Indian Processed Food Industry Analysis


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Indian Processed Food Industry Analysis:

oSegments of Industry
oKey Players
oKey Growth Drivers
oBarriers to Growth
oEstimated Growth
oTrends and Forecasts
oSegment Analysis
oKey Performance Indicators
oCritical Success Factors
oSWOT Analysis
oPESTEL Analysis
oPorter’s 5 Forces Analysis
oInternational Trends
oRecent Activity
oCost and Profitability Analysis

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Indian Processed Food Industry Analysis

  1. 1. Aniruddh 090 | Anu 094 | Aritrika 096 | Nikhil 124 | Paarmi 127 | Saarini 139 | Surabhi 152 | Vasundhara 158
  2. 2. o Introduction o Segments of Industry o Key Players o Key Growth Drivers o Barriers to Growth o Estimated Growth o Trends and Forecasts o Segment Analysis o Key Performance Indicators o Critical Success Factors o SWOT Analysis o PESTEL Analysis o Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis o International Trends o Regulations o Imports o Exports o Recent Activity o Cost and Profitability Analysis
  3. 3. o The Food Processing Industry had an estimated value of US $ 121 billion in FY12 o India’s food processing industry accounts for 32 percent of the Indian food market o It is expected to touch US $ 194 billion by 2015 o The sector registered a CAGR of 15.6 percent during FY 07-13 o It is ranked 5th in terms of production, consumption and exports
  4. 4. o In India, the industry is largely dominated by ready to eat segment, which contributed to 90% of total sales of packages foods in India FY13 o The industry contributes to 1.3 – 1.5 % of India’s GDP o Contribution of this industry in manufacturing GDP in FY12 stood at 14% 90 %
  5. 5. o The Indian Food Processing industry is primarily export oriented o India’s agri and processed foods exports stood at US $24.04 billion during April-March, 2012 – 13 o During FY 08-12, India’s exports of processed food and related products increased at a CAGR of 27.3% $10.9bn $10.7bn $10.7 bn $14.0 bn $24 .0 bn 0 10 20 30 FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12
  6. 6. o Investments in this sector grew at 20 percent per annum in five years o Total investment in this sector at present is estimated to be US$ 24.04 billion o Approximately 10 million people are employed in this industry o The Government of India expects about US$ 21.9 billion of investments in food processing infrastructure by 2015 o FDI worth US$ 1,970.09 million has been invested during April 2000 to July 2013, according to Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP)
  7. 7. Sectors Products Dairy Whole milk powder, Skimmed milk powder, Condensed milk, Ice cream, Butter and Ghee, Cheese Fruits & Vegetables Beverages, Juices, Concentrates, Pulps, Slices, Frozen & Dehydrated Products, Potato Wafers/ Chips, etc Grains & Cereals Flour, Bakeries, Starch Glucose, Cornflakes, Malted Foods, Vermicelli, Beer and Malt Extracts, Grain based Alcohol Fisheries Frozen & Canned products, mainly in fresh form Meat & Poultry Frozen & Packed – mainly in fresh form, Egg Powder Consumer Foods Snack Food, Namkeens, Biscuits, Ready to eat food, Alcoholic & non-alcoholic beverages
  8. 8. 30% 35% 2% 10% 10% 13% % share, 2011 Beverages and others Grains and pulses Fruits & vegetables Oil Meat & marine Dairy
  9. 9. Player Segment Products About the company Dabur India Ltd. Beverages & Culinary Fruit Juice, cooking pastes, coconut milk, tomato puree, lemon drink, chili powder and honey • Closely held listed company with Promoter’s holding at 78.4 percent of the total share capital •Dabur Foods is a 100 percent subsidiary of Dabur India •Turnover of US$ 19.12 million in 2004 The company is focusing on boosting institutional sales to hotels, restaurants and caterers.
  10. 10. Player Segment Products About the company Nestle India Ltd. Dairy, Beverages & Snack Food Instant Coffee, condensed milk, dairy whitener, infant food, chocolates and confectionaries • Incorporated in 1959 as food specialties, Nestle Americana, Switzerland promoted Nestle India (NIL) •Nestle India is 51 percent subsidiary of Nestle SA •Gross turnover in the year 2007 was US$ 652 million The company is focusing on launching new products in all product segments
  11. 11. Player Segment Products About the company Parle Agro Private Ltd. Beverages and Bottled Water Fruit drinks and bottled water • Leading player in the fruit based beverages segment and the bottled water segment •Its flagship product is the fruit based drink Frooti Mango, which has 75 percent market share Backward integration and aggressive media campaign for its product launches has broadly been its strategy
  12. 12. Player Segment Products About the company Britannia Industries Ltd. Bakery Products Biscuits, flavored milk, dairy whitener, ghee, bread, cake and rusk • A leading player in the Indian organized biscuit market with nearly 30 per cent value share • The Nusli Wadia group, one of the oldest business houses in India and Groupe DANONE, French multi-products food company, equally share the 48.5 per cent promoter holding in Britannia • Sales of US$ 327.6 million in 2004 Britannia will strengthen its position by launching new products and improving volumes and introducing variants of the existing ones
  13. 13. Player Segment Products About the company Cadbury India Ltd. Confectionery Chocolates, hard boiled confectionery, malt foods, cocoa powder • Cadbury, a subsidiary of Cadbury Schweppes is a dominating player in the Indian chocolate market with strong brands like Dairy Milk, Five Star, Perk, Gems etc. • Dairy milk is the largest chocolate brand in India. • Chocolates and confectionery contribute to 75 per cent of Cadbury’s turnover. • Sales of around US$ 234.54 million in 2007 The company plans to increase franchise of its existing brands and continue to explore new product opportunities including adjacent market opportunities
  14. 14. Player Segment Products About the company Pepsico India holdings Beverages and Snack food Soft drink, fruit juice and chips • PepsiCo was founded in 1965 through the merger of Pepsi-Cola and Frito-Lay. • Tropicana was acquired in 1998 and PepsiCo merged with The Quaker Oats Company, including Gatorade, in 2001. Pepsi’s focus is high volume scales and is raising capacity by setting up of new plants as well as appointing new franchisee bottlers
  15. 15. Player Segment Products About the company Hindustan Unilever Limited(HUl) Beverages, Staples, Dairy, Snack Foods Tea, instant coffee, biscuits, ice-creams, salt, wheat flour -atta, instant drinks, soups, jam and squash • The parent company Unilever holds 51.55 per cent of HUL’s equity • India’s largest fast moving consumer goods company, with leadership in Home & Personal Care Products and Foods & Beverages • HUL’s brands, spread across 20 distinct consumer categories, with combined volumes of about 4mn tons and sales of US$ 2.17 billion • HUL’s Foods segment is at 9 per cent, beverages are at 12 per cent of its businesses HUL has followed the strategy of divesting its non-core businesses and focusing on its food business as a growth driver.
