1) VADI NIKHIL .P. (10IC51) <ul><li>what is the condition of carbon dioxide emission in the world today? </li></ul>
<ul><li>Data for Global Carbon Emissions (Fossil fuels, cement, land-use change) </li></ul><ul><li>Year </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Emissions </li></ul><ul><li>2010 </li></ul><ul><li>9.72 billion metric tonnes per year </li></ul><ul><li>2009 </li></ul><ul><li> 9.28 billion metric tonnes per year </li></ul><ul><li>2008 </li></ul><ul><li> 9.45 billion of metric tonnes per year </li></ul><ul><li>2007 </li></ul><ul><li> 9.31 billion metric tonnes per year </li></ul><ul><li>2006 </li></ul><ul><li> 9.22 billion metric tonnes per year </li></ul>
<ul><li>One of the biggest challenges in predicting the future climate of Earth is taking account of future human behaviors, which will depend greatly on political and economic factors. Burning coal, for example, contributes both greenhouse gases which warm the climate; dirty coal plants produce sulfate aerosols, which tend to cool it, and black carbon aerosols, </li></ul>
<ul><li>Carbon Credits </li></ul><ul><li>what are carbon credits? </li></ul><ul><li>How to Buy Carbon Credits ? </li></ul><ul><li>National Level Carbon Credit Trading </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon credit in India </li></ul>Content…
Carbon Credits A carbon credit is a certificate or permit that allows the emission of one ton of carbon dioxide or other equivalent gas in the atmosphere. There's a whole market dealing with carbon trading at both national and voluntary levels. The idea is based on giving an incentive to reduce CO 2 emissions and then use the carbon credits to finance the development of various “green” projects.
what are carbon credits? <ul><li>why investing in carbon credits will increase your wealth now and in the future! </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>As an investor you can purchase wholesale carbon credits today at just 50p for each single carbon credit </li></ul>
<ul><li>Today’s market price for a single carbon credits starts at £7.50 and you have the opportunity to buy single carbon credits at just 50p! A fantastic return on your investment, but that’s not the only benefit.... </li></ul>
Step 1: Calculate Your Carbon Footprint If you want to buy credits to offset the greenhouse gases your lifestyle is producing, then you need to calculate your carbon footprint. Step 2: Research Carbon Credit Companies There are dozens of companies that offer the ability to buy carbon credits. Because there is no one organization that certifies these companies, doing research to find out how much the credits cost and how they offset your greenhouse gases can be a good way to make sure that your money is truly going towards reducing emissions How to Buy Carbon Credits ?
Step 3: Purchase The Credits Once you select a company, you then buy the credits. Most companies offer online purchasing of carbon offset credits. You can choose to make a one-time purchase of the credits, buy them on a yearly basis, or give them as eco-conscious gifts to friends. Conclusion Although carbon credits can be a useful tool in reducing pollution and fighting global warming, most experts also strongly suggest that individuals try to reduce their carbon footprint as well. In addition to buying credits, simple things such as using compact fluorescent lights, driving less and buying local produce can help reduce your carbon footprint.
National Level Carbon Credit Trading Carbon credits can be purchased either by commercial users, companies, countries or individuals. In a national level, countries such as New Zealand and Ireland have used this approach to offset their CO 2 emissions and develop practices such as farming, planting trees, and investing in wind power generation infrastructures. Nations that participated in the Kyoto meeting in 1997 (Kyoto Protocol) are allowed to emit certain amounts of CO 2 as long as they manage to offset this emissions with “green” actions. In case a nation is producing more CO 2 than it can absorb, it must purchase carbon credits from another nation to offset its carbon production balance.
Carbon credit in India At last count in March 2006, India had 310 ‘eco-friendly’ projects awaiting approval by the UN. Once cleared, these projects can fetch about Rs 29,000 cr in the next seven years. India’s carbon credit market is growing, as many players (industries) are adopting the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), said S K Panigrahi, Director(Environment and Forest), Planning Commission.
<ul><li>Save the rainforests and reduce climate emissions for future generations... </li></ul>
<ul><li>An opportunity for consistent growth year on year! </li></ul><ul><li>We are being asked daily via the media to reduce our carbon footprint and cut our emissions to save the planet... and we can no longer ignore this plea! Carbon offsetting is the future to a cleaner world! </li></ul><ul><li>Invest in carbon credits, make money, protect the rainforests and the planet for future generations to enjoy! </li></ul>
<ul><li>How can reduced CO2 in industries </li></ul><ul><li>Using a supercritical carbon-dioxide. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon capture and storage. </li></ul><ul><li>Other ecofriendly route. </li></ul>
What Is Supercritical CO 2 ? Carbon dioxide is in its supercritical fluid state when both the temperature and pressure equal or exceed the critical point of 31.1°C and 72.9 atm. (see diagram). In its supercritical state, CO 2 has both gas-like and liquid-like qualities, and it is this dual characteristic of supercritical fluids that provides the ideal conditions for extracting compounds with a high degree of recovery in a short period of time .
