The Spaniards• Religion was important in the Spanish Culture• Spanish adopted Roman Catholic faith• Spanish empire set up colonies in the Americas for trading and to spread the Christian Faith
The Amerindians• Native Americans were known as “Indians” after several European explorers traveled west in an attempt to reach India/Asia• Native Americans originated from Alaska and Siberia• During the ice age, they migrated to what is now known as the Americas
Conquest of Mexico• Hernan Cortes led the conquest of the Mexica/Aztec Empire from 1519-1521• Mexicas rebelled and overwelmed the Spanish, inflicting horrific casualties. Cortes himself barely escaped• Spanish retaliated and after nearly 500 years of conquest, dismantled the Aztec Empire• Today, Mexicas have a profound influence on our culture as Americans
The Spanish Frontier
Spanish Exploration• After the conquest of the Aztecs, the Spanish looked north in their search for God, Gold, and Glory• The Spanish first explored what is now known as the American South East near the Caribbean• Later, they wanted to expand their northern borders near the Pacific Ocean• However, their failure to find gold stopped them from going any further North.
The settlement of New Mexico• The Spanish Incursion resulted in permanent settlement of New Mexico.• There was a significant decline in their Indian labor force due to the spread of European diseases.• The columnists lived among Native People because they were potential Christian converts and workers.
Settlement of Northern Frontier• Rene-Robert Cavelier, sieur de La Salle, went down to Mississippi River to Gulf of Mexico and named surrounding land Louisiana after his King Louis XIV.• Because of this the Spanish sent people out to Eastern Texas and claimed it as province.• This attempt at colonization failed due to a lack of man power and Indian rebellions.
The Mexican Far North
Mexican Independence• Eventually, the Spanish Empire collapsed leaving the Mexican people free of their reign.• Latin American Revolutions were started by Creoles who were people of Spanish decent born in America.• In the far North, the transition from Spanish to Mexican rule happens seamlessly with little violence.
California• California took no part in the events that resulted in the Mexican Independence.• Although the Spanish did not support the California provinces very well, Mexican rule gave them a bunch of support.• Under Mexican rule about 500 private rancho land grants were made compared to 20 during Spanish period.
The Clash of Cultures• The Mexican government was pressured by Englo immigration in East Texas.• Thousands of Americans entered Texas without Mexican authorization and by 1830 anglo’s out numbered Mexicans 25,000 to 4,000.• Anglos and Mexicans separated by language, religious, and political differences.
The American SouthWest
Gringos and Greasers• Anti-Mexican Americans during second half of 19th century were strong throughout the SouthWest.• Because Spanish speaking Immigrants were successful in Goldmine California the Angelo Americans inflammed public opinion against the “Greasers” to get rid of their competition.• Although there was much hostile between both groups some Mexicanos adjusted better to the new regime.
California• During the mid 1800’s numerous Gold deposits were discovered in California leading to mass migration.• The most successful of early miners were Latin Americans who arrived from South America and Mexico.• Envy and racism resulted in an attempt to drive Spanish speaking peoples from the Gold fields.
New Mexico• The Hispanic population in New Mexico was able to preserve heritage better then in other parts of the SouthWest.• The Native Spanish Speaking population of New Mexico were referred to as Hispanos.• However, the preservation of their land proved to be impossible yet the Hispanic culture was kept in tact and continued to serve as a point of reference by which people viewed their past and future.
The Great Migration
Motives for Mexican immigration• Mexicans were among the first people who made the United States their home.• After the first World War I, immigration laws passed to regulate immigration.• The Mexican Revolution was one major causes of Mexican immigration.
The Mexican Revolution• Since the beginning of the century, Mexicans enter large numbers in United States.• Life in Mexico is way more oppressive then in the United States.• first few decades of 21st Century were dominated by a revolution which indicated massive discontent among the people.
The Immigrants• After being driven out of Mexico many immigrants were attracted to the SouthWest for political, economic, religious, and other reasons.• Most were poor and made the dangerous journey to the North in the early 20th century.• Several Mexican immigrants gathered around El Paso Texas and in other boarder towns.