  16. 16. oIncreasing spending on health and nutritional foods oIncreasing number of nuclear families and working women oChanging lifestyle oFunctional foods, fresh or processed foods oOrganized retail and private label penetration oChanging demographics and rising disposable incomes
  17. 17. oConsumers are more focused on health oPackaged food that has sugar, salt, oil, preservatives etc beyond a “healthy” level are becoming a no-no oCompanies already are targeting this segment with numerous product launches oExamples - Pepsico's “100 percent” juice and usage of rice bran oil to reduce saturated fat in its products
  18. 18. oIncreasing nuclear families, students and single employees are leading to rise in consumption of processed read-to-eat canned and frozen foods oThe number of upper and middle class Indians consuming packaged food is expected to rise to 200 million in 2012 from the current 30 million oITC, MTR, Amul, etc are quick to capitalise on this trend with products like Dal Bukhara, Murg Methi, Sunfeast Pasta Treat, Shrikhand, Pure Ghee, Nutramul etc oChanging lifestyle and increasing spend for snack-on-the-go is responsible for a USD 3 billion and growing snack market oHaldiram’s, Frito Lays, ITC are quick to capture this market with products such as Masala Peanuts, Chips, Bhujia and Chats
  19. 19. oFunctional Foods, Fresh or Processed Foods that claim to provide health benefits are on the fast-growth path in India oFabindia Organics, Organic Food retail outlets like 24 Letter Mantra and Godrej Agrovet’s Nature Basket have big plans in this segment oMost important demand booster for the processed food in India oThe proportion of the “productive” age group (15-59 years) is nearly 80 in India oThis age group’s propensity and ability to spend on quality processed food is higher oHigher incomes as more Indians join to middle class and upper class also impact the demand of processed food positively
  20. 20. o Organised retail comprises of less than 5% of the total retail market in India, but is growing at over 20% o Food retailing, which constitutes 14% of the organised retailing, is also expected to benefit from the growth of organised retail o With increasing trend of major retailers towards private labels, the demand from retail market for processed foods is also expected to increase significantly
  21. 21. Every year India’s farms lose between 20-25% of their fruit and vegetable output (estimated approximately at INR 52,000 crore) due to spoilage at various stages. Nearly 90% of food processing units are small scale, operating with limited use of technology to enhance the lifespan of their produce. These problems are compounded by India’s poor transport infrastructure, which compares unfavorably to other nations in transit time and transaction costs. For instance an Exim container of foodstuffs will take 12-13 days to process in India, compared with just 3-5 days in France or Denmark.
  22. 22. India is currently rated behind the other BRIC nations by the World Bank when it comes to ease of conducting business. Excessive documentation is an example, where bureaucracy gets in the way of efficiency. For instance transporting goods to India requires an average of 11 documents, as opposed to 2-3 documents in France and Singapore. The current high rate of 12.5% VAT, along with a complicated range of other taxes such as octroi and excise duty, also affects competitiveness of the sector and can put the price of packaged foods out of reach for many customers.
  23. 23. In order to be profitable in the processed foods sector, companies need scale, the ability to charge a premium and an efficient cost structure – each of which is problematic in India. Scale is difficult precisely because India is so vast, requiring time and effort to fully establish market penetration. Low levels of disposable income, a tendency toward value-consciousness and a strong bargaining culture make it hard for companies to charge a premium, particularly with competition from the unorganized sector. To date, this has been met with no-frills products and small package sizes. However, this strategy reduces profit margins and constrains the potential for enhanced products.These factors combine with India’s problematic infrastructure to make efficiencies in cost structure difficult.When we take into account the food industry’s vulnerability to inflation and changing commodity prices, the difficulty of striking a profitable balance is clear.
  24. 24. o Approach 1: Looking at historical growth Despite recent high levels of growth due to inflation, a longer-term perspective shows that the average annual growth rate for packaged foods has been 13.5% since 1998.This provides a baseline estimate which could be used to forecast growth for coming years
  25. 25. o Approach 2: Aggregating contemporary forecasts Analysts predict growth rates for the packaged food sector anywhere from 9% to 13% for the next 5-6 years. At one end of this scale, EuroMonitor points to high inflation and reduced consumer spending power as factors which may limit growth, backed up by Datamonitor's conservative estimate of 10%. At the other end, Gyan Research's higher figure looks optimistically at the availability of raw materials, changing Indian lifestyles and the promise of favorable regulatory policies
  26. 26. o Approach 3: Lessons from China For decades now, India's per capita GDP has mirrored that of China with a lag of around 10 years. At India's current stage of domestic market development, China witnessed a significant upswing in packaged food consumption.
  27. 27. o Approach 4: Bottom-up analysis of the sector Growth will not be uniform throughout the sector. While annual growth in certain emerging sub- sectors may reach as high as 20%, mature categories of the market such as plain milk, biscuit and bread are unlikely to see rates higher than 8%.
  28. 28. These considerations lead us to assess the predicted rate of growth for India's packaged food market at around 14% p.a. It's worth noting that this figure, whilst higher than previously predicted, will still leave India behind peer nations such as Brazil and China by 2020. There are two important conclusions to be drawn. o First, growth will continue to be strong going forward and will be somewhat higher than anticipated. o Second, growth is going to be especially intense in select categories which have emerged in recent years, such as flavoured milk and instant noodles. In contrast, categories that are o basic and large today, such as bread and spices, will see slower growth going forward
  29. 29. o Packaged food continues to be heavily dependent on urban consumers o Since packaged food such as ready meals and frozen processed vegetables offers a great deal of convenience, such products are increasingly chosen by working couples in urban areas o Packaged food has gained more popularity in urban areas, as manufacturers have started to offer healthy products such as fortified dacha, oats and atta noodles o With urban consumers cutting back on their spending, and only meagre increase in salaries, companies are focusing on tapping the rural market.They are launching their products in smaller pack sizes and at low price points o The launch of products at prices like Rs5 and Rs10 is helping companies protect their market share. For instance, Kellogg’s India has launched breakfast cereals priced at Rs10 which are mainly targeted at rural and semi-urban consumers
  30. 30. o Consumer foodservice showed strong double digit growth in 2012 and 2013, despite the economic slowdown o The number of foodservice outlets in India increased by 3% in 2012, to over 2 million o Rises in disposable income, coupled with companies expanding their reach in tier II and tier III cities helped in the robust growth o Strong performances by fast food players and pizza full-service restaurants contributed to the solid growth o Despite challenges like high rents and inflation, the market has potential for further growth. Fast food operators are opening new outlets in smaller towns to maximise gains
  31. 31. o Consumer foodservice sales in India grew by 12% in 2012, reaching Rs5 billion. The slight slowdown in growth compared with 2010 and 2011 was mainly due to rising food inflation and an increase in the prices of petrol, which led to companies increasing their prices significantly. This discouraged people from eating out regularly o With the increasing popularity of Italian cuisine in India, pasta sauces and olive oil have seen strong growth o Consumers in India have become more adventurous in trying new cuisines. For instance, restaurants catering to Japanese food or Thai food have appeared, which were previously non-existent in India o New locations, unique formats, innovative menus and exciting themes are contributing to increased consumption.These are, in turn, increasing retail packaged food sales, as consumers want to replicate these dishes at home
