Psychology

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  • 1. Emotions Nikhita Iyer
  • 2. ElementaryResponses to a stimulus, include: Physiological arousal Expressive behaviors Conscious experience Mood – overall feeling one has that lasts for an extended time frame
  • 3. Basic Fear, surprise, anger, disgust, happiness, sadn ess Basic emotions are innate (inborn) and “hard- wired” Complex emotions are a blend of many aspects of emotions Classified along two dimensions  Pleasant or unpleasant  Level of activation or arousal associated with the emotion
  • 4. Purpose Can move us to act, triggering motivated behavior Help us to set goals, but emotional states can also be goals in themselves. Influences rational decision making and purposeful behavior. Emotional intelligence is the capacity to understand and manage your own emotional experiences and to perceive, comprehend, and respond appropriately to the emotional responses of others.
  • 5. Theories James-Lange Theory  Event causes physiological arousal first and then we interpret this arousal.  Only after our interpretation of the arousal can we experience emotion.  If the arousal is not noticed or is not given any thought, then we will not experience any emotion based on this event
  • 6.  Cannon-Bard Theory  We experience physiological arousal & emotional at the same time,  But gives no attention to the role of thoughts or outward behavior.
  • 7.  Schachter-Singer Theory  An event causes physiological arousal first.  You must then identify a reason for this arousal and then you are able to experience and label the emotion.
  • 8.  Lazarus Theory  A thought must come before any emotion or physiological arousal.  In other words, you must first think about your situation before you can experience an emotion.
  • 9.  Facial Feedback Theory  Emotion is the experience of changes in our facial muscles.  In other words, when we smile, we then experience pleasure, or happiness. When we frown, we then experience sadness.  It is the changes in our facial muscles that cue our brains and provide the basis of our emotions.  Just as there are an unlimited number of muscle configurations in our face, so to are there a seemingly unlimited number of emotions.
  • 10. Nervous System
  • 11. Sympathetic Nervous System  The part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body to deal with perceived threats  Fight or flight responseParasympathetic Nervous System  The part of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body  Brings the body back down to a relaxed state
  • 12. Autonomic Nervous System
  • 13. School Of Thought Psychology has multiple perspectives  Psychodynamic  Behavioral  Cognitive  Social Learning
  • 14. Psychodynamic Perspective  Focus: How behavior is affected by unconscious drives and conflicts  Behavior is explained through unconscious motivation and unresolved inner conflicts from one’s childhood.  Modern version of psychoanalytic perspective (Sigmund Freud)
  • 15. Behavioral Perspective Focus: How we learn through rewards, punishments, and observation View of behavior based on experience or learning
  • 16. Cognitive Perspective Focus: On how people think and process information Behavior is explained by how a person interprets the situation How is knowledge acquired, organized, remembered, and used to guide behavior?
  • 17. Social Learning Perspective Focus: How thinking and behavior change depending on the setting or situation Behavior is explained by the influence of other people present Cross culture also is a heavy influence
  • 18. Applications Liedetectors Brain fingerprinting