Cell Respiration & Photosynthesis


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Cell Respiration & Photosynthesis

  1. 1. Cellular Respiration & Photosynthesis
  2. 2. Background Information Producers: are able  Photosynthesis to convert the sun’s requires a special set energy into glucose of pigments called through a process chlorophylls to trap called photosynthesis the sunlight in order Include plants, some to make glucose from protists and bacteria the water and CO2 AKA autotrophs from the atmosphere
  3. 3. Background Information (con’t.) Consumers: eat  Consumers are AKA producers or other heterotrophs consumers in order to  Fungus, bacteria and get the stored glucose some protists are part to use for their own of a specialized group needs of consumers AKA Includes animals, decomposers (AKA some protists & saprophytes) that eat bacteria dead organic material
  4. 4. Food Chain Vocabulary
  5. 5. Food Webs Food webs are simply overlapping food chains Food webs are complex diagrams showing the relationships between many different organisms
  6. 6. Energy pp. 138-139 Potential energy is  Kinetic energy is stored energy that energy of motion, could be used for work being done work  Kinetic energy that The chemical energy does not get work stored between the done is called thermal bonds of atoms is a energy (heat) type of PE.  When bonds are All bonds broken, some of the (ATP, sugar, protein, l energy is released as ipid) store energy heat
  7. 7. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) p. 143
  8. 8. ATP ATP is broken down  ATP can be made to release the energy from spare phosphate between the high groups and ADP energy bonds of the phosphate groups  ADP + Pi  ATP ATP  ADP + Pi  This process is called cellular respiration ATP is required for and occurs in the cells to do their work mitochondrion of and is made from eukaryotic cells food
  9. 9. ATP Review ATP is the energy  The reason for this is ‘currency’ of your cells that ATP is a very All foods entering the small molecule body convert the  This allows a large chemical energy amount of energy to stored between their be used quickly and bonds into the high easily in the cell energy bonds  ATP’s small size also between the allows it to travel phosphate groups of quickly throughout ATP the cell
  10. 10. Cellular Respiration Results in ATP production Occurs in the mitochondrion The mitochondrion has an inner membrane AKA the cristae (the folds) The center of the mitochondrion is called the matrix
  11. 11. Cellular Respiration Aerobic Respiration  Anaerobic Respiration Requires oxygen  Does not require which acts as the oxygen ‘final electron  Does not require a acceptor’ in the ets mitochondrion Requires a  Results in 2 ATP per mitochondrion glucose molecule Results in 38 ATP per  Prokaryotes (and glucose molecule eukaryotes in certain Eukaryotes situations)
  12. 12. 1st Phase: Glycolysis The 1st stage of  Transition step to respiration Kreb’s cycle: the two Occurs in the 3 Carbon pyruvates cytoplasm are converted into two 2 Carbon acetyl- Converts a 6 Carbon coA molecules glucose into two 3  Electrons are Carbon pyruvates generated and Net gain of 2 ATP transferred to 2 more Electron carriers also NADH carriers generated for later  Carbon dioxide is use (2 NADH) released
  13. 13. Glycolysis
  14. 14. Glycolysis Animation: http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/0072507470/student_view0/ chapter25/animation__how_glycolysis_wo rks.html
  15. 15. 2nd Phase: Kreb’s Cycle Occurs in the matrix  Each time, electrons of the mitochondrion are generated and The 2 C acetyl-CoA transferred to enters the cycle and electron carriers (6 joins with a 4 C NADH and 2 FADH2) compound  These electrons are Many different needed for the ets compounds are where most of the formed and broken ATP of respiration will down in the Kreb’s be made cycle (AKA citric acid  2 ATP are made cycle)
  16. 16. Kreb’s Cycle
  17. 17. Kreb’s Cycle Animation: http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/0072507470/student_view0/ chapter25/animation__how_the_krebs_cyc le_works__quiz_1_.html
  18. 18. Final Phase: Electron Transport Chain (ets or etc) Where the bulk of ATP is made in aerobic respiration Electrons are passed from one protein to the next in the inner membrane (AKA cristae) electron transport chain As they do, energy is released and used to pump H+ ions into intermembrane space
  19. 19. Electron Transport Chain H+ ions are allowed to flow back into the matrix through the protein channel of the ATP synthase enzyme The energy of the falling H+ ions is used by the enzyme to make ATP Oxygen is AKA the final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain. Without it, the process stops and no more ATP can be made
  20. 20. Electron Transport Chain 32-34 ATP can be generated per glucose molecule through this method The electron carriers that have left their electrons at the electron transport chain can now return to any of the previous steps to get more electrons to bring back to the etc
  21. 21. Electron Transport Chain
  22. 22. Hydroelectric Power Analogy
  23. 23. Cellular Respiration Summary Glycolysis yields ATP and NADH, H20 released Transition step yields NADH, CO2 released Krebs cycle yields ATP, NADH & FADH2, CO2 released ETS creates ATP, H20 is formed ETS requires the presence of O2 as the final electron acceptor
  24. 24. Anaerobic Respiration AKA Fermentation Is simply glycolysis  Creates byproducts: Occurs in cytoplasm (no alcohol in yeast or mitochondrion required) lactic acid in muscle cells Prokaryotic organisms  These byproducts use this process act as the final Eukaryotes may use electron acceptor of this process when electrons from the needed (not enough NADH molecules (in oxygen) aerobic respiration, the FEA is oxygen)
  25. 25. Cellular Respiration & Photosynthesis
  26. 26. Photosynthesis General Equation for photosynthesis: CO2 + H20-chlorophyll Glucose + O2 Notice that the products of photosynthesis are the reactants of aerobic respiration
  27. 27. Chloroplast Thylakoids are the individual chlorophyll containing structures A granum is a stack of thylakoids The stroma is the fluid surrounding the thylakoids
  28. 28. Leaf Cross Section
  29. 29. Photosynthesis
  30. 30. Photosynthesis Light Reactions  Dark Reactions Take place across the  AKA the Calvin cycle membrane of the  This process of thylakoid ‘carbon fixing’ takes Two photosystems place in the stroma of (PS I & II) capture the choloroplast sunlight to create ATP  1 turn of the Calvin in ets and put cycle produces 1 G3P electrons in electron  2 G3P = 1 glucose carriers called NADPH molecule
  31. 31. Light Reactions Chlorophyll in PS I and  Both the ATP and II traps sunlight NADPH enter the The sunlight excites stroma to complete electrons which are the Calvin cycle transferred to NADPH  Water splits to release electron carriers and electrons to replenish taken to the ets the supply at PS II The ETS generates ATP  The electrons used in necessary in the Calvin the ets go to PS I to cycle to make G3P (2 replenish the electron G3P = glucose) supply there
  32. 32. Dark Reactions At the end of the dark  We say that in this reactions, a molecule phase carbon is ‘fixed’ known as G3P is  This means it is taken made from a gas state 2 G3P joined together (carbon dioxide) and forms a glucose converted into a solid molecule state (glucose) which can be used by our bodies
  33. 33. Photosynthesis Summary In the light  In the dark reactions reactions, electrons (Calvin cycle), ATP from PS II are used in and NADPH are used an etc to make ATP to take CO2 and make needed for the dark G3P reactions.  2 G3P = 1 glucose Electron carriers  Water and CO2 are called NADPH are used and O2 is filled at PS I to be released during the used in the dark process of reactions photosynthesis
  34. 34. The Carbon Cycle Carbon is cycled throughout the environment in part through the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration Carbon is stored in organic material, rocks (limestone), and in the atmosphere
  35. 35. The Carbon Cycle