect• BUBBLER: “I gotta get me a drink, once. Wheres da bubbler?”• COMEER ONCE "Comeer once and help me lift dis half-barrel.”• COUPLE-TWO-TREE: more than one; as in “Delmer and I drank a couple-two-tree beers.”• STOP-AND-GO LIGHTS: “dese lights arent just stop lights. Dey tell ya when to go, too, aina?”• YAH-HEY: affirmative, “Koops makes good custard, hey?” “Yah, hey!”• YEW-BETCHA: affirmative; also you’re welcome, as in “Thanks for the lift.” “Yew betcha!”
    103. 103. Aussie
    104. 104. Yeggo ninter tan? Alas yatta gepme someex and rise-up-lides. I’ll be with ya in agarbler mince whenna see emeny I want.Garment see me anile seaward icon doabout the dough.
    105. 105. Fune Marvered like tucker moferwah neefnink we’d laughter seayuz.Butter dunnif wickairn. Altarpants onMarv. Ee sconofer seesoon enyanairtiz snore flotta doota git ready.
    106. 106. Sarn’s calmer nairt. Scona beer gloria sty.Mine jute still scold zephyr. Cheetwas scoldla snite. Weller corset saul-wye-schoollinnermore ninx. Buttered swarm nuddite-time. Spewffle climb a treely.
    107. 107. Scripts (alphabets)Not same as spoken language.Script families have close relationship to religion: Roman Western Christian Cyrillic Orthodox Christian Arabic Islam Indian Hinduism/Buddhism Chinese East Asian religions Independent scripts: Japanese, Greek, Armenian, Korean, etc.
    108. 108. Non-Roman Scripts = Croatian (Roman)
    109. 109. Scripts of the Eastern Hemisphere
    110. 110. Religion– Universalizing religion – religion that attempts to appeal to all people – also called global or universal– Ethnic – faiths that dominate a single national culture – also called cultural or regional– Traditional – also referred to as local or tribal religions • Found in Africa, South America, interior areas of South East Asia, New Guinea, and North Australia – very limited extent– Secularism – indifference to or rejection of religious ideas in the modern world
    111. 111. Religious Divisions– Religion- system of formal and uniform worship and faith– Branch – large fundamental division within a religion • Christian – Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox • Islam – Sunni and Shiite/ Shia • Buddhism – – Mahayana, Theravada, and Tantrayana– Denomination – a division of a branch that united a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body • Christianity – Protestants » Baptists » Methodists » Pentecostal » Lutheran » Mormon– Sect – Small group that has broken away from an established denomination
    112. 112. WORLD RELIGIONS
    113. 113. Religions today
    114. 114. Religions today
    115. 115. Diffusion of Christianity in the Roman Empire
    116. 116. First Schism: Western (Catholic) vs. Eastern (Orthodox)
    117. 117. Second Schism: Catholic vs, Protestant
    118. 118. Christianity in Europe Today
    119. 119. Christianity in the U.S. Today
    120. 120. Religions in the U.S. Today Protestant Christians 100 mil.+ Muslims 4 mil. Jews 6 mil. Catholic Orthodox Christians Christian 6 mil. 60 mil.+
    121. 121. Origin of Islam: Mecca (Saudi Arabia)
    122. 122. Diffusion of Islamic (Muslim) religion
    123. 123. Spatial Diffusion of Islam:contagious? relocation? hierarchical?
    124. 124. Areas under Muslim rule at certain times Pecs church (former mosque)
    125. 125. Sunni and Shi‘a Muslim Regions TodayMost Muslims are not Arabs. Many Arabs are not Muslim.
    126. 126. Diverse languages in the Middle EastArabicBerberHamiticPersianKurdishTurkish (Western)Turkish (Eastern)BaluchCaucasianGreek Ethnolinguistic Groups of the Middle EastHebrew
    127. 127. Muslims in the U.S.Today Altoona Mosque (former church)
    128. 128. Iranian Currency• Farsi (Persian), in Indo-European language family• But uses Arabic script
    129. 129. Turkish currency Arabic script until 1928• Converted to Roman• Some former Soviet Muslim states have also converted
    130. 130. Soviet Currency(Russian in Cyrillic script)
    131. 131. Indian Currency(Hindi, other languages mainly in Indian scripts)