<ul><li>Phase diagram of CO 2 72.9 atm </li></ul>31.1 ° c 72.9 atm
<ul><li>Applications of super critical CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>As a good catalyst. </li></ul><ul><li>As a cleaning agent. </li></ul><ul><li>Production of fine powders. </li></ul><ul><li>As a universal solvent. </li></ul><ul><li>As a foaming agent. </li></ul><ul><li>As a extraction of some valuable product. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment of chemical waste. </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetric synthesis </li></ul>
<ul><li>Friedel-Crafts Reactions </li></ul><ul><li>This is a standard method for introducing carbon groups to benzene rings using alkyl halides, alkenes and alcohols. Conventionally a catalyst like aluminium chloride is used, but this method generates a lot of waste, and the catalyst is destroyed in product recovery. </li></ul><ul><li>Carrying out the reaction in scCO 2 allows the use of a solid, re-usable catalyst, and results in a narrower range of products, simplifying product separation. Products more difficult to obtain may also be made. The product mixture is very easily obtained as the scCO 2 simply vaporises when pressure is released. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Machine Component Degreasing </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment maintenance often requires very thorough cleaning of metal components. This has traditionally been done using organic solvents, but the treatment of used solvent is an additional expense. Very thorough cleaning can be achieved using scCO 2 , and equipment is now available for this purpose. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Fine Powders In many applications materials are required in the form of a very fine powder. This can be particularly important in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products. A more even result can be produced by dissolving the material in scCO 2 , and then releasing the pressure rapidly from a nozzle. Very fine powders can be made in this way. </li></ul>
<ul><li>As a universal solvent </li></ul><ul><li>Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO 2 ) is far from being a universal solvent. It will not easily dissolve materials with high molecular weight (like polymers), but the addition of stabilisers allows polymerisation to be carried out in scCO 2 . </li></ul><ul><li>The use of scCO 2 in this type of polymer manufacture will reduce the use of hydrocarbon (organic) solvents, an important aim for greener chemistry </li></ul>
<ul><li>As a foaming agent </li></ul><ul><li>In 1996 Dow chemical won the 1996 greener reaction condition award for their 100% carbon dioxide blowing agent for polystyrene foam production. </li></ul><ul><li>Dow chemical discovered supercritical carbon dioxide work equally as well as blowing agent without need for hazardous substance allowing the polystyrene to be more easily recycled. </li></ul>
<ul><li>As a extraction </li></ul><ul><li>Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO 2 ) is now widely used for decaffeination. It was one of the first commercial applications for scCO 2 and has been in use since the 1980s. Advantages over other methods include: </li></ul><ul><li>Precise control of pressure can selectively dissolve the caffeine, leaving the flavour intact </li></ul><ul><li>Once the beans are at normal pressure, any residual carbon dioxide will be lost easily, and this can safely be vented into the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Between 97-99% of the caffeine is removed by this method </li></ul>
Treatment of toxic waste Many organic compounds are soluble in scCO 2 , and this can be exploited to remove toxic materials from waste.
Asymmetric synthesis <ul><li>Asymmetric Synthesis Several pharmaceutical products are based on compounds that exist as two optical isomers, but only one form is required. Usually both isomers are made, and then separated, but research has shown synthesis in scCO 2 can yield one isomer almost exclusively. </li></ul>
What is Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)? Carbon is emitted into the atmosphere (as carbon dioxide, also called CO 2 ) whenever we burn any fossil fuel, anywhere. The largest sources are cars and lorries, and power stations that burn fossil fuels: coal, oil or gas. To prevent the carbon dioxide building up in the atmosphere (probably causing global warming and definitely causing ocean acidification), we can catch the CO 2 , and store it. As we would need to store thousands of millions of tons of CO 2 , we cannot just build containers, but must use natural storage facilities. Some of the best natural containers are old oil and gas fields, such as those in the North Sea.
The diagram on the left shows a conceptual plan for CCS, involving 2 of the common fossil fuels, methane gas (also called natural gas) and coal. Methane gas is produced from offshore gas fields, and is brought onshore by pipeline. Using existing oil-refinery technology, the gas is 'reformed' into hydrogen and CO 2 . The CO 2 is then separated by a newly-designed membrane, and sent offshore, using a corrosion-resistant pipeline. The CO 2 goes to an oilfield. The CO 2 is stored in the oilfield, several km below sea level, instead of being vented into the atmosphere from the power station . What might Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) look like?
How does CO 2 affect the oceans ? <ul><li>About half of the extra CO 2 from the atmosphere will dissolve in the oceans, making the water more acidic. The diagram shows how acidic the oceans will become in the future, upto the year 3000. To work this out, it was necessary to: predict how CO 2 emissions will change in the future (the top of the diagram) </li></ul><ul><li>calculate how this will change the amount of CO 2 in the atmosphere (middle part of the diagram) </li></ul><ul><li>finally work out how acidic the oceans will become </li></ul>
How and where is CO₂ stored? The UK is in a very advantageous position as we have access to offshore CO₂ storage locations, under the North Sea. CO₂ can be stored within two types of geological formations; deep saline aquifers and depleted oil and gas fields. The British Geological Survey has estimated that storage capacity in UK oil and gas field’s amounts to at least 7. 8GT. Storage capacity in UK aquifers is much less certain, and could range from about 24GT to an optimistic maximum of 240GT. All this equates to approximately 100 years of storage capacity (at UK current rate of emissions from power generation) available to the UK to store CO₂.
Eco-Friendly route: tree-planting activities Thirty hectares will be designated as "environmental groves" and trees in these areas will not be cut down. Since these forested sites are located near the head waters of an irrigation dam, we can expect them to have a recharging effect on the head waters, as well as mitigate global warming by absorbing CO2 as they grow.
When essential oils are extracted from plants through the process of steam distillation, wastewater is produced and subsequently released into rivers and streams. Finding new uses for these unused by-products could benefit essential oil crop growers and processors as well as the environment. A team of researchers has found that the residual distillation water of some aromatic plant species has a beneficial effect on yields and can increase essential oil content of peppermint and spearmint crops. Using Wastewater to Enhance Mint Production
Agricultural Aromatherapy: Lavender Oil As Natural Herbicide Could essential oils extracted from lavender be used as a natural herbicide to prevent weed growth among crops? Research carried out in Italy and reported in the current issue of the International Journal of Environment and Health suggests the answer may be yes.
Biomass Energy Development A discussion of biomass energy, environmental impacts associated with biomass energy development, and mitigation measures to avoid or reduce biomass energy development impacts