  32. 32. o Indian snacks are mainly dominated by unbranded products.This trend is slowly changing, however, with an increasing number of consumers starting to buy branded snacks instead of loose products from bakeries, due to the hygiene factor o Many new players, like MTR Foods, Maiyas Beverages and Foods Pvt Ltd and Parle Products Ltd, have forayed into snacks. Snacks which previously were prepared at home are now sold in branded format, tapping into consumers’ paucity of time. o Impulse and indulgence products in India witnessed 22% value growth in 2013.This growth was similar to that recorded in 2012 o Impulse and indulgence products have been growing at a rapid pace due to rising income levels, growing urbanisation and busy lifestyles.The gradual switching of consumers to packaged products and aggressive marketing campaigns by manufacturers to attract consumers to their brand have added to the growth
  33. 33. o Factors like irregular eating times, long breaks between lunch and dinner, and the increasing influence of Western culture, including some unhealthy eating habits, are driving sales of many categories, like snacks, cakes and ice cream o Chocolate confectionery witnessed strong growth of 28% in 2013. Chocolate confectionery is growing as consumption is expanding from children to adults. Adult consumers’ craving for luxury and premium chocolates, such as Lindt, continued to grow further in 2013.To tap this trend, manufacturers of premium chocolate brands, such as Chocoladefabriken Lindt & Sprüngli, expanded presence in premium stores, such as Brown Tree, as well as outlets like Spar and many retail outlets in urban areas o Sales of chocolate confectionery were supported further as consumers continued to prefer giving premium chocolates on occasions such as the traditional Indian festivals of Diwali and Raksha Bandhan o Packaged/industrial pastries witnessed the slowest growth in 2013, of 12%. This was significantly lower than the 18% growth registered in 2012. Consumers have become more conscious about their spending and have reduced the consumption of packaged industrial pastries, favouring alternatives such as snacks and cakes instead
  34. 34. o Also, as there are only a limited number of national players in this market, consumers did not have options like discounts, freebies and extras that could drive sales o Independent small grocers continue to be the most popular channel for most impulse and indulgence products, including sweet and savoury snacks and confectionery o However, with growing urbanisation, resulting in a sharp rise in the number of modern retail formats, such as supermarkets and hypermarkets, the distribution landscape for impulse and indulgence products is undergoing a change in India.This trend is expected to continue, with consumers switching to modern retail stores for a wider selection of products and a more comfortable shopping environment o There were no significant innovations in packaging in 2012 and 2013. However, leading manufacturers are focusing on the type of colours and the packaging to differentiate themselves from competition. Companies have also launched their products in smaller pack sizes. For instance, Ferrero India Pvt Ltd has focused on introducing smaller bite sized packs
  35. 35. o Growing demand for quick and tasty meals in India, coupled with increasing urbanisation, changes in lifestyles and the emergence of advanced cold storage facilities, has led to the growth of the meal solutions market in India o The market for meal solutions, like ready meals and frozen processed food, is growing as they are a quick fix meal solution compared to Indian food, with its lengthy preparation time and complicated cooking processes o For many middle class Indians living away from home, it is about the struggle to eat on a small budget, and the challenge of rustling up a snack without a proper cooking appliance. In such cases, meal solutions are popular. o In 2013, current value sales increased by 17%, which was slightly faster than the review period CAGR. Sales continued to be driven by the increasing number of women in the workforce, who cannot devote much time to cooking and continue to seek convenient products such as meal solutions. It is notable that the economic slowdown did not have a major impact on sales of meal solutions, which are targeted mainly at urban consumers
  36. 36. o Frozen processed food saw the fastest growth in 2013 o The middle class population in India has gone through a dramatic transformation in lifestyles, moving from traditional spending on food and groceries to “lifestyle” and convenience food products, like frozen processed food. Frozen processed food can be easily customised to suit changing Indian tastes without spending much time, and is available at all times of the year o With the growing cold storage facilities in India, demand for frozen processed food is rising significantly. Growth is also due to initiatives being undertaken by companies such as McCain Foods India, with the aim of educating Indian consumers about the benefits of these packaged food products in comparison with fresh food o Dessert mixes did not perform in line with other products in meal solutions in 2013.The lower growth of this category was mainly due to the availability of ready-to-eat sweets in local shops o Traditional sweet shops make a particular effort to meet festival demand. Such sweets were traditionally mainly prepared at home. However, due to busy lifestyles and scarcity of time, a transition to packaged sweets is apparent
  37. 37. o Urban consumers are also beginning to prefer alternatives to traditional sweets. For instance, Cadbury’s gift packs have successfully challenged the dominance of mithais or Indian sweets during the festive seasons o Biscuits, cookies and savouries are also gaining in popularity.This change in preferences has affected sales of dessert mixes o The distribution of most meal solutions, including soup, is expected to continue to shift towards supermarkets and hypermarkets, because the target audience for such products is mainly urban consumers, who are shifting from independent stores to modern retail outlets o Consumers in metro areas are doing their grocery shopping in supermarkets instead of independent small grocers o Manufacturers will also focus their in-store promotion efforts on supermarkets, which offer large display space and premium shelf positioning o Average unit prices increased by 5% in 2013. Price rises are mainly attributable to factors like increases in the prices of agricultural commodities, labour and petrol
  38. 38. o Manufacturers are looking at various ways to maintain stable prices. Companies are buying agricultural commodities in bulk and much in advance, and hoarding them to hedge the risks of increases in agricultural prices and traders hoarding commodities during crop failures o There was a substantial increase in the prices of meat and meat products which led to an increase in unit prices of products derived from them o Frozen processed food requires a cold chain which consumes a lot of electricity.The prices of all these are ultimately passed on to end consumers, leading to increases in unit prices
  39. 39. o Consumers shifting from loose or unpackaged products to packaged products are driving sales of nutrition/staples in India o Growing awareness of hygiene, coupled with easy accessibility to packaged milk, has prompted consumers to move from loose milk to packaged milk. Most of the dairy companies, such as CavinKare Ltd, continue to introduce value-added products, especially flavoured milk and fruit-based drinking milk o Value-added products have helped companies to maintain better margins and gain profits. Many companies also introduced sour milk products, cheese and other dairy products to reduce their dependence on drinking milk o Nutrition/staples reached sales of Rs1,229 billion in 2013, growing by 19% in that year. This growth was slightly higher than the 18% growth in 2012.There are many factors which contributed to this growth, including urbanisation, coupled with rising prosperity and the increasing pace of modern life, which has increased consumer spending on packaged food
  40. 40. o Another reason is consumers’ eagerness to try new food and drinks. Consumers’ demand for nutritious and healthy food has increased, which is prompting them to turn to nutrient-rich milk products. All these factors have led to strong growth in nutrition/staples in India o Yoghurt and sour milk products saw the strongest growth in 2013, of 34%.Yogurt and sour milk products have become increasingly popular amongst health conscious consumers, especially mothers who want healthier snacks for their children. o Products such as flavoured spoonable yoghurt and flavoured sour drinks offer a good combination of flavour and heath, and have been well received by consumers. Leading manufacturers, including Nestlé India Pvt Ltd, Danone Food & Beverages Pvt Ltd and Parag Milk Foods Pvt Ltd, have introduced yoghurt variants in local flavours to suit the Indian palate o Unpackaged/artisanal bread did not grow in line with other products in nutrition/staples in 2013. Growth in artisanal bread was affected by the launch of other packaged healthier variants of bread, including whole-wheat and multigrain. The availability of branded and healthier variants of bread allowed health- conscious consumers to switch from artisanal bread
