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  1. 1. Map of Japan How did Japan’sgeographyinfluenceits history?
  2. 2.  Japan is a nation of islands – the four largest are called Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu and Shikoku Japan is far enough from other countries to discourage invasion and to remain isolated when it chose to shut out the outside world It is near enough to the Asian mainland to borrow from other civilizations, especially the Chinese
  3. 3.  Their appreciation for nature is reflected in all aspects of their culture The Japanese native religion of Shintoism holds nature to be sacred Their love of simple, natural beauty is seen in the arts – architecture, sculpture, painting, and literature
  4. 4. Mt. Fuji in Japan zengardens
  5. 5.  By around 500 AD, a warrior chief ruling over the Yamato plain extended his rule over much of Japan Claimed descent from the Sun Goddess, Amaterasu His tokens of power (an iron sword, curved jewel and bronze mirror) are still symbols of the imperial family today Shinto: “the way of the gods” – nature is sacred
  6. 6.  Prince Shotoku encouraged the spread of Chinese ways Acceptance of Buddhism Other influences: calendar, ways of dress and cooking, architecture, Chinese language and script, law code, establishment of capital city
  7. 7.  Capital was moved to Heian-Kyo, later renamed Kyoto Japanese culture developed Literature flourished: “Tale of Genji” by Lady Murasaki (prose), tanka and haiku (forms of poetry)
  8. 8. Japan enters the feudal age
  9. 9.  Minamoto Yoritomo became the shogun, or supreme general The emperor remained a mere figurehead in Kyoto The seat of government was at Kamakura, a small coastal town The feudal age of Japan began
  10. 10.  Samurai warriors – most important class of people during the feudal period Bushido (“way of the warrior”) – samurai code of conduct; stressed loyalty and indifference to pain and hardship Suicide by seppuku or hara-kiri was preferred to dishonor or surrender
  11. 11.  Groups of samurai came to follow certain local nobles called daimyo (“great name”) Daimyo became absolute rulers on their lands and struggled with each other for more power and territory There was no effective central government in Japan
  12. 12. The arts flourished during the Ashikaga Period Golden age of Japanese culture No drama developed Perfection of 3 Japanese arts: flower arrangement, tea ceremony and landscape gardening
  13. 13.  Ieyasu Tokugawa became shogun after winning the Battle of Sekigahara Headquarters was in Edo, later known as Tokyo
  14. 14.  The power of the daimyo was weakened The central government grew strong again Japan began to isolate itself from foreign influences – no Japanese could leave their homeland, and foreign missionaries were expelled, or killed Merchant and business classes became influential Kabuki drama became popular
  15. 15. • During the earliestperiod of Japanesehistory, women enjoyedhigh political, social andcultural status• For a hundred years, allimportant authors werewomen
  16. 16.  During the Kamakura period, samurai women were expected to have spartan virtues, and young girls were taught the use of weapons But then society moved towards complete male supremacy By the Tokugawa period, women had become socially and legally inferior to men – and this has changed little even today