Cells & Cell TransportCell and Cell Transport
The Cell TheoryIs the result of work done by   All living thingsmany scientists:                are made up of            ...
MicroscopesThree major types of    The type ofmicroscopes:            microscope usedlight microscope (LM)   depends on wh...
Microscopes               Magnification Pros                     ConsLight          Uses light          Color micrographs ...
Electron Microscopes
Micrographs
Prokaryotes vs. EukaryotesNo nucleus (nuclear          Has a nucleus (nuclearmembrane)                    membrane)Smaller...
Cell MembraneCell membrane(plasma membrane):a phospholipid bilayersurrounding the cellEach phospholipidhas a polarphosphat...
CytoplasmAKA protoplasmThe wateryenvironment of thecell where all cellactivity takes placeMade up of mostlywater, with ion...
CytoskeletonA network of fibersthroughout thecytoplasm calledmicrofilaments andmicrotubulesThey providestructure to the ce...
Cytoplasmic Streaming         Animationhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7pR7TNzJ_pA
NucleusSurrounded by anuclear membraneAKA nuclearenvelope which is abilayer like the cellmembraneContains nuclearpores for...
ChromatinMade up of sectionsof DNA called genesUncurled: chromatinCurled up fortransport:chromosomes (theseare stained & v...
NucleolusFound inside thenucleusA mass of RNA, not anofficial membranebound organelle likethe rest described here‘Disappea...
Centrioles(AKA centrosomes)Lay just outside thenucleus, made up ofmicrotubules Involvedin cell division(although they are ...
Endoplasmic ReticulumCan be rough (withribosomes attached)or smooth (noribosomes)Functions include:transportation (roughER...
RibosomeCan be free (in thecytoplasm) or bound(found on the roughER)Made up of twosubunits (large &small), equal partsprot...
Golgi BodyAKA golgi apparatusResponsible forprotein processingwhich includes:*marking proteins withtheir destinationlocati...
MitochondriaOften called the‘powerhouse’ of thecell, has a 2nd insidemembrane AKA thecristaeIt generates ATP fromglucose m...
VacuoleUsed for storage for avariety of thingsincluding food, waste,and proteins to betransportedout/around the cellA movi...
LysosomeA vacuole containingdigestive enzymesThey fuse withvacuoles containingsubstances to bebroken down (food,waste, inv...
Cell WallFound in bacteria,fungus, plant, andsome protistsMade up of cellulosein plant cellsAdds extrasecurity/protectiona...
Flagella and CiliaUsed for movement insome protist and          Video comparinganimal cells, made of     flagella and cili...
ChloroplastsContain chlorophyll(green, yellow, redcolor)Only found in cells thatdo photosynthesis(plants, some protists,so...
Plant vs. Animal CellsNo centrioles for cell   Use centrioles for celldivision                 divisionA large central    ...
The Cell Membrane in Detail
Fluid Mosaic ModelThe cell membrane         The cell membrane isused to be thought of     semi-permeable (akaas a solid la...
Components of the Cell Membrane     Structure                      FunctionPhospholipids         Make up bulk of membrane ...
Two Types of TransportPassive Transport       Active TransportDoes not require        Requires energy to beenergy to be us...
SolutionsSolution: a well mixedmixtureSolute: what is mixedinto the solutionSolvent: what thesolute is mixed into
Passive TransportDiffusion              Facilitated diffusion:The movement of a      diffusion through asubstance from HIG...
Passive TransportOsmosis: the diffusion of water across asemi-permeable membrane
TonicityHypertonic: when        Isotonic: when bothone solution has more   solutions have thesolute than the other   same ...
Tonicity
Tonicity80% water20% NaCl                                                                   90% water                     ...
Tonicity92% water8% NaCl                                                                   90% water                      ...
Tonicity82% water18% NaCl                                                                   82% water                     ...
TonicityA cell in a          A cell in ahypotonic solution   hypertonic solutioncould take in so     could lose so muchmuc...
Tonicity
Tonicity
Active TransportEndo/exocytosis         Protein carriersp.122                   Aka protein pumpsAka phago (solids) &    C...
EndocytosisA form of activetransport             Amoeba eating usingSubstance is too      endocytosis:large to go throughn...
Active Transport:            Endo/Exocytosishttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XV8jawQwRaghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1w10R...
