How did Hitler turn theChancellorship into adictatorship by 1934?
Treaty of VersaillesBlack Tuesday1929- stock market crashesGreat Depressionduring1930sIncreasing influence of newpolitical parties that emphasizestate control-For example: Communism,Nazism, FascismTotal Controlof State by aDictator
January 1933The depressionafter the WallStreet Crash mademany more peoplevote for theNazis. In 1933Von PapenconvincedHindenburg thatHitler shouldbecome Chancellor.
February 1933 The Reichstag building burnt down. A communist was found inside thebuilding. He admitted responsibility. Chancellor Hitler was able toconvince people that the Communistswere trying to take power byterrorism. He was able to have theCommunists banned from theReichstag.
March 1933HITLER CANRULE ALONEFOR FOURYEARS. THEREIS NO NEED TOCONSULT THEREICHSTAG.With the Communistsbanned from the ReichstagHitler was able to pass:
THE ENABLING ACT GAVE HITLERTHE POWER TO MAKE HIS OWNLAWS. SO, HE BANNED ALL OTHERPOLITICAL PARTIES!THE ENABLING ACT GAVE HITLERTHE POWER TO MAKE HIS OWNLAWS. SO, HE BANNED ALL OTHERPOLITICAL PARTIES!SPD- Social DemocratsKPD- CommunistsDDP- German DemocraticZentrum- German Centre Party (Catholic)
June 1934Now I have got rid of oppositionpolitical groups, I can now dealwith opposition in my party.Ernst Rohm (an old friend), headof the S.A. is very unpopularwith the German army leaders.They have the power tooverthrow me.I’ve been worriedabout Rohm for a while, so thisis a good excuse.
The Night of the Long Knives♦ Hitler had to get rid of Rohm. He was toomuch of a threat.♦ On the night of 30thJune 1934 Hitler’s S.S.killed over 1000 SA members includingRohm.♦ The army were pleased.♦ Hitler had gained the support of thearmy.
August 1934A final notePRESIDENT HINDENBURG’SDEATH GAVE HITLER THEOPPORTUNITY TO COMBINETHE ROLE OF CHANCELLORAND PRESIDENT. HE CALLEDHIMSELF ‘DER FUHRER’.
Every soldier swore a personaloath of loyalty to ADOLFHITLER.
• GESTAPOGESTAPO:: the Secret State Policethe Secret State Police• SSSS (Schutzstaffel):(Schutzstaffel): Defense Corps “black shirts”, an elite guard unitDefense Corps “black shirts”, an elite guard unitformed out of the SAformed out of the SA• SASA (Sturmabteilung):(Sturmabteilung): Stormtroopers "brown-shirts" early private NaziStormtroopers "brown-shirts" early private Naziarmy that protected leaders and opposed rival political partiesarmy that protected leaders and opposed rival political parties• LebensraumLebensraum (living space):(living space): concept that emphasized need for territorialconcept that emphasized need for territorialexpansion of Germany into eastexpansion of Germany into east• WehrmachtWehrmacht:: German armyGerman army• HJHJ (Hitler Jugend):(Hitler Jugend): Hitler YouthHitler Youth• EinstazgruppenEinstazgruppen:: Nazi Death Squad; mobile killing unitsNazi Death Squad; mobile killing units• Volk:Volk: all inclusive concept of nation, people and race, implying theall inclusive concept of nation, people and race, implying thesuperiority of German culture and race; led to policy ofsuperiority of German culture and race; led to policy of VolksgemeinschaftVolksgemeinschaft(idea of a harmonized racial Nazi community in government policies and(idea of a harmonized racial Nazi community in government policies andprograms)programs)
This Nazi propaganda poster reads,‘Behind the enemy powers: the Jew.“The Eternal Jew”Depiction of a Jew holding gold coins in onehand and a whip in the other. Under his arm is amap of the world, with the imprint of thehammer and sickle. Posters like this promoteda sharp rise in anti-Semitic feelings, and insome cases violence against the Jewishcommunity.