Definition <ul><li>Report is usually a peace of factual writing, based on evidence, containing organized information on a particular topic and/or analysis of that topic. </li></ul><ul><li>The word ‘report’ is derived from the Latin term ‘reportare’ which means ‘to bring back’. </li></ul>
Report Writing: Objectives <ul><li>To present a record of accomplished work </li></ul><ul><li>To record an experiment </li></ul><ul><li>To record findings and technical specifications </li></ul><ul><li>To record schedule and time tables for a long term plan </li></ul><ul><li>To document current status </li></ul><ul><li>To record and clarify complex information for future reference </li></ul><ul><li>To present information to a large number of people (organized info. & recommendations) </li></ul>
Characteristics of Report <ul><li>- Precision: investigation, analysis & recommendations should be given accurately. </li></ul><ul><li>Factual details: helps decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul><ul><li>Reader orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Objectivity of recommendations: no self interest </li></ul><ul><li>Simple & unambiguous language </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity & brevity </li></ul><ul><li>Grammatical accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Special format: cover, title page, table content, list of illustrations, letter of transmittal, appendices </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrations: tables, graphs, drawings, charts, maps, photographs </li></ul><ul><li>Homogeneity: one topic at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation: acknowledgement </li></ul>
Types of Report On the basis of purpose, frequency or mode of reporting, reports can be classified as following: 1- Informative or Analytical (purpose) 2- Periodic or Special (frequency) 3- Oral or Written (mode of presentation)
Informative & Analytical Reports Informative reports focus on documenting new information. (Systematic and coherent manner, Explanatory, No recommendations) Analytical reports assess information in order to propose a course of action. (problem statement, Evolving criteria, Suggesting alternatives and evaluation, Conclusion, Recommendations)
Periodic & Special Reports At regular, prescribed intervals in the usual routine of business. (Annually, Semi-annually, Quarterly, Monthly, Fortnightly, Weekly, Daily) Facts in summarized form, in the lay out of prescribed form, without any recommendation Special reports for single occasion
Oral & Written Reports Depending on mode of presentation. Communicating an impression or observation. All kinds of report carry legal responsibility. Activities and competence of an employee are reflected in reports.
Formats of Report 1-Manuscript (Abstract, Summary, Appendix, Glossary etc.) 2-Letter (to outsiders) (Headings, Illustrations, Footnotes) 3-Memo (to insiders) (Analysis, Conclusion, Recommendations) 4-Preprinted form (Printed form to be filled up)
Prewriting -Understanding the purpose and scope -Analyzing the audience -Investigating the source of information -Organizing the material -Making an outline
Tips Purpose: the objective of your study Scope: extent of coverage Audience: to meet the needs, interests and background of readers. -add or omit information as per need -add examples -use graphics -use cross references
Tips Investigating: searching for material, personal observation, conducting personal or telephonic interviews, preparing and circulating questionnaires Organizing material: order of occurrence, order of importance, or combination of both
Tips Making outline: correct grammar, coordination, decimal numbering, use of words and phrases, headings and sub headings
Elements of Structure of Report Prefatory Parts: 1-Cover page 2-Title page 3-Certificate 4-Acknowledgement 5-Contents 6-List of illustrations 7-Abstract
Elements of Structure of Report Main Text: 8-Introduction 9-Discussion 10-Conclusions 11-Recommendations
Elements of Structure of Report Supplementary Parts: 12-Appendix/Appendices 13-References/Bibliography 14-Glossary
Elements of Structure of Report Optional Elements: 15-Frontispiece 16-Letter of transmittal (objective, scope, methodology, highlights of analysis, important results, significance of your study, suggestions, acknowledgements) 17-Copyright notice 18-Preface 19-Summary 20-Index
Writing a Report -First draft -Use of visual aids Tables: dependent, independent, Phrase table Graphs: Bar, Pie, Scatter, Pictorial, Area Charts: Organization, Flow, -Drawings & Diagrams -Photographs -Maps
Revising, Editing & Proof Reading -Accuracy of facts -Clarity of expression -Overall organization -Adequacy & appropriateness of the contents to meet the objective -Effective expression -Suitability & conformity of illustrations -Grammatical accuracy -Correctness of layout
Conclusion Report is a major form of technical/business/professional communication. It can be the description of an event/situation by a person who witnessed/studied it to the person who did not do so. It can be the description of the conditions that did exist, do exist or likely to exist. It is formal in nature and is written for specific purpose and audience.
T h a n k y o u … n IKHIL j OSHI e-mail: [email_address] [email_address] My Websites: www.nikhiljoshi.co.in www.nikhiljoshi2007.blogspot.com www.gcet-languageclub.blogspot.com
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