Argumentation persuasion
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  • 1. Argumentation uses clear thinking and logic to convince the reader of the soundness of an opinion on a controversial issue Persuasion uses emotional and dramatic language to appeal to the readers’ concerns, beliefs and values.
  • 2. • Argumentation-persuasion involves more than presenting a point of view and providing evidence. It assumes controversy and addresses opposing opinions. • i.e.In parts of the country, communities established for adults refuse to rent to families with children. How do you feel about that? • School athletic leagues have a “no pass, no play” policy. Explain why this policy is appropriate or not appropriate.
  • 3. Your main concern is with the soundness or logos of your argument: facts, statistics, examples and authoritative statements to support your argument. • Your readers will dismiss your argument if you cannot support your claim with logos.
  • 4. • Sensitivity to the pathos,or emotional power of language, is another key consideration for argumentation- persuasion essays. – Pathos appeals to the readers’ sense of needs, values, attitudes, encouraging them to commit themselves to a viewpoint or course of action. – Connotative language- words with strong emotional overtones- can move readers to accept a point of view and may spur them on to act. • Advertising uses pathos to the exclusion of logic to influence and manipulate.
  • 5. Finally, establish your ethos, or credibility and reliability. • Convince your readers you know what you’re talking about. • Over emotionalism undermines your credibility. Writing an effective argumentation- persuasion essay involves in interplay of logos, pathos, and ethos in balance.
  • 6. Supportive • Your argument may rely primarily on pathos Wavering • Don’t be too emotional; concentrate on ethos and logos Hostile • Avoid emotional appeal; rely heavily on logos
  • 7. 1--Identify the controversy surrounding the issue and state your position at the beginning of the paper. This is your assertion proposition. --Avoid a proposition that is simply factual. Take a stand on a controversial issue. --Be sure your proposition that is narrow and specific enough to debate completely. --Your thesis should state your opinion or call for action.
  • 8. 2– Offer readers strong support for your thesis. (unified, adequate, specific, accurate, dramatic and representative) 1st person is your personal observation or experience 3rd person focuses on the issue: statistics, facts from another source, examples, expert opinion Whatever sources you use- document them.
  • 9. 3—Seek to create goodwill. Do not antagonize your reader. Focus on the issue not the people involved. Find common ground- some points on which you can agree. 4– Organize the supporting evidence Choose a pattern of development
  • 10. 5—Acknowledge differing points of view First- acknowledge the opposing points of view in a two part proposition. e.g.Although some teachers think that standardized tests restrict academic freedom, such exams are preferable to those prepared by individual teachers. Second- in the introduction provide a brief summary of the opposing viewpoint. Third– take one or two paragraphs to present the opposing point of view, then go on to present your view point. (nevertheless. . ., however. . .)
  • 11. 6- Refute differing viewpoints Two strategies: State your proposition Cite opposing evidence one point at a time State your proposition Cite opposing evidence all at the same time Be sure to provide clear transition signals so your reader isn’t confused
  • 12. 7--Use inductive or deductive reasoning Inductive reasoning involves examining specific cases, facts or examples, then draw a generalized conclusion based on these specifics. Scientists do this when they examine evidence then draw a conclusion. e.g. My head aches. My nose is stuffy. I’m coming down with a cold. I should take some Tylenol. Your evidence must be recent and accurate
  • 13. Deductive reasoning Deductive reasoning begins with a generalization then applies that to a specific case. This three-step process is called a syllogism Major premise- a general statement Minor premise- a statement about an item within the group Conclusion
  • 14. Beware of faulty conclusions Your reasoning is invalid if your conclusion reverses the “if…then” relationship implied in the major premise. Major premise- Students who cheat must go see Dr. Sheard Minor premise- Yesterday Jen was called to Dr. Sheard’s office Conclusion- Jen must have cheated.
  • 15. 8- Recognize logical fallacies Post hoc fallacy- you conclude that a cause- effect relationship exists because one event precedes another The cafeteria hired a new cook and the price for meals increased.
  • 16. Non sequitur fallacy- a conclusion is drawn that has no logical connection Millions of Americans own cars, so there is no need to fund public transportation Ad hominem argument- attacking the person instead of the point of view Dr. Smith, who does abortions, was involved in a messy divorce last year.
  • 17. Appeals to questionable authority “Sources say. . .” “Research shows. . .” “Experts claim. . .” Begging the question- failure to establish proof for a debatable point Trying to ban prayer in public places by saying that violates the U.S. Constitution.
  • 18. False analogy disregards significant dissimilarities and wrongly implies that because the two share some characteristics, they are alike in all aspects. Driving while smoking cigarettes is not illegal, so driving while smoking marijuana should not be illegal either.