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HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
HDI of India  2009
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HDI of India 2009

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  • 1. Nikita KaleRakesh MahadikGowri Shankar
  • 2. Human Development & Measurement 3 – 6H D I & India 7 – 9India = Facts, Figures & Numbers 10 – 13Balance Sheet of Human Development of India 14 – 15Economic Attainments 16 – 17Selected Indicators: HPI, GDI, Remittances,Immigrants, Emmigrants, Climate Change18 - 27Way Ahead 28 – 29Thursday, May 23, 2013 Human Development 2
  • 3.  A Broad-based Consensus To View Human Development In Terms Of, AtLeast, Three Critical Dimensions Of Well-being. These Are Related To Longevity — The Ability To Live Long And Healthy Life; Education — The Ability To Read, Write And Acquire Knowledge; Command Over Resources —The Ability To Enjoy A Decent Standard OfLiving And Have A Socially Meaningful Life. Human Development Is Not Only Growth In Income, Wealth Or ConsumptionBut The Expansion Of Human Capabilities. Efficient And Effective Governance Is Critical For Improving The Pace OfHuman Development In The Country.Thursday, May 23, 2013 3Human Development
  • 4. Thursday, May 23, 2013 Human Development 4HDI World Profile, 2007Source: www.wikipedia.org
  • 5. HOW IS HDI MeasuredThursday, May 23, 2013 5Human DevelopmentThe Human Development Index (HDI) Is A SummaryMeasure Of A Countrys Human Development. It MeasuresThe Average Achievements In A Country In Three BasicDimensions:1. A Long And Healthy Life, As Measured By LifeExpectancy At Birth;2. Access To Knowledge, As Measured By The AdultLiteracy Rate And The Combined Gross EnrolmentRatio In Education;3. A Decent Standard Of Living, As Measured By GDPPer Capita In Purchasing Power Parity(ppp) in US$.
  • 6. • These Three Dimensions AreThen Standardized To ValuesBetween 0 And 1, And The SimpleAverage Is Taken To Arrive At TheOverall HDI Value In The Range 0To 1.• Countries Are Then Ranked OnThe Basis Of This Value With ARank Of 1 Representing TheHighest HDI Value.Thursday, May 23, 2013 Human Development 6HOW IS HDI MeasuredSource: HDR India 2007
  • 7. The Human Development Index TrendsTell An Important Story In That Respect.Between 1980 And 2007 Indias HDI RoseBy 1.33% Annually From 0.427 To 0.612Today.HDI Scores In All Regions Have IncreasedProgressively Over The Years Although AllHave Experienced Periods Of SlowerGrowth.Thursday, May 23, 2013 7Human DevelopmentIndia :: Some findings - Human DevelopmentIndex
  • 8. Thursday, May 23, 2013 Human Development 8Source:HDRIndia 2001
  • 9. • The Process Or Progress Of Development, In Any Society,Should Ideally Be Viewed And Assessed In Terms Of What ItDoes For An Average Individual.• It Has To Be Seen In Terms Of The Benefits AndOpportunities That It Generates For People And How TheseAre Eventually Distributed — Between Men And Women,The Well Off And Deprived And Across Regions.Thursday, May 23, 2013 9Human Development
  • 10. India :: Some findings - Human DevelopmentIndex• India’s Human Development Index (HDI)Of 0.619 Puts It Just Below EquatorialGuinea (0.642) And Solomon Islands(0.602).• India’s Life Expectancy Of 63.7 Years IsSandwiched Between Comoros (64.1) AndMauritania (63.2), While Malawi AndRwanda Have Higher Adult Literacy ThanIndia.• India Was Ranked 126 By The HDR 2006, ARung Higher Than The Previous Year’s 127.• This Year, It Continues To Be Dubbed ACountry At Medium Level Of HumanDevelopment.Thursday, May 23, 2013 10Human DevelopmentThe Human Development Report For 2008-09 HasBeen Released By The UNDP And There Are FewSurprises.
