DISEASES: What it is and what it's not.
Disease <ul><li>It is a term for an abnormal condition that impairs the normal functioning of the body. </li></ul>
Disease causes… <ul><li>Discomfort, Dysfunction, Distress and Death. </li></ul><ul><li>Disabilities, Disorders, Syndromes,...
Types of Diseases: <ul><li>COMMUNICABLE/CONTAGIOUS </li></ul><ul><li>These are infectious disease capable of passing from ...
NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASE <ul><li>Are those diseases which are not infectious which may result from genetics or lifestyle. ...
MORBIDITY vs. MORTALITY <ul><li>Morbidity- refers to the degree of severity of a disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Mortality- is ...
Conditions Contributing to Disease
Economy Culture Environment Politics Education
<ul><li>ECONOMY </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty usually is a source of illness because of deprivation of medical attention for i...
<ul><li>CULTURE </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural or traditional beliefs hinders medical attention. Consulting from questionable ...
<ul><li>ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Potential causes of death and illness depends on the interaction between the environ...
<ul><li>Politics has great effect on illness and death of an individual or the whole community. Government officials have ...
<ul><li>Possibly, education or information has the biggest effect on death and illness. </li></ul>
COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
Communicable/Infectious diseases <ul><li>These are illnesses sourced from pathogens which spread from lining thing to anot...
<ul><li>It is a biological agent that causes diseases or illness to its host. </li></ul><ul><li>These are organisms, frequ...
Types of Pathogens: BACTERIA RICKETTSIAE PROTOZOA PARASITICWORMS FUNGI VIRUS
<ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Single-celled microorganisms </li></ul><ul><li>Most are beneficial but close to a hu...
<ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Smallest known pathogen infecting cells of biological organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Un...
<ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Single celled or multi-celled parasitic organisms which can live on skin, mucous mem...
<ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Grows inside living cells and resembles bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Carried as parasi...
<ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Tiny, single-celled organisms producing toxins </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduce fast thro...
<ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Helminths </li></ul><ul><li>Largest pathogen that can enter the body </li></ul><ul><...
Chain of infection: Causative Agent Reservoir Portal of exit Mode of transmission Portal of entry Susceptible host
Causative Agent  (Infectious Agent) <ul><li>It is a microbial organism with the ability to cause disease. </li></ul><ul><l...
Reservoir <ul><li>It is a place where microorganisms can thrive and reproduce. </li></ul><ul><li>Microorganisms can thrive...
Portal of Exit or Mode of Exit <ul><li>It is a place of exit providing a way for a microorganism to leave the reservoir. <...
Mode of Transmission <ul><li>It is a method of transfer by which the microorganism  moves or is carried from one place to ...
Portal of Entry <ul><li>It may be any opening allowing the microorganism to enter the host. </li></ul><ul><li>It is within...
Susceptible Host <ul><li>It is an individual who cannot resist a microorganism invading the body, multiplying and resultin...
<ul><li>COMMON COMMUNICABLE DISEASES </li></ul>
<ul><li>COLD - most common infectious disease </li></ul><ul><li>INFLUENZA - viral infection </li></ul>
PNEUMONIA <ul><li>-  infection in the lungs by viruses, bacteria and other pathogens.( chest pain) </li></ul>
Chicken Pox <ul><li>Small red spots that become blisters/ scabs </li></ul><ul><li>13- 17 days </li></ul><ul><li>Early stag...
MEASLES <ul><li>Long lasting cough in the morning </li></ul><ul><li>Slight fever in the afternoon </li></ul><ul><li>Sweati...
STREP THROAT <ul><li>Sore throat, fever, nausea, vomiting high fever and muscle ache </li></ul>
MUMPS <ul><li>Spreads through saliva </li></ul><ul><li>Parotid salivary glands </li></ul><ul><li>Fever, swelling and pain ...
BODY DEFENSES <ul><li>First Line of Defense </li></ul><ul><li>SKIN </li></ul><ul><li>TINY HAIR </li></ul><ul><li>MUCOUS ME...
Second Line of Defense <ul><li>White Blood Cells </li></ul><ul><li>inflammation </li></ul>
Third Line of Defense <ul><li>Antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Active immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Passive immunity </li></ul>
<ul><li>These are illnesses caused by pathogens that are easily passed on from one to another. </li></ul><ul><li>These are...