Active Transport: Protein          Carriers/pumpsProtein carriers/pumps:
Passive vs. Active Transporthttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ZFqOvxXg9M
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Cells & Cell Transportation

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Cells & Cell Transportation

  1. 1. Cells & Cell TransportCell and Cell Transport
  2. 2. The Cell TheoryIs the result of work done by All living thingsmany scientists: are made up of cellsHooke (named cells) The basic unitLeeuwenhoek (microscope) of structure and function forSchwann (animal cells) living things isSchleiden (plant cells) the cellVirchow (cell division) All cells come from other cells
  3. 3. MicroscopesThree major types of The type ofmicroscopes: microscope usedlight microscope (LM) depends on what youscanning electron want to seemicroscope (SEM) A photo taken by atransmission electron microscope is called amicroscope (TEM) micrograph
  4. 4. Microscopes Magnification Pros ConsLight Uses light Color micrographs Magnification(LM) Magnification Living specimens not always depends upon Range of uses enough type of LM Affordable ($, time)Transmission Uses e- traveling Can see extremely Prep time(TEM) through specimen small things Expense Specimens Very high mag usually not aliveScanning Uses e- bouncing Can see extremely Prep time(SEM) off surface of small things Expense specimen Specimens Very high mag usually not alive
  5. 5. Electron Microscopes
  6. 6. Micrographs
  7. 7. Prokaryotes vs. EukaryotesNo nucleus (nuclear Has a nucleus (nuclearmembrane) membrane)Smaller in size Larger in sizeCircular DNA (plasmid) Larger thread like DNASimple in structure, small (chromatin/chromosomes)organelles, few organelles Larger, more specializedUsually have a cell wall organelles, more organellesand/or a capsid Mitochondria andOften have flagella for Chloroplasts (plastids) canmotility exist inside these cellsInclude both eubacteria & Include all other organismsarchaebacteria (plants, animals, fungus and protists)
  8. 8. Cell MembraneCell membrane(plasma membrane):a phospholipid bilayersurrounding the cellEach phospholipidhas a polarphosphate head andlipid tails
  9. 9. CytoplasmAKA protoplasmThe wateryenvironment of thecell where all cellactivity takes placeMade up of mostlywater, with ions,proteins, and othercompounds
  10. 10. CytoskeletonA network of fibersthroughout thecytoplasm calledmicrofilaments andmicrotubulesThey providestructure to the cell,points of attachmentfor organelles (MT),and are used in cellmovement (MF)
  11. 11. Cytoplasmic Streaming Animationhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7pR7TNzJ_pA
  12. 12. NucleusSurrounded by anuclear membraneAKA nuclearenvelope which is abilayer like the cellmembraneContains nuclearpores for transport inand out of the nucleus
  13. 13. ChromatinMade up of sectionsof DNA called genesUncurled: chromatinCurled up fortransport:chromosomes (theseare stained & visibleunder a microscope)They do not leave thenucleus
  14. 14. NucleolusFound inside thenucleusA mass of RNA, not anofficial membranebound organelle likethe rest described here‘Disappears’ during celldivisionRNA can leave thenucleus for proteinsynthesis
  15. 15. Centrioles(AKA centrosomes)Lay just outside thenucleus, made up ofmicrotubules Involvedin cell division(although they are notpresent in plant cells)Replicate into twocentrioles before celldivision and migrateto opposite ends ofnucleus
  16. 16. Endoplasmic ReticulumCan be rough (withribosomes attached)or smooth (noribosomes)Functions include:transportation (roughER), toxin breakdownand phospholipidproduction (smoothER)
  17. 17. RibosomeCan be free (in thecytoplasm) or bound(found on the roughER)Made up of twosubunits (large &small), equal partsprotein & RNAThe location ofprotein production(the site of proteinsynthesis)
  18. 18. Golgi BodyAKA golgi apparatusResponsible forprotein processingwhich includes:*marking proteins withtheir destinationlocation*preparing proteins tobecome active andable to do their job(ex: enzyme folding)
  19. 19. MitochondriaOften called the‘powerhouse’ of thecell, has a 2nd insidemembrane AKA thecristaeIt generates ATP fromglucose moleculesContains its own DNAunlike every otherorganelle in the cellIs thought to haveonce lived on its own
  20. 20. VacuoleUsed for storage for avariety of thingsincluding food, waste,and proteins to betransportedout/around the cellA moving vacuole iscalled a vesiclePlants have a largecentral vacuole forwater storage to keepthe shape of the plantcell
  21. 21. LysosomeA vacuole containingdigestive enzymesThey fuse withvacuoles containingsubstances to bebroken down (food,waste, invadingbacteria)AKA suicide sacsbecause if they leaktheir enzymes, thecell can be damaged