  • 11. • Population: 1.140.3 Billion• Yearly Increase: 17 Million• Median Age: 25.1 Years• Average Life Expectancy: 68.6 Years• Average Fertility Rate: 2.7 ChildrenPer Woman• Literacy Rate: 61 %• Population In Rural Areas: 700 Million• Homes Without Electricity: 30 %Thursday, May 23, 2013 11Human Development
  • 12. • Population living on less than $1 a day: 300million• Internet users: 80 million• Mobile phone subscribers: 200 million• Telephone landlines: 38.76 million• GDP: $2.966 trillion US• Unemployment rate: 7.2 per cent• Inflation: 7.2 per cent• Exports: $155 billion US• Officially recognized languages: 18Thursday, May 23, 2013 12Human Development
  • 13. Thursday, May 23, 2013 Human Development 13HDI Value Life Expectancy At Birth Adult Literacy RateCombined GrossEnrolment RatioGDP Per Capita(Years) (% Ages 15 And Above) (%) (PPP Us$)1. Norway (0.971) 1. Japan (82.7) 1. Georgia (100.0) 1. Australia (114.2) 1. Liechtenstein (85,382)132. Bhutan (0.619) 126. Turkmenistan (64.6)118. Congo (DemocraticRepublic Of The) (67.2)132. Madagascar (61.3) 126. Cape Verde (3,041)133. Lao PeoplesDemocratic Republic(0.619)127. Lao PeoplesDemocratic Republic(64.6)119. Egypt (66.4)133. Trinidad AndTobago (61.1)127. Guyana (2,782)134. India (0.612) 128. India (63.4) 120. India (66.0) 134. India (61.0) 128. India (2,753)135. Solomon Islands(0.610)129. Yemen (62.5) 121. Ghana (65.0) 135. Morocco (61.0) 129. Viet Nam (2,600)136. Congo (0.601) 130. Togo (62.2) 122. Rwanda (64.9) 136. Nepal (60.8) 130. Nicaragua (2,570)182. Niger (0.340) 176. Afghanistan (43.6) 151. Mali (26.2) 177. Djibouti (25.5) 181. Congo (298)HDI in India : A Fact File
  • 14. Balance Sheet – Human Development IndiaThursday, May 23, 2013 14Human DevelopmentVariable Progress DeprivationPopulation The Population Of Our Country HasIncreased From 361 Millions In 1951 To1027 Millions In 2001 (As On 1st March,01).The Country Has Been Ranked As 128th AmongA Set Of 162 Countries In The HumanDevelopment Index Of 0.612 In 2007.Health The Expectation Of Life Has IncreasedFrom 42 Years In 1951 To 62 Years InRecent Years.The Total Number Of People Affected WithHIV Is About 4.1 Million. The Proportion OfDelivery Attended By Health Professionals IsOnly 42.5 Percent. The Maternal MortalityRatio Is 408 Per 100,000 Live Births.
  • 15. Thursday, May 23, 2013 Human Development 15Variable Progress DeprivationHealth Male And Female Literacy Rate HasIncreased From 25 And 7.9 Percent In 1951To 75 And 52 Percent Respectively In 2001.There Are About 200 Million Illiterates InOur Country. The Quality Of Education,Particularly TechnicalEducation Needs To Be Expanded.Regional Disparity The States Like Kerala, Tamil Nadu HasMade Significant Progress In SocialDimension While The States LikeMaharashtra And Punjab BecameEconomically Stronger.The States Like Bihar, Madhya Pradesh,Rajasthan And Uttar Pradesh And Orissa,Constitute More Than 50 Per Cent OfIndia’s Population And Are On A Very LowState Of Development, and Both SociallyAnd Economically.Balance Sheet – Human Development India
  • 16. •Human Poverty: Focusing On The Most Deprived In MultipleDimensions Of Poverty•The HPI-1 Value Of 28.0% For India, Ranks 88th Among 135 CountriesFor Which The Index Has Been Calculated.•By Looking Beyond Income Deprivation, The HPI-1 Represents A Multi-dimensional Alternative To The $1.25 A Day (PPP US$) Poverty Measure.•The HPI-1 Measures Severe Deprivation In Health By The Proportion OfPeople Who Are Not Expected To Survive To Age 40.Thursday, May 23, 2013 16Human DevelopmentEconomic Attainments & HDI