<ul><li>1. It is a place where microorganisms can thrive and reproduce. </li></ul><ul><li>2. A person susceptible to disea...
<ul><li>3 .  It is a method of transfer by which the microorganism  moves from reservoir to a susceptible host. </li></ul>...
<ul><li>5.   It is a microbial organism with the ability to cause disease. </li></ul><ul><li>6.  It is a place where micro...
<ul><li>Write the process how the character got sick. By way of illustration, write the six elements of chain of infection...
<ul><li>Alice is a student in a prestigious school in the city. With air conditioned rooms conducive for learning, student...
<ul><li>from colds and sneezes every now and then. Alice could not do away with it since they stay in one classroom. After...
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Communicable diseases

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Communicable diseases

  1. 1. DISEASES: What it is and what it's not.
  2. 2. Disease <ul><li>It is a term for an abnormal condition that impairs the normal functioning of the body. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Disease causes… <ul><li>Discomfort, Dysfunction, Distress and Death. </li></ul><ul><li>Disabilities, Disorders, Syndromes, Infections and other unusual variations of structure and functions. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Diseases: <ul><li>COMMUNICABLE/CONTAGIOUS </li></ul><ul><li>These are infectious disease capable of passing from one person to another. </li></ul>
  5. 5. NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASE <ul><li>Are those diseases which are not infectious which may result from genetics or lifestyle. </li></ul>
  6. 6. MORBIDITY vs. MORTALITY <ul><li>Morbidity- refers to the degree of severity of a disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Mortality- is the quality or condition of being mortal; the term is usually used to determine the measure of the number of deaths. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Conditions Contributing to Disease
  8. 8. Economy Culture Environment Politics Education
  9. 9. <ul><li>ECONOMY </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty usually is a source of illness because of deprivation of medical attention for its high cost. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>CULTURE </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural or traditional beliefs hinders medical attention. Consulting from questionable medical practices by quack doctors, faith healers and other fake healers holds back proper medical procedures. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Potential causes of death and illness depends on the interaction between the environment and individual. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Politics has great effect on illness and death of an individual or the whole community. Government officials have a big responsibility regarding programs like hospitals, health care and health centers. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Possibly, education or information has the biggest effect on death and illness. </li></ul>
  14. 14. COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
  15. 15. Communicable/Infectious diseases <ul><li>These are illnesses sourced from pathogens which spread from lining thing to another. Pathogens can enter the body through direct or indirect contact causing illnesses like influenza. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>It is a biological agent that causes diseases or illness to its host. </li></ul><ul><li>These are organisms, frequently microorganisms, or components of these organisms which include various species of bacteria, viruses and protozoa. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Types of Pathogens: BACTERIA RICKETTSIAE PROTOZOA PARASITICWORMS FUNGI VIRUS
  18. 18. <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Single-celled microorganisms </li></ul><ul><li>Most are beneficial but close to a hundred types are known to cause disease </li></ul><ul><li>Some release poisonous substances </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Tuberculosis, strep throat, diphtheria, whooping cough, meningococcemia, cholera, meningitis, syphilis </li></ul>BACTERIA
  19. 19. <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Smallest known pathogen infecting cells of biological organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to reproduce on their own, it replicates through infecting host cells </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Common cold, measles, rabies, polio, mumps, influenza, SARS, hepatitis, chicken pox, HIV </li></ul>VIRUS
  20. 20. <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Single celled or multi-celled parasitic organisms which can live on skin, mucous membranes and lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain food from organic materials such as plant, animals or human tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Athlete’s foot, ringworm and tinea flava or an-an </li></ul>FUNGI
  21. 21. <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Grows inside living cells and resembles bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Carried as parasites such as ticks, fleas and lice </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Spotted fever </li></ul>RICKETTSIAE
  22. 22. <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Tiny, single-celled organisms producing toxins </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduce fast through sexual and asexual ways </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Malaria </li></ul>PROTOZOA