  41. 41. o Nutrition/staples enjoys a very diverse distribution landscape.The bulk of dairy products continue to be sold through milk booths set up by regional dairy cooperatives; however, sales through hypermarkets and supermarkets are growing rapidly o With the entry of international players, such as Danone, which operates through modern retail stores, coupled with rapid urbanisation, modern retail channels are growing rapidly in terms of number of outlets and sales. Although sales of other nutrition/staples products in modern retail stores, including bread and breakfast cereals, continue to grow, traditional stores remained the major distribution channels in 2013 o New retail stores operated by food manufacturers themselves are also establishing a presence in India. o For instance, Kutwal Foods Pvt Ltd, launched its own stores called My Urja, which stock the company’s entire range of products.This includes processed liquid milk, milk products, soft drinks and packaged drinking water under the brand name Urja, Long life/UHT milk is increasing in popularity in urban India
  42. 42. o Consumption of long-life/UHT milk has gained popularity amongst educated urban families where family members do not have time to buy milk daily and instead purchase their groceries, including milk, at the weekend.To exploit this growing preference, many domestic manufacturers, including Mahanand Dairy, a venture of Maharashtra Rajya Sahakari Dudh Mahasangh, Maryadit (MRSDMM), have introduced UHT milk in brick liquid carton packaging. Parag Milk Foods Pvt Ltd launched Topp-Up, a brand of energy milk or flavoured milk with an innovative packaging with a ring crown pull cap, so an opener is not required o The introduction of smaller pack sizes to maintain affordability and allow consumers to try products was apparent in various categories, like breakfast cereals, noodles and yoghurt o The average unit price of nutrition/staples products increased by 6% in 2013. Cooperatives like The Karnataka Milk Federation increased the price of milk due to rises in utility costs – including those of diesel and petrol. The prices of milk pouch film, furnace oil and other consumables required for milk processing and packing also increased, leading to a rise in production costs for milk and milk production
  43. 43. Source: MOFPI
  44. 44. o Impulse and indulgence products increases by 22% in current value terms to reach Rs505 billion in 2013 o Factors like irregular eating times, long breaks between lunch and dinner, and the increasing influence of Western culture, including some unhealthy eating habits, are driving sales of many categories, like snacks, cakes and ice cream o Consumers are slowly switching from unbranded to branded products o Sweet and savoury snacks sees growth of 25%, to Rs111 million o The average unit price increases by 10% in 2013, due to rising input costs o Britannia Industries Ltd leads the impulse and indulgence category, with a value share of 13% in 2013 o Impulse and indulgence products is expected to increase by a constant value CAGR of 10% over the next five years o Snacks which previously were prepared at home are now sold in branded format, tapping into consumers’ paucity of time.
  45. 45. o Chocolate confectionery witnessed strong growth of 28% in 2013 o Chocolate confectionery is growing as consumption is expanding from children to adults. Adult consumers’ craving for luxury and premium chocolates o Packaged/industrial pastries witnessed the slowest growth in 2013, of 12%. This was significantly lower than the 18% growth registered in 2012 o Consumers have become more conscious about their spending and have reduced the consumption of packaged industrial pastries, favouring alternatives such as snacks and cakes instead o Also, as there are only a limited number of national players in this market, consumers did not have options like discounts, freebies and extras that could drive sales
  46. 46. Past sales of impulse and indulgence products by category Forecasted sales of impulse and indulgence products by category
  47. 47. o Registered retail value growth of 21% in 2013 to reach Rs 405 billion o Olive oil with retail value growth of 37% in 2013 is driving fastest growth o Ruchi Soya Industries Ltd with retail value share of 17% continues to be the category leader within oils and fats in 2013 o The growing health and wellness trend drives Indian consumers to trade up to premium oils and fats o There is still no mass awareness about the health risks associated with trans fats in India and products which possess trans fats are still widely available across the country. The prices for such products is low and the demand remains high due to lack of awareness in rural areas o The Indian oils and fats category is mainly characterised by local players, such as Ruchi Soya Industries , Adani Wilmar , Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation and KS Oils o The growing health and wellness trend is expected to continue over the forecast period and will encourage manufacturers to launch health-orientated oil and fats products. o Oils and fats is expected to grow by a constant value CAGR of 9% over the next 5 years
  48. 48. Past sales of Oil and Fats by category Forecasted sales of Oil and Fats by category
  49. 49. Distribution of Oil and Fats by Format
  50. 50. o In 2013, meal solutions reaches sales of Rs86 billion, recording current value growth of 17% o Frozen processed food sees the fastest growth o Mahashian Di Hatti Pvt Ltd led sales of meal solutions in 2013, with an 11% value share.The company is a leading player in dry sauces/powder mixes in India. MDH, its flagship brand, has been backed by high profile advertising and a strong distribution network. Its products Chunky Chaat Masala, Kitchen King Masala and Chana Masala have gained significant popularity over the years o Most sales of meal solutions in India are accounted for by economy and standard brands o Soup brands such as Knorr, Maggi and Ching’s Secret straddle the economy and standard segments. Imported brands, such as Campbell’s, Batchelor’s and Continental, offer more premium priced products, but awareness of these brands is low, due to a lack of publicity o Private label products are strengthening their presence in this category. Many private label ranges, like Easy Life, Feasters, Nilgiris, Reliance Select 100%, Spencer’s, Tasty Treat and Tasty Wonders, have a strong presence in sauces and condiments
  51. 51. Sales of Meal Solutions by Category: % Value Growth 2008-2013 Company Shares of Meal Solution: % Value 2009-2013
  52. 52. o Retailers have moved beyond just basic products, like herbs/spices or pickles, to include products like mayonnaise and cooking pastes o However, private label continued to face strong competition from established brands, which enjoy strong brand loyalty. o Sales of frozen processed food, canned preserved food, ready meals and soups are still very restricted to urban households, but with manufacturers launching single-use packs at lower price points, and strengthening their presence in rural areas, sales will see a rapid increase. o The cold chain in India is in the nascent stages of development o There are very few specialised distribution companies providing refrigerated transport and warehousing for perishable produce/processed food products.The development of cold chain facilities has been hampered high costs and the difficulty of guaranteeing a continuous supply of electricity. Lack of such infrastructural facilities threatens growth. o Meal solutions are led mainly by domestic Indian players, such as Mahashian Di Hatti Pvt Ltd, Eastern Condiments, Venky’s and Kohinoor Foods.The international player McCain Foods performs strongly in frozen ready meals in terms of snacking offerings, whilst MTR Foods Ltd does well in vegetarian ready meals.
  53. 53. o The Indian frozen processed category is dominated by domestic players, such as Mother Dairy Fruit & Vegetable, Al Kabeer Exports, Innovative Foods, Venky's, Suguna Poultry Products, Darshan Foods, and Godrej Agrovet o McCain Foods was the only prominent international player within frozen foods in the country and is set to hold a retail value share of 5% in 2013 o Furthermore there is little price differential between the leading brands resulting in intense competition o Most of the brands available are priced at almost the same level and there is no differential between premium and mass brands o Frozen processed food is expected to grow by a CAGR of 11% in constant value terms over the forecast period o Growth in modern retail chains, increased refrigeration of small retailers and rural households, growing awareness of frozen food products and the progression of fast food chains over the forecast period are expected to drive sales of frozen food.