  • 17. Economic Attainments & HDIThursday, May 23, 2013 Human Development 17Poverty Ratio Has Declined From 44 Per Cent In 1983 To 26 Per Cent In 2000; Decline InNineties Faster Than In Eighties.Source:HDRIndia 2001
  • 18. Source UNDP HDR 2009HumanPovertyIndexProbabilityofnotsurvivingtoage40AdultilliteracyratePeoplenotusinganimprovedwatersourceChildrenunderweightforage(HPI-1) (%) (% ages 15 and above) (%) (% aged under 5)1. Czech Republic(1.5)1. Hong Kong, China(SAR) (1.4)1. Georgia (0.0) 1. Barbados (0) 1. Croatia (1)86. Djibouti (25.6) 103. Bolivia (13.9) 118. Congo (32.8) 74. Kyrgyzstan (11) 135. Yemen (46)87. Cambodia (27.7) 104. Bhutan (14.2) 119. Egypt (33.6)75. Syrian ArabRepublic (11)136. Timor-Leste (46)88. India (28.0) 105. India (15.5) 120. India (34.0) 76. India (11) 137. India (46)89. Ghana (28.1) 106. Yemen (15.6) 121. Ghana (35.0) 77. China (12) 138. Bangladesh (48)90. Malawi (28.2)107. Papua NewGuinea (15.9)122. Rwanda (35.1) 78. Samoa (12)135. Afghanistan (59.8) 153. Lesotho (47.4) 151. Mali (73.8) 150. Afghanistan (78)SelectedIndicatorsOfHumanPovertyInIndiaThursday, May 23, 2013 18Human Development
  • 19. The GDI Compared To The HDI –A Measure Of Gender DisparityThursday, May 23, 2013 19Human DevelopmentGDI as % of HDI Life expectancy at birth Adult literacy rateCombined primary, secondary andtertiary gross enrolment ratio(years) 2004 (% ages 15 and older) 2004 2004Female as % male Female as % male Female as % male1. Mongolia (100.0%) 1. Russian Federation (121.7%) 1. Lesotho (122.5%) 1. Cuba (121.0%)137. U A E (97.2%) 151. Côte dIvoire (104.7%) 121. Sudan (72.8%) 140. Senegal (90.0%)138. Sierra Leone (97.1%) 152. Malta (104.7%) 122. Guinea-Bissau (72.5%) 141. Sudan (89.3%)139. India (97.1%) 153. India (104.7%) 123. India (70.9%) 142. India (89.3%)140. Sudan (97.0%) 154. Africa (104.4%) 124. Eritrea (69.6%) 143. Burundi (89.3%)141. Benin (97.0%)155. Occupied Palestinian Territories(104.4%)125. Congo (66.8%) 144. Congo (89.1%)155. Afghanistan (88.0%) 190. Swaziland (98.0%) 145. Afghanistan (29.2%) 175. Afghanistan (55.6%)Source: UNDP HDR 2009
  • 20. Thursday, May 23, 2013 20Human Development
  • 21. Source: IndaHDR, 2001HDI developed by 24% in’80s & another 26% in ’90s.• The Mid-1970s Almost All Regions Have BeenProgressively Increasing Their HDI Score .• East Asia And South Asia Have AcceleratedProgress Since 1990.• Central And Eastern Europe And TheCommonwealth Of Independent States (CIS),Following A Catastrophic Decline In The First HalfOf The 1990s, Has Also Recovered To The LevelBefore The Reversal.• The Major Exception Is Sub-saharan Africa.Since 1990 It Has Stagnated, Partly Because OfEconomic Reversal But Principally Because OfThe Catastrophic Effect Of HIV/AIDS On LifeExpectancyThursday, May 23, 2013 21Human Development
  • 22. • Remittances, Which Are Usually Sent To Immediate Family Members Who HaveStayed Behind, Are Among The Most Direct Benefits From Migration; TheirBenefits Spread Broadly Into Local Economies.• They Also Serve As Foreign Exchange Earnings For The Origin Countries OfMigrants.• However, Remittances Are Unequally Distributed. Of The Total US$370 BillionRemitted In 2007, More Than Half Went To Countries In The Medium HumanDevelopment Category Against Less Than One Per Cent To Low HumanDevelopment Countries. In 2007, US$35,262 Million In Remittances Were Sent ToIndia. Average Remittances Per Person Were US$30, Compared With The AverageFor South Asia Of US$33. (See Table 6 For More Details.)RemittancesThursday, May 23, 2013 22Human Development