  23. 23. <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Helminths </li></ul><ul><li>Largest pathogen that can enter the body </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Tapeworm, hookworm, pinworm, roundworm </li></ul><ul><li>Wormlike orgs. Living and feeding in living hosts while disrupting the nutrients absorption of their hosts, causing weakness and disease </li></ul>PARASITICWORMS
  24. 24. Chain of infection: Causative Agent Reservoir Portal of exit Mode of transmission Portal of entry Susceptible host
  25. 25. Causative Agent (Infectious Agent) <ul><li>It is a microbial organism with the ability to cause disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Bacteria, Virus, Fungi and Parasites. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Reservoir <ul><li>It is a place where microorganisms can thrive and reproduce. </li></ul><ul><li>Microorganisms can thrive in human beings, animals and inanimate objects such as water, table tops and door knobs. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Portal of Exit or Mode of Exit <ul><li>It is a place of exit providing a way for a microorganism to leave the reservoir. </li></ul><ul><li>Principal portals of exit are: Digestive system, urinary system, respiratory system, reproductive system and the blood. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Mode of Transmission <ul><li>It is a method of transfer by which the microorganism moves or is carried from one place to another or from reservoir to a susceptible host. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Portal of Entry <ul><li>It may be any opening allowing the microorganism to enter the host. </li></ul><ul><li>It is within the same system of portals of exit. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Susceptible Host <ul><li>It is an individual who cannot resist a microorganism invading the body, multiplying and resulting infection. </li></ul><ul><li>HOST- a person susceptible to disease, lacking physical resistance to overcome the invasion of the pathogenic organism. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>COMMON COMMUNICABLE DISEASES </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>COLD - most common infectious disease </li></ul><ul><li>INFLUENZA - viral infection </li></ul>
  33. 33. PNEUMONIA <ul><li>- infection in the lungs by viruses, bacteria and other pathogens.( chest pain) </li></ul>
  34. 34. Chicken Pox <ul><li>Small red spots that become blisters/ scabs </li></ul><ul><li>13- 17 days </li></ul><ul><li>Early stage of rupture of blisters </li></ul>
  35. 35. MEASLES <ul><li>Long lasting cough in the morning </li></ul><ul><li>Slight fever in the afternoon </li></ul><ul><li>Sweating at night </li></ul><ul><li>Chest and back pain </li></ul><ul><li>Pale Skin </li></ul><ul><li>Hoarse voice </li></ul>
  36. 36. STREP THROAT <ul><li>Sore throat, fever, nausea, vomiting high fever and muscle ache </li></ul>
  37. 37. MUMPS <ul><li>Spreads through saliva </li></ul><ul><li>Parotid salivary glands </li></ul><ul><li>Fever, swelling and pain </li></ul>
  38. 38. BODY DEFENSES <ul><li>First Line of Defense </li></ul><ul><li>SKIN </li></ul><ul><li>TINY HAIR </li></ul><ul><li>MUCOUS MEMBRANE </li></ul>
  39. 39. Second Line of Defense <ul><li>White Blood Cells </li></ul><ul><li>inflammation </li></ul>
  40. 40. Third Line of Defense <ul><li>Antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Active immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Passive immunity </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>These are illnesses caused by pathogens that are easily passed on from one to another. </li></ul><ul><li>These are not caused by pathogens and cant be transferred from one person to another. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the resistance to disease through the activities of our immune system </li></ul>Quiz #3
  42. 42. <ul><li>1. It is a place where microorganisms can thrive and reproduce. </li></ul><ul><li>2. A person susceptible to disease, lacking physical resistance to overcome the invasion of the pathogenic organism. </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>3 . It is a method of transfer by which the microorganism moves from reservoir to a susceptible host. </li></ul><ul><li>4. It may be any opening allowing the microorganism to enter the host. </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>5. It is a microbial organism with the ability to cause disease. </li></ul><ul><li>6. It is a place where microorganisms can thrive and reproduce. </li></ul><ul><li>7. It is the transmission of a pathogenic agent through the various links. </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Write the process how the character got sick. By way of illustration, write the six elements of chain of infection. </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Alice is a student in a prestigious school in the city. With air conditioned rooms conducive for learning, students were given comfort. One of her classmates who happen to be her seatmate is suffering </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>from colds and sneezes every now and then. Alice could not do away with it since they stay in one classroom. After few days, symptoms of common colds were also seen in her. </li></ul>
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