  22. 22. Cell WallFound in bacteria,fungus, plant, andsome protistsMade up of cellulosein plant cellsAdds extrasecurity/protectionand/or providesstructure (shape) forcells
  23. 23. Flagella and CiliaUsed for movement insome protist and Video comparinganimal cells, made of flagella and ciliamicrotubules movement:Flagella are whip liketails (one or more) for http://www.youtube.comovement much like m/watch?v=QGAm6ha tail is used for MysTAswimming by fishCilia are hair likeextensions (circularmovement is like thatof a bullet)
  24. 24. ChloroplastsContain chlorophyll(green, yellow, redcolor)Only found in cells thatdo photosynthesis(plants, some protists,some bacteria)Like mitochondria, theycontain their own DNAand are thought to havelived as single celledorganisms at one time
  25. 25. Plant vs. Animal CellsNo centrioles for cell Use centrioles for celldivision divisionA large central No central vacuolevacuoleCell wall of cellulose No cell wallto help maintainsquare shape No chloroplasts, noChloroplasts chlorophyll, nocontaining chlorophyll photosynthesisfor photosynthesis
  26. 26. The Cell Membrane in Detail
  27. 27. Fluid Mosaic ModelThe cell membrane The cell membrane isused to be thought of semi-permeable (akaas a solid layer selectively permeable)Now it is known as thefluid mosaic model: it http://www.youtube.cocan move (fluid) and it m/watch?v=LKN5sq5dhas many parts (a tW4mosaic) includingproteins,carbohydrates, & lipids
  28. 28. Components of the Cell Membrane Structure FunctionPhospholipids Make up bulk of membrane Mainly hydrophobic (nonpolar)Protein channels Faciliated diffusion of hydrophilic (polar) substancesProtein carriers Active transport of substances(pumps) against their concentration gradientCholesterol (lipid) Cell membrane fluidity/rigidityOligosaccharides Attached to proteins for cell(carbohydrates) signaling (cell communication)
  29. 29. Two Types of TransportPassive Transport Active TransportDoes not require Requires energy to beenergy to be used by used by the cell tothe cell move the substanceTypically involves This is due to eithersmall particles the very large size ofmoving down the the itemconcentration OR that the cell isgradient (high to low moving it against (up)concentration) its concentration gradient (low to high)
  30. 30. SolutionsSolution: a well mixedmixtureSolute: what is mixedinto the solutionSolvent: what thesolute is mixed into
  31. 31. Passive TransportDiffusion Facilitated diffusion:The movement of a diffusion through asubstance from HIGH protein channelconcentration to LOWconcentration
  32. 32. Passive TransportOsmosis: the diffusion of water across asemi-permeable membrane
  33. 33. TonicityHypertonic: when Isotonic: when bothone solution has more solutions have thesolute than the other same amount of soluteHypotonic: when one Dynamic Equilibrium:solution has less all solution pairssolute than the other attempt to reach an isotonic state of equilibrium, particles are constantly moving
  34. 34. Tonicity
  35. 35. Tonicity80% water20% NaCl 90% water 10% NaCl Which way will the salt move…in or out of the cell? Which way will the water move…in or out of the cell?
  36. 36. Tonicity92% water8% NaCl 90% water 10% NaCl Which way will the salt move…in or out of the cell? Which way will the water move…in or out of the cell?
  37. 37. Tonicity82% water18% NaCl 82% water 18% NaCl Which way will the salt move…in or out of the cell? Which way will the water move…in or out of the cell? What do we call these two solutions?
  38. 38. TonicityA cell in a A cell in ahypotonic solution hypertonic solutioncould take in so could lose so muchmuch water that it water that itbursts significantly shrinksThis is known as This is calledlysis (cell dies) plasmolysis and can lead to cell death
  39. 39. Tonicity
  40. 40. Tonicity
  41. 41. Active TransportEndo/exocytosis Protein carriersp.122 Aka protein pumpsAka phago (solids) & Carries substancespinocytosis (liquids) up (against) theirThe movement of concentrationvery large substances gradient (from LOWwith the use of concentration tomicrofilaments under HIGH concentration)the cell membraneand vacuoles/vesicles
  42. 42. EndocytosisA form of activetransport Amoeba eating usingSubstance is too endocytosis:large to go throughnormal cell http://www.youtube.comembrane channels m/watch?v=W6rnhiMMicrofilaments help xtKUcell to move aroundthe substance andengulf itPhagocytosis vs.Pinocytosis
  43. 43. Active Transport: Endo/Exocytosishttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XV8jawQwRaghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1w10R9lv7eQ
  44. 44. Active Transport: Protein Carriers/pumpsProtein carriers/pumps:
  45. 45. Passive vs. Active Transporthttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ZFqOvxXg9M

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