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Motion speed and velocity

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  • 1. Mechanics
  • 2. MECHANICS
    • the sub branch of classical physics that is concerned with the forces acting on bodies , whether at rest or in motion.
    • is divided into statics, kinematics and dynamics
  • 3.
    • STATICS - focuses on the way in which forces combine with each other so as to produce equilibrium .
  • 4.
    • KINEMATICS - focuses on the motion of a body without regard to the cause of that motion
  • 5. DYNAMICS - focuses on the way in which forces produces motion.
  • 6.
    • MOTION
    • defined as the movement of an object
    • exhibited by a change in position
  • 7. Motion or Movement is a Change In Position 10 ft. Position A Position B
  • 8. There are many ways of describing motion: 1. Rectilinear motion- the motion of an object traveling at a straight path. 2. Curvilinear motion- an object traveling in a curved path 3. Angular motion - an object traveling at certain angles
  • 9.
    • MOTION IS RELATIVE
    • it may be described by specifying how far something has traveled in changing position and time.
    • a reference frame is a physical entity such as the earth’s surface, the deck of a ship or a moving vehicle to which the position and the motion of an object is relative.
  • 10.
    • DISTANCE AND DISPLACEMENT
    • DISTANCE - the total path length traversed by an object moving from one location to another
    • - a scalar quantity which has only magnitude.
  • 11. 2. DISPLACEMENT- refers to the straight line distance between the starting and end points. - a vector quantity which has both magnitude and direction
  • 12. Distance and Displacement START FINISH Need to distinguish how long we traveled from how far away (and in what direction) we traveled.
  • 13. 2 Displacement and distance your home your school A displacement has Size = length of this arrow displacement from home to school To go to school from home... size & direction .
  • 14. 2 Displacement and distance Distance = length of path you travelled (  size of displacement ) l 1 l 2 l 3 To go to school from home... your home your school = l 1 + l 2 + l 3
  • 15. Suppose we have two towns A and B 10 km apart on either side of a hill.  They are joined by a railway line that is straight, and goes through the hill in a tunnel.  The road goes round the hill and the total journey distance is 25 km.
  • 16.  
  • 17. So the distance is 25 km.  The displacement (the straight-line distance in a particular direction) between A and B is 10 km due East.
  • 18. If we go from A to B and back again, the distance is 50 km, but the displacement is 0.
  • 19.
    • SAMPLE PROBLEM:
    • On his way to school, Jed traveled 100 m North, 300 m East, 100 m North, 100 m East , 100 m North.
    • a. Find the total distance traveled by Jed.
    • b. Determine the displacement made by Jed.
  • 20.
    • SPEED AND VELOCITY:
    • SPEED- a scalar quantity which measures how fast something is moving.
  • 21. SPEED-the rate at which distance is covered at a given time
  • 22. average speed- defined as the total distance traveled divided by the time it took to travel the distance.
  • 23. the speed of a body at any instant. Instantaneous speed
  • 24.
    • VELOCITY- a vector quantity that represents a rate of change of displacement.
  • 25. Problems: 1. Rachel watches a thunderstorm from her window. She sees the flash of lightning bolt and begins counting the seconds until she hears the clap of thunder 5.0 seconds later .
  • 26. Assume that the speed of sound in air is 340 m/s and light was seen instantaneously. How far away was the lightning bolt?
  • 27. 2. A car starts from rest and attains a speed of 50m/s in 15 seconds.
  • 28. How far has the car traveled in 15 seconds?
  • 29.
    • A car traveled at 88 km/hr for 5 hours. How far did it travel?
  • 30.
    • Justin walks 5 km/hr. How long did it take him to travel 15 km?
  • 31. 6. A car travels a distance of 40 km from Manila to a town in Laguna. What is its average speed (in km/hr) if traveling time is from 7:00 A.M. to 7:30 A.M.? its average velocity (km/hr).
  • 32. Suppose that after a business talk with a friend , the driver of the car drives straight back to Manila from 11:55 A.M. to 12:20P.M.What was the car,s average speed (km/hr) during the roundtrip? its average velocity (km/hr)