  54. 54. Brand Shares of Frozen Processed Food: % Value 2010-2013
  55. 55. o The bulk of brands in nutrition/staples continue to be standard in terms of pricing; however, many companies have introduced premium products focused on health and wellness, which are priced higher than standard brands o In addition, private label made a foray into nutrition/staples products such as pasta and dairy in 2013 o Sales of nutrition/staples are expected to increase by a constant value CAGR of 8% over the forecast period o Growth during the next five years will be mainly driven by consumers switching from loose milk to fresh packaged milk. Manufacturers are likely to undertake awareness campaigns to educate consumers about the health benefits associated with fresh packaged milk o Since certain nutrition/staple products, such as meal replacements, continue to be niche, it would need a strong advertising push to generate product awareness amongst consumers o Noodles are still not considered a healthy meal option in India. According to a study by Ahmedabad-based Consumer Education and Research Society conduced in October 2012, which tested 15 noodles, the “health” claims of many brands are not true
  56. 56. Sales of Nutrition / Staples by Category: % Value Growth 2008-2013 Company Shares of Nutrition / Staples by Category: % Value Growth 2009-2013
  57. 57. o Drinking milk products continued to be fragmented with various cooperatives maintaining the lead in their respective regions, mainly. Most companies continued to maintain share with Karnataka Milk Federation witnessing a small rise in value share in 2013 o Since Indian consumers continued to consume fresh milk largely, domestic manufacturers with strong local distribution channels and strong local presence, continued to rule. o The presence of private label products remained negligible in drinking milk products in 2013. o Drinking milk products is likely to see a constant value CAGR of 5% over the forecast period. o Flavoured milk drinks is likely to continue growing at the fastest rate over the forecast period with consumers likely to become more health conscious o Other dairy continued to witness limited growth due to the low popularity of products, including cream, coffee whiteners, and condensed milk o Since most of the products including cream and condensed milk are bought occasionally, other dairy is not likely to show strong growth over the forecast period. Other dairy is likely to see a constant value CAGR of 2% over the forecast period
  58. 58. Distribution of Drinking Milk Products by Format: % Value 2008-2013
  59. 59. o The Indian baked goods category is dominated by unorganised small local players catering to consumer needs locally. Domestic manufacturers characterise the Indian baked goods category with select organised players in 2013 o The probability of multinationals entering the category in the forecast period is low due to its fragmented nature o Britannia Industries with an expected retail value share of 9% of the baked goods category proved to be the most successful player in 2013 o The company has been expanding its presence and baked goods range aggressively.The company now offers a range of premium and luxury cakes to consumers o Baked goods is expected to grow by a constant value CAGR of 2% over the next five years o Urban regions of India witnessed rapid growth and expansion of modern retail outlets in 2013. However, modern retail outlets such as hypermarkets and supermarkets continued to remain low compared to the overall retail scenario in India
  60. 60. Distribution of Baked Goods by Format: % Value Growth 2008-2013 Brand Shares of Baked Goods: % Value 2010-2013
  61. 61. o Hygiene, e.g. measured by number of micro-organisms per mL of finished product o Energy efficiency measured e.g. by “ton of steam per ton of sugar produced” o Minimization of waste, measured e.g. by “percentage of peeling loss during the peeling of potatoes” o Labour used, measured e.g. by “number of working hours per ton of finished product” o Minimization of cleaning stops measured e.g. by “number of hours between cleaning stops”
  62. 62. o Total group sales o Net Profit o Total water withdrawal o Total number of significant product recalls or incidents of non-compliance
  63. 63. o Nutrition sales o Products meeting or exceeding Nutritional Foundation profiling criteria (as % of total sales) o Products with increase in nutritious ingredients or essential nutrients o Products with reduction of sodium, sugars, trans-fatty acids, total fat or artificial colourings o Products containing Branded Active Benefits (sales, CHF million) o Products featuring Nestlé Nutritional Compass labelling (% of sales worldwide) o Products with specific portion guidance (sales, CHF million) o Popularly Positioned Products (sales, CHF million)
  64. 64. o Total workforce (number of employees) o Total rate of new employee hires (%) o Total rate of employee turnover(%) o Lost-time injuries among employees and on-site contractors (per million hours worked) o Total recordable injuries and illnesses among employees and on-site contractors (per million hours worked) o Fatalities of employees and on-site contractors o Average hours of training per year per employee per category(p) o Leadership positions held by women(%) o Local management committee members native to country in developing countries (%)
  65. 65. o New products introduced per quarter o % first time right o Standardization of products o Inventory stock-out value o % of Damaged goods o Transportation cost as a percentage of revenue o Average order-to-shipment lead time
  66. 66. o Total production volume (million tonnes) o Materials o Raw materials used (million tonnes) o Materials for packaging purposes (million tonnes) o Packaging source optimisation (kilotonnes saved) o Energy o Total on-site energy consumption (petajoules) o Total direct energy consumption (petajoules) o Total indirect energy consumption (petajoules) o Biodiversity o Total size of manufacturing sites located in protected areas (hectares) o Emissions, effluents and waste o Direct greenhouse gas emissions (million tonnes CO2eq) o Indirect greenhouse gas emissions((million tonnes CO2) o Quality of water discharged (average mg COD/litre) o By-products (kg per tonne product) o Waste for disposal (kg per tonne product) o Environmental sustainability governance o Manufacturing sites certified
  67. 67. o Time-to-market for new food products o Packaged foods export o More retail penetration at rural markets o Packaged food exports o Sales forecast fidelity o Region-wise and period-wise sales o Sales by executives o Days sales outstanding
  68. 68. To achieve this predicted annual growth rate of 14%, industry players must work hard to engage with the Indian consumer and create a suitable environment for growth. Here we have outlined some of the critical factors which will affect profitability and outcomes for companies. o Success Factor 1: Secure quality input Processed food demand is racing ahead of India’s agricultural capacity and is beginning to cause shortages. Following the example of market leaders such as Lay's, Amul and ITC, companies must pay attention to the back end of production, working intensively with each stage of the value chain.  Training farmers to improve produce yields, through contract farming, better seeds or improved farming methods  Supporting research to improve produce  Investing in infrastructure, such as transport or processing machinery  Working with vendors, encouraging them to promote certain products  Educating consumers about the benefits of packaged food, such as improved product quality, variety and health
  69. 69. o Success Factor 2: Connect with young Indian consumers India's population has a median age of 25.5 years , with young consumers more likely to purchase packaged food. Cadbury, Lay's and Pepsi all provide good examples of sustained and targeted marketing campaigns.They have also introduced country-specific products, helping to establish their brands as in tune with the tastes of India's youth market. o Success Factor 3: : Focus on value-added products Moving beyond basic offerings allows companies to increase market segmentation and penetration. Enriching products with nutrients, offering low-fat alternatives or promoting low-sugar options for diabetics are examples of ways in which brands increase market share by catering to the health-conscious. In the same way, luxury products (such as Cadbury's Silk range) sell at a premium and yield higher profit margin. In beverages, premium spirits account for just 8% of category share but provide 35% of industry profits .