  • 23. Table 6: RemittancesTotal RemittanceInflowsRemittances Per Capita(US$ Millions) (Us$)1. Luxembourg 3,35567. Sri Lanka 13198. Bangladesh 41102. Pakistan 371. India 35,262 106. India 3015. Bangladesh 6,562126. Iran (Islamic RepublicOf)1617. Pakistan 5,998 133. Maldives 10151. Maldives 3157. Burundi 0 157. Burundi 0Source: UNDP HDR 2009
  • 24. Origin of migrantsEmigrationrate (%)Major continent ofdestination for migrants(%)1. Antigua andBarbuda45.3 Asia 46.653. Afghanistan 10.6 Asia 91.4146. Pakistan 2.2 Asia 72.5156. Iran (IslamicRepublic of)1.3 Northern America 39.6169. India 0.8 Asia 72180. Maldives 0.4 Asia 38.9181. Mongolia 0.3 Europe 40.7EmigrantsThursday, May 23, 2013 24Human DevelopmentSource: UNDP HDR 2009
  • 25. ImmigrantsThursday, May 23, 2013 25Human DevelopmentDestination Of MigrantsImmigrant Stock(Thousands)Destination Of MigrantsImmigrants As A Share OfPopulation (%) 20051. United States 39,266.50 1. Qatar 80.570. Bhutan 5.7144. Maldives 1.1153. Bangladesh 0.77. India 5,886.90 158. India 0.512. Pakistan 3,554.00 167. Afghanistan 0.420. Iran 2,062.20180. Maldives 3.2182. Vanuatu 1 182. China 0
  • 26. Fighting Climate Change• As A Result Of Past Emissions Of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) And OtherGreenhouse Gases (GHGS), The World Is Now On Course For FutureClimate Change. This Year’s Human Development Report Identifies20C As The Threshold Above Which Irreversible & DangerousClimate Change Will Become Unavoidable.• It Also Explains Why We Have Less Than A Decade To ChangeCourse And Start Living Within A Sustainable Global Carbon BudgetIdentified At 14.5 Gigatonnes Of CO2 (Gt CO2) Per Annum For TheRemainder Of The 21st Century.Thursday, May 23, 2013 26Human Development
  • 27. • Currently, Emissions Are Running At Twice This Level. IfThese Trends Continue, The Carbon Budget Will Be SetFor Expiry During The 2030s,&• Setting In Motion Processes That Can Lead ToTemperature Increases Of 5ºc Or Above By The End OfThis Century---roughly Similar To Temperature ChangesSince The Last Ice Age 10,000 Years Ago.Thursday, May 23, 2013 27Human DevelopmentFighting Climate Change
  • 28. PROGRESS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA•Certain Factors Need To Be Followed To Achieve More EffectiveUtilization Of Resources Such As–Decentralization Of Public Services To Local Government’s;–Provision Of Appropriate Complementary Inputs &– Effective & Efficient Allocation Of Available Resources.•Government Has To Undertake Programs Of Accelerating EconomicGrowth To Match With Human Development Growth So That It CanReap The Benefits Of Better Human Development In Terms Of HigherProductivity.Thursday, May 23, 2013 28Human Development
  • 29. PROGRESS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN INDIAAs Suggested By The Human Development ReportIndia Should Follow A Pattern Of DevelopmentWhich Should Promote1. Employment Generating Growth;2. Equitable Growth;3. Participatory Growth;4. Grass Root Growth;5. Sustainable Growth.If Such A Pattern Of Development Is Fostered, Then It Would BePossible To Avoid Lopsided Development.Thursday, May 23, 2013 29Human Development
  • 30. Thank You

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