The Depression• In the 1930’s America had a depression because the stock market had crashed and it affected Mexico.• Jobs were scarce for the American people and the Mexicans who came into America did not have as good of a chance of a getting a job.• Many people lost their jobs and homes.• Weather in the SouthWest was better and there were more jobs but then many people moved on them and people were competing for the same job.
The Dust Bowl Migration• Farm income in the United States dropped by 2/3 between 1929-1933.• Droughts and windstorms destroyed most of the crops which led to the abandonment of the Mid West.• Some parts of the Dust Bowl lost up to 40% of their population.
Mexicanas and the labor movement• During the strikes of the 1930’s Mexicanos played powerful roles in economic interests.• By the 1930’s Mexican women played an important role in the emerging role in the Union movement in the SouthWest.• By now Mexicanos, many who were born in the United States , were beginning to realize they would not turn back and go to Mexico.
The Second World War And Its Aftermath
Mexicanos in the Military• For Mexicans World War II represented an opportunity to enter the American mainstream.• At the time the military counted Latinos as whites.• Mexicanos who survived the war grew by experience.
Urbanization:Trials and Tribulations• The best jobs are found in cities.• During the War there were more job opportunities and so more Mexicans moved into the cities in large numbers.• Zoot Suit Riots caused trama for Mexicans.
The Mexican American Generation• The emerging middle class in Mexicano communities in the United States began to call themselves Latin Americans, Mexican Americans, or Spanish Americans.• They were willing to gain acceptance into the dominate society at any cost.• During WWII most Mexicanos began to see the advantage of remaining in the United States instead of returning to Mexico.
The Chicano Movement
The Mexicano Community In The Mid sixties• Following the African American community which started a massive civil rights movement, many Mexicanos began to call themselves Chicanos or Chicanas.• They started their own campaign to improve social or economic conditions and full recognition of their rights as US citizens.• Because of their lack of education, most Mexicanos were employed as unskilled or semi- skilled workers in low wage jobs.
Chavez, Huerta, and the United Farm Workers• The Chicano movement consisted of hundreds of organizations that focused on a variety of issues.• One of the key organizations was the United Farm Workers led by Cesar Charvez and Dolores Huerta.• The UFW always focused on the family unit so women gained prominent rules in the Unions activities.
The Chicano Movement In the Community• The Chicano Movement played an important role in the schools and the barrios.• The movement was particularly popular among the working class.• One of the more extreme organizations was the brown berets which was a paramilitary group founded in East Los Angeles by college students.
Goodbye to Aztlan
Demographic Trends• Mexicanos maintained a high profile in America in the 1970’s.• There was a great increase In Hispanics which included Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, and other Latin Americans.• California in the 1990’s achieved a hispanic majority in 109 towns.
The Resurgence of Mexican Immigration• Beginning in the 1960’s there was a massive immigration from Mexico the United States that still continues today.• The number of Mexicans apprehended by the immigration and naturalization service for illegal entry exceeded one million in the 1960’s and seven million in the 1970’s.• The Majority of boarder crossers were undocumented workers who wanted economic gain.
The Decade of the Hispanic: The Unfulfilled Promise• The 1980’s were nicknamed the “Decade of the Hispanic”.• The post Chicano generation found that it had underestimated the resistance and change in the society and over estimated its ability to resolve long term problems.• By the late 1980’s major Mexican crime syndicates began to form.
The Hispanic Challenge
Mexicanos Galore• Its impossible to know how many immigrants there are in the United States.• This is because Mexican immigration has a large undocumented population.• One of the key factors of Mexican immigration was Mexicos failure to provide their citizens with a decent living.• Mexicans wanted to live a better life style and have their family have a better lifestyle so they immigrated to the US.
Stemming the Tide• Immigration laws like RICA failed to stem the Southern immigration movement.• This resurrected Xenophobic feelings towards Mexicans.• In an attempt to placate critics, the federal government began to use extreme measures like the Fence Act, signed by President W. Bush in 2006.
Popular Culture: Mexicanos and The Wide World of Sports.• Immigrant groups have been getting into the mainstream that is America’s sports.• Since the 1920’s to the present, Mexicans have been immersing themselves in sports like Baseball or Soccer to win acceptance in the American Society.• As an oppressed ethnic minority, Mexicans have been seeking heros who can portray a positive image in mainstream society.