  70. 70. o Success Factor 4: Select the right categories The market for packaged foods is evolving and companies must choose their entry point based on two criteria: whether the category is large and growing (therefore open to scalability); and / or whether it is not mature (therefore open to innovation and new brand competitors). To take biscuits as an example: savoury snacks are a rapidly-evolving category; whereas mass sweet biscuits are a mature subsection of the market. Operators in this subcategory would need greatly different products and marketing campaigns to achieve growth. o Success Factor 5: Do what it takes to be in the Top 3 India's unique retail environment, with crowded sales channels and little direct interaction between consumers and products, means that brands must work hard for recognition. However, doing so is critical. Companies must choose carefully where they enter the market and do so based upon their strengths. Sustained, profitable growth in packaged foods is not easy, and in India it's particularly critical to establish a leadership position.
  71. 71. Making a profit in India's packaged foods market may not be easy. However, the current moment represents a tantalizing opportunity that food companies cannot afford to ignore. To succeed in this sector, participants must plan and act smartly. But they must also bear in mind the existence of multiple stakeholders. Bain & Company's value-web, in the next slide, demonstrates the network of relationships and dependencies that form the packaged foods sector. In order to create new markets or win in existing ones, companies must recognize these dependencies and work productively with each element, as several leading players have already done.
  72. 72. Each player in the value-web can benefit from the expansion of India's packaged food industry, and each has a part to play in promoting expansion. The sector as we see it is at an exciting point of inflection, with accelerated growth beckoning around the corner. How sharp that inflection point will be depends, to some extent, on developments within the policy and macroeconomic context. But for companies which understand this context, and are prepared and able to seize the opportunities presented by India's new markets, the prospects are bright.
  73. 73. o Ability to establish forward and backward linkages through contract farming, cold chains, and a strong distribution network o Use of modern technology in Fruits & Vegetables processing rather than manual methods o Using hybrid seeds to improve yields o Large number of innovative products and branding
  74. 74. o Ability to increasing scale of output o Wide product portfolio of high-value products such as yoghurt, sweets o Ability to tap into export markets o Developing a portfolio of milk-based products
  75. 75. o Ensuring quality and sustained branding o Ability to tap into export growth in the value-added segment
  76. 76. o Poor supply chain facilities and cold storage o Continuing preference for fresh food among consumers o Poor yield of crops and milch animals
  77. 77. o Approximately 35% of agricultural produce is wasted due to poor cold chain linkages during storage and transportation o International trade rules and increasing protectionism in export markets o Poor performance of the agricultural/primary sector
  78. 78. o Low productivity in milch animals despite India having the largest bovine population in the world (i.e. 250 million) o Lack of scale in the industry despite of success stories such as AMUL
  79. 79. o Quality and hygiene is low in street-side wet markets o Imperfect slaughtering o High supply chain costs as feed constitutes 60% of total broiler costs o Primitive rearing techniques o Unregulated slaughter facilities The country has only 3,600 slaughterhouses, 9 modern abattoirs,171 meat processing units and a limited number of pork-processing units
  80. 80. o Abundant availability of raw material o Priority sector status for agro-processing given by the central Government o Vast network of manufacturing facilities all over the country o Vast domestic market o Social acceptability of agro-processing as important area and support from the central government.
  81. 81. o Low availability of adequate infrastructural facilities o Lack of adequate quality control & testing methods as per international standards o Inefficient supply chain due to a large number of intermediaries o High requirement of working capital. o Inadequately developed linkages between R&D labs and industry. o Seasonality of raw material o Low availability of new reliable and better accuracy instruments and equipments o Inadequate automation w.r.t. information management. o Remuneration less attractive for talent in comparison to contemporary disciplines.
  82. 82. o Large crop and material base offering a vast potential for agro processing activities o Setting of SEZ/AEZ and food parks for providing added incentive to develop greenfield projects o Rising income levels and changing consumption patterns o Favourable demographic profile and changing lifestyles o Integration of development in contemporary technologies such as electronics, material science, bio-technology etc. offer vast scope for rapid improvement and progress o Opening of global markets may lead to export of our developed technologies and facilitate generation of additional income and employment opportunities.
  83. 83. o Affordability and cultural preferences of fresh food o High inventory carrying cost o High taxation o High packaging cost o Competition from global players o Loss of trained manpower to other industries and other professions due to better working conditions prevailing there may lead to further shortage of manpower. o Rapid developments in contemporary and requirements of the industry may lead to fast obsolescence.
  84. 84. o Internal Political/Economic Events o Increasing economic disparities among regions are emerging as a political risk capable of provoking serious socio- political tensions that could lead to localized violence from time to time o The states likely to be advancing economically are:Gujarat, Haryana, Kerala, Maharashtra, Punjab and Tamil Nadu. Those likely to be lagging economically are: Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh o External Political/Economic Events o Any outbreak of hostilities between India and its neighbours could disrupt trade and negatively affect the solvency of some importers. o India could benefit greatly from free trade o Policies o A number of policy initiatives have been taken from time to time to promote growth of the processed food sector in the country. Some of these are: o Most of the processed food items have been exempted from the purview of licensing under the Industries (Development & Regulation) Act, 1951, except items reserved for small-scale sector and alcoholic beverages. o Food processing industries were included in the list of priority sector for bank lending in 1999. o Automatic approval for foreign equity upto 100% is available for most of the processed food items excepting alcohol and beer and those reserved for small scale sector subject to certain conditions.
  85. 85. o Developmental o Assistance under various plan schemes. o Widening the R&D base in food processing by involvement of various R&Di nstitutes and support to various R&D activities. o Human Resource Development to meet the growing requirement of managers, entrepreneurs and skilled workers in the food processing industry. o Assistance for setting up analytical and testing laboratories, active participation in the laying down of food standards and their harmonization with the international standards. o Promotional o In order to create awareness about the potential and prospect of food processing industries in the country, this Ministry provides, o a) Assistance for organizing workshops, seminars, exhibitions and fairs. o b) Assistance for studies/surveys etc. o c) Publications and films o ·Regulatory o Implementation of Fruit Products Order (FPO), 1955. o Implementation of Meat Food Product Order, 1973.
  86. 86. o Land and Property laws oThere is a shortage of good quality space and rents are high for what is available. o Only Indians can own property in India, which complimenting the restrictions placed on FDI, restrict the entry of foreign players. oThe initial urban planning of cities was done with smaller plots in mind which along with rigid building and zoning laws make it difficult for procurement of retail space. oThe urban land ceiling act and rent control acts have distorted property markets in cities o Labour Laws oThe labour laws instituted to protect store workers are not flexible enough to support the modern formats of retailing. These rigidities in the law constrain the operations of modern retail outlets. Working hours are restricted, with shops required to close one day of the week and the hiring of part-time employees is difficult, however, in Bangalore, the State Government has permitted flexibility in the use of labour without doing away with the associated benefits accruing to it. o Taxes o Corporation tax is 38% and this would be even higher at 45% for a foreign business. oEven essential basic foodstuffs are taxed (8% on milk). o The varying sales tax rate across states make supply chain management an even more difficult task for retailers o With the expected introduction of Value Added Tax (VAT) in April 2005, some of the sales tax anamolies in the supply chain could get correct over a period of time.
