– set of lengthwise YARNSset of lengthwise YARNS
– YARN drawn under and over parallel warps.YARN drawn under and over parallel warps.
• YARNS:YARNS: is a long continuous length of interlockedis a long continuous length of interlocked
fibers, suitable for use in the production of textiles,fibers, suitable for use in the production of textiles,
sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, etc.sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, etc.
Warp * Weft =…?Warp * Weft =…?
• A piece of fabric or textile that is ready to beA piece of fabric or textile that is ready to be
used as a covering for the body, i.e., CLOTHused as a covering for the body, i.e., CLOTH
• TEXTILE: appeared for the first time in theTEXTILE: appeared for the first time in the
Middle East during the Stone Age.Middle East during the Stone Age.
• FLAX: is amongst the oldest fiber crops forFLAX: is amongst the oldest fiber crops for
of “linen” & dates back to ancientof “linen” & dates back to ancient
Egyptian times.Egyptian times.
• Evidences suggest that human started clothingEvidences suggest that human started clothing
some 107,000 years ago.some 107,000 years ago.
• COTTON: First used by inhabitants of IndusCOTTON: First used by inhabitants of Indus
Valley Civilization, 5Valley Civilization, 5thth
to 4to 4thth
millennium BC.millennium BC.
• LINEN: First used by Egyptians byLINEN: First used by Egyptians by
cultivation of flax in the Neolithic period, c.cultivation of flax in the Neolithic period, c.
5500 BC.5500 BC.
• SILK: Earliest evidence of use found at sites ofSILK: Earliest evidence of use found at sites of
Chinese civilization, Yangshao.Chinese civilization, Yangshao.
Made from hair orMade from hair or
fur; used forfur; used for
warm clothing.warm clothing.
Made from fiberMade from fiber
crops; used forcrops; used for
making ropes,making ropes,
coirs, mattressescoirs, mattresses
and clothing.and clothing.
Made from metalMade from metal
fibres, foils andfibres, foils and
wires; used forwires; used for
ceilings, curtains,ceilings, curtains,
fire blankets, etc.fire blankets, etc.
Used primarily inUsed primarily in
the production ofthe production of
polyester, acrylic,polyester, acrylic,
nylon, etc.nylon, etc.
Formation of Cloth…
In this process, weft isIn this process, weft is
drawn under and overdrawn under and over
parallel warps at rightparallel warps at right
angles, majorly.angles, majorly.
Among warp and weft,Among warp and weft,
warp is the strongerwarp is the stronger
yarn as it has to beyarn as it has to be
stretched whereas, weftstretched whereas, weft
can be less strong.can be less strong.
A Revolutionary Textile…
• DENIM: A rugged cotton twill textile, in
which a weft passes under two or more warp