Special Theory Of Relativity

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Special Theory Of Relativity

  1. 1. Theory of R elativity Special By Nikhil Sharma
  2. 2. “…… ..Undoubtedly mechanics was a snapshot of slow and real motions, while new physics is a snapshot of fabulously swift and real motions……..” V.I.Lenin
  3. 3. History <ul><li>Light also needs a Medium to propagate. (assumption) </li></ul><ul><li>This Hypothetical Medium was named as Luminiferous Ether. </li></ul><ul><li>Michelson and Morley Conducted an Experiment for proving the Existence of Ether. </li></ul><ul><li>Evolved after the failure of Michelson Morley Experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>The negative results were explained successfully by an German-American Physicist, Albert Einstein (1879-1955). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Postulates of Special Theory of Relativity* <ul><li>“ The Laws of physics are same in all Inertial Frame of reference” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Speed of Light in free space has the same value in all Inertial Frames.” </li></ul>* These Postulates are taken from ~ Fundamentals of Modern Physics ~ Arthur Beiser ~ Fifth Edition ~1995
  5. 5. The Reference Frame <ul><li>A Reference Frame is the point of View, from which we Observe an Object. </li></ul><ul><li>A Reference Frame is the Observer it self, as the Velocity and acceleration are common in Both. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg.:- </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s us see how the observation changes, with the change in Observer or we can say The Reference Frame. </li></ul><ul><li>1. A car moving on Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>2. A bomb dropped from a Rocket. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Here we can see the Effect of Reference frame on the Observations taken by the observer.
  7. 9. Constancy of Speed of Light <ul><li>The speed of light does not depend upon the relative velocity between the Observer and the Source or the Medium in which light is traveling. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Consequence of Relativity <ul><li>The Major Consequences To This Theory are:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Length Contraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass Expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time Dilation </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Length Contraction <ul><li>“ It is the phenomenon of Shortening of Length which </li></ul><ul><li>is in the relative motion with respect to the observer” </li></ul><ul><li>Thus the length of a body appearing to an observer depends upon the relative velocity of the body with respect to the Observer. </li></ul><ul><li>And the Proper Length of a body can known by measuring it’s length when it is at rest w.r.t. the observer. </li></ul><ul><li>It is given by l = l o /(1-v 2 /c 2 ) 0.5 </li></ul>
  10. 14. Mass Expansion , E = mc 2 <ul><li>“ This is a phenomenon of an increment in mass of a body w.r.t. an observer, moving with a Relative Velocity w.r.t. the observer.” </li></ul><ul><li>The Expansion of Mass of a body takes place according to m = m o /  1-v 2 /c 2 ) 0.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Rest mass of a body is the mass measured by an observer who is at rest w.r.t. the observer. </li></ul>
  11. 15. Time Dilation <ul><li>“ Time Dilation is the phenomenon of slowing down of a clock , as determined by an observer who is in relative motion with the Clock.” ** </li></ul><ul><li>As it is an relative thus the Extent of Dilation depends upon </li></ul><ul><li>the Relative Velocity of the clock w.r.t. the observer. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an very important consequence of the Special Theory of Relativity .And is given by t = t o /(1-v 2 /c 2 ) 0.5 </li></ul>** This text is taken from Britannica 2005 DVD Edition .
  12. 16. Let us see the effect of Time dilation on a Radio active mass.
  13. 17. Here the active mass is moving at an velocity comparable to c.
  14. 18. <ul><li>This slide contains an Example which will help you to understand the Relativistic mechanics in a much Simpler & Easier manner. </li></ul>Example:- A bust of 10 4  mesons having average life time period of 2.5x10 8 ,started traveling on a circular path of diameter 40 meters, Calculate the number of  –mesons left after the completion of one round.
  15. 19. <ul><li>The average life time period of an element is the time period in which the mass of the active matter decreases to 1/e times of its initial Mass. </li></ul>
  16. 20. Variation f Mass
  17. 21. Bibliography <ul><li>What is the Theory of Relativity ~ L.Landau,Yu.Rumer~1981~ Mir Publication Moscow </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamentals of Physics ~ R.Resnick, D.Halliday, </li></ul><ul><li>Fifth Edition~ John Wiley & Sons, Inc.~ Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamentals of Modern Physics ~ Arthur Beiser ~ Fifth Edition ~1995 </li></ul>
  18. 22. <ul><li>Credits </li></ul><ul><li>Creator </li></ul><ul><li>Nikhil Sharma </li></ul><ul><li>ET-I st year (2007-08) </li></ul><ul><li>Special Thanks to </li></ul><ul><li>Shubham Srivastava (EN) </li></ul><ul><li>Kumar Gaurav (ET) </li></ul><ul><li>Sonakshi Aggrawal (IT) </li></ul><ul><li>Mohit (EN) </li></ul><ul><li>Shivam (ET) </li></ul><ul><li>And I also want to thank </li></ul><ul><li>all those who boosted my moral in the process </li></ul><ul><li>of completing this Presentation. </li></ul>
  19. 23. Explanations Slide 3 - 6 Slide 7 - 9 Slide 9 - 15 Slide 16 - 19 Slide 20 Slide 20 Contd. Please Zoom these pictures Separately.

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