  87. 87. In addition to the general legal requirements, there are a few legal requirements that are specific to Food Processing Industries. A food processing enterprise has to comply with several compulsory legal requirements. Implementation of these norms with regard to Small and Medium Enterprises o Legal Requirements o a). Prevention of Food Adulteration Act (1954 o Milk and Milk Products Order (MMPO. o c.) Fruit Products Order (1955. o d). Standard of Weights and Measures (Packaged Commodities) Rules, 1977 o e.) Export (Quality Control and Inspection) Act, 1963 o f). Voluntary Standards: are regulated by organisations involved with voluntary standardisation and certificates systems concerning quality parameters in food. g). Oils, Deoiled Meal and Edible Flour Control Order 1967 and Vegetables Products o Control Order, 1976 o h). Meat Food Products Control Order, 1973 o Restriction on FDI o A strong FDI presence in food processing sector is expected to not only boost the retail scenario, but also act as a driving force in attracting FDI in upstream activities as well. This will be more prominent in food processing and packaging industries because many large retail chains also promote their own brands by way of backward integration/contract manufacturing.
  88. 88. o The challenges to food processing are socio economic environment, subsistence agriculture, fragmented value chains and lack of infrastructure for post harvest management and processing. Some issues are country specific: role of federal and state government, policies regarding marketing of agriculture produce, and food safety regulations o Sub-optimal growth of the food processing industry can be attributed to the vicious circle of high unit cost low demand, low capacity utilization again leading to high unit cost o Affordability is also a major issue in the domestic market o Price differential between fresh and processed food in India is very high relative to convenience, hygiene and health values of the processed food. In the developed countries processed and fresh food compare well in prices.
  89. 89. o There is need for working out synergy between business and environment for sustainable development.The Govt. will bring together environmentalists, industrialists, policy makers and NGOs at State o The Govt. will compliment the efforts of various other Govt. departments, Public Sector, Private Sector, Industry associations, Cooperatives, Consumer action groups, NGO etc. to provide a healthy, and enabling environment. o The Govt. recognizes the need to achieve these objectives by way of removal of restrictions, private sector participation, enhanced Market opportunities, rationalization of tax structure and positive interface with the industry
  90. 90. o Rapid transformation in the lifestyle of Indians, particularly those living in urban India, has resulted in dramatic increase in the demand for processed food.The main reason why processed food is luring the urban Indians is the convenience that it offers to cooking, as they don't need to spend hours in kitchen to get that appetizing food o Increase in overseas travel and the presence of foreign media in the country has resulted in more Indians opting for processed food. For instance, in 2007, above 5Million Indians had traveled abroad and the number is likely to rise by 15% to 20% every year o Also, it's likely to double in the five years to come. These trends entail significant growth potential for the food processing industry in future and, as a result, add to the attractiveness of investment in this sector
  91. 91. o The demographic trend and lifestyle patterns, of the society that a retailer intends to serve, decide the retailer’s strategy.Traditionally, children seldom accompanied their parents while grocery food shopping o Apart from quality and range of products, value for money and attractive displays, the human touch has a vital role to play o There is also emphasis on schemes and promotions, which, as the study ratifies, do pull customers. Further the trend is towards more convenience and flexibility in terms of exchange/ return policies, which play a vital role in encouraging the purchase o Smart, polite and courteous sales people might make all the difference for a store, which is like any other in terms of its Product offerings
  92. 92. o The computerization of the various operations in a retail store, including inventory management, billing and payments as well as database (of customers) management, widespread use of bar coding, point -of-sale terminals and Management Information System has changed the face of retailing drastically demographic trend and lifestyle patterns, of the society that a retailer intends to serve, decide the retailer’s strategy.Traditionally, children seldom accompanied their parents while grocery food shopping o Apart from providing the retailers with better and timelier information about their operations, the technology also does the job of preventing theft, promoting the store's goods and creating a better shopping atmosphere o Apart from providing the retailers with better and timelier information about their operations, the technology also does the job of preventing theft, promoting the store's goods and creating a better shopping atmosphere
  93. 93. o They make the customer's life a lot easier by facilitating the use of developments like credit cards.Toll free 800 numbers have brought about a revolution in consumer's ordering and feedback mechanisms o Emerging technologies will also facilitate just-in-time management of certain products within the store.These trends are already visible in the music and greeting card industries. o Advancement in food technology can play an important role in not only harmonizing quality norms, but also by developing good manufacturing practices, including 106conformity to traceability norms hazard analysis at critical control points (HACCP). o Codex has also incorporated HACCP system for identifying risk and their control. HACCP also covers pathogenic bacteria also. Though the quality norms of these global bodies are accepted as base for reference, countries are allowed to set more stringent norms
  95. 95. If anyone looks as if they’re making a sustained profit, new competitors can come into the industry easily, reducing profits Profitable markets that yield high returns will draw firms. The results is many new entrants, and decrease profitability. Unless the entry of new firms can be blocked by incumbents, the profit rate will fall towards a competitive level (perfect competition) · Capital Requirements (low) oThe capital costs of getting established in an industry can be reduce because of the government subsidies provided to food processing sector. oFinancial disaster for most participants is that the initial setup costs of new ventures were typically very low oStartup costs are so low that individual, self-financing entrepreneurs can enter. For example, in mineral water pouch business, costs for a company are around Rs 350,000 and reaming Rs 750,000 is subsidies by Government
  96. 96. · Economies of Scale (low) o In industries that are capital or research or advertising intensive, efficiency requires large scale operation o The problem for new entrants is that they are faced with the choice of either entering on a small scale and accepting high unit costs, or entering on a large scale and running the risk of underutilized capacity while they build up sales volume o Segment of the market for food processing Industry is very narrowly define so potential customer are very few that’s why companies are not able to achieve economies of scales · Absolute Cost Advantages (high) o Apart from economies of scale, established firms may have a cost advantage over entrants simply because they entered earlier. Absolute cost advantages often result from the acquisition or alliances of low-cost sources of raw materials
  97. 97. ·Product Differentiation (high) o In an industry where products are differentiated, established firms possess the advantages of brand recognition and customer loyalty o New entrants to such markets must spend disproportionately heavily on advertising and promotion to gain levels of brand awareness and brand goodwill similar to that of established companies o Alternatively, the new entrant can accept a niche position in the market or can seek to compete by cutting price
  98. 98. · For most industries, this is the major determinant of the competitiveness of the industry. Sometimes rivals compete aggressively and sometimes rivals compete in non-price dimensions such as innovation, marketing, etc. For most industries, the major determinant of the overall state of competition and the general level of profitability is competition among the firms within the industry · Concentration(high) o Seller concentration refers to the number and size distribution of firms competing within a market. It is most commonly measured by the concentration ratio: the combined market share of the leading producers o Where a market is dominated by a small group of leading companies (an oligopoly), price competition may also be restrained, either by outright collusion, or more commonly through “parallelism” of pricing decisions o In markets dominated by two companies, such as soft drinks (Coke and Pepsi), prices tend to be similar and competition focuses on advertising, promotion, and product development
  99. 99. · Diversity of Competitors (low) o The extent to which a group of firms can avoid price competition in favor of collusive pricing practices depends upon how similar they are in terms of origins, objectives, costs, and strategies o In food processing industry it is very low here firm always try to compete rival strategies and there product prices e.g. coke and Pepsi, magi and top Ramon ,Amul ice cream and havmor ice cream etc · Product Differentiation o The more similar the offerings among rival firms, the more willing customers are to substitute and the greater the incentive for firms to cut prices to increase sales o Commodity industries such as food processing agriculture, mining, and petrochemicals tend to be plagued by price wars and low profits
  100. 100. By contrast, in industries where products are highly differentiated (perfumes, pharmaceuticals, restaurants, management consulting services), price competition tends to be weak, even though there may be many firms competing · Excess Capacity and Exit Barriers Why does industry profitability tend to fall so drastically during periods of recession? o The key is the balance between demand and capacity. Unused capacity encourages firms to offer price cuts to attract new business in order to spread fixed costs over a greater sales volume o Excess capacity may be cyclical (e.g. the boom–bust cycle in the semiconductor industry); it may also be part of a structural problem resulting from overinvestment and declining demand. In these latter situations, the key issue is whether excess capacity will leave the industry o Barriers to exit are costs associated with capacity leaving an industry. Where resources are durable and specialized
  101. 101. o The ability of customers to put the firm under pressure and it also affects the customer's sensitivity to price changes. “Customer has enough option to switch so they have less bargaining power.” o The firms in an industry operate in two types of markets: in the markets for inputs and the o markets for outputs. In input markets firms purchase raw materials, components, and o financial and labor services. In the markets for outputs firms sell their goods and services o to customers (who may be distributors, consumers, or other manufacturers) RELATIVE BARGAINING POWER (HIGH) o Bargaining power rests, ultimately, on refusal to deal with the other party. The balance of power between the two parties to a transaction depends on the credibility and effectiveness with which each makes this threat o The key issue is the relative cost that each party sustains as a result of the transaction not being consummated
  102. 102. Suppliers are not Powerful because in food processing industry o Credible forward integration threat by suppliers o Suppliers concentrated o Significant cost to switch suppliers o Customers Powerful Suppliers are Weak because in food processing industry o Many competitive suppliers - product is standardized o Purchase commodity products o Credible backward integration threat by purchasers o Concentrated purchasers o Customers Weak
  103. 103. In Porter's model, substitute products refer to products in other industries.To the economist, a threat of substitutes exists when a product's demand is affected by the price change of a substitute product. A product's price elasticity is affected by substitute products - as more substitutes become available, the demand becomes more elastic since customers have more alternatives. A close substitute product constrains the ability of firms in an industry to raise prices. The existence of close substitute products increases the propensity of customers to switch to alternatives in response to price increases (high elasticity of demand). · buyer propensity to substitute (low) · relative price performance of substitutes(low) · buyer switching costs (high) Pressure from Substitutes Emerges Mainly From Two Factors 1. Switching costs for customers to the substitute. 2. Buyer willingness to search out for substitutes.
  104. 104. Substitution of need We take switching from one product (e.g. natural drink of Dabur) to another (fresh juice from local vendor or prepared at home). In this case, the buyers might be looking out for freshness and might not mind the nominal switching costs Food processing Industry will definitely remain, in one form or the other, as long as the manufacturers manufacture and consumers consume. Food processing industry does not seem to become extinct even in the future.The issue that remains to be addressed is just - what forms it keeps evolving into. The Substitutes of food processing industry are fresh fruits and vegetables and food as a raw material , but they are yet very well developed in India, so their threat are comparatively very high but food processing industry break the boundaries of food product availability in certain season and area that is why food industry will sustain for longer term.
  105. 105. Competitive environment is unattractive from the standpoint of earning good profits when o Rivalry is vigorous o Entry barriers are low and entry is likely o Competition from substitutes is strong o Suppliers and customers have considerable bargaining power Competitive environment is ideal from a profit-making standpoint when o Rivalry is moderate o Entry barriers are high and no firm is likely to enter o Good substitutes do not exist o Suppliers and customers are in a weak bargaining position But food processing industry is little bit attractive but not ideal, it gives considerable profit Because of the following point o Rivalry is moderate o Entry barriers are low and firm is likely to enter o Good have some substitutes but up to certain extant o Suppliers and customers are in a weak bargaining position
  106. 106. The four major segments of the international market are: o Countries like USA, Japan and Australia demand highly organic and functional foods whose preparation involves high technology o Quality and hygiene factors are the drivers in the Eastern European countries o Developing countries like India, China and Latin America focus primarily on snacks, prepared meals and processed meat o Carbohydrates still constitute the major food in the least developed markets. Most of the least developed countries are net importers of food
  107. 107. o Shift toward consumption of higher value food products across all income levels As income grows, consumers in lower income countries shift their food purchases away from carbohydrate-rich staple foods toward more expensive sources of calories, such as meat and dairy products. o The Emergence of the ‘IndieWoman’ These women are 27 and older, live alone and have no children. When they are not busy being social or growing their careers, they also enjoy shopping and spend $50 billion on food and beverages each year. o Healthy Snacking The association between daily snacking frequency and Healthy Eating Index shows that as snacking has increased, and so has individuals' overall diet quality. Healthy options for consumers are on the rise with nearly 60 percent of all snack foods now positioned as better for you.
  108. 108. o Click to Cook Consumers continue to rely on technology for the sake of convenience and saving time. One third of consumers reported using their mobile phone while at the grocery store, most often to refer to shopping lists and recipes. o Supermarkets —The New Culinary Schools Supermarkets are becoming the center of communities. Grocery stores are beginning to offer services such as "community cooking centers" where shoppers can collaborate and learn from each other their careers, they also enjoy shopping and spend $50 billion on food and beverages each year. o Cause Initiatives 62 percent of consumers appreciate and want to support companies that donate to important social causes and thus fulfil a greater purpose by serving the larger community.
  109. 109. o Retailer Becomes the Brand Consumers have become increasingly loyal to their preferred retailer and its products. 53 percent of consumers shop at a particular retailer because it has good private brand products. o New Way to Start the Day Breakfast remains one of the most important meals of the day, with 74 percent reporting that they eat breakfast regularly at home. Consumers look to add more protein like eggs, meats, and Greek yogurt, as well as whole grain products, for their breakfast to live a healthy lifestyle without compromising taste and indulgence. o Packaging Packaging of food is evolving where canned soups shifted to carton packaging with more than 58 percent of all broth products transitioning into cartons. Packaging to become ‘touch’ sensitive to reveal additional information is the new demand of the consumer.
  110. 110. o Millennials Make the Supermarket Social The millennial generation's fascination with social media begins to overflow into other parts of their lives including the supermarket. In fact, 57 percent of Pinterest, the pinboard-style photo-sharing web site, is made of food related content with 33 percent of Pinterest users saying they have purchased food or cooking items after seeing them on site. o International Restaurant Flavors At Home The surge of Latino and Asian populations, along with growing consumer interest in adding more flavour and variety to mealtime, has led to more growth opportunities for South American, Indian and Middle Eastern cuisines in processed food.
  111. 111. o Packaging for Convenience • Longer working hours and the increasing share of working women have driven consumers to seek convenient/easy-to use packages, including spouted beverage pouches, easy open end cans, and easy dispensing laundry care closures. • This has fuelled demand for small packs of liquid cartons, PET bottles, metal beverage cans, as well as thin-walled plastic containers. • A unique technological development for ready meals. With this trend, the packaging processes are expected to move up the technology ladder, such as methods for hot filling, aseptic packaging and form-fill seal in flexible packaging. o Spiralling material costs Although the market has been expanding, rising packaging prices in 2010, especially for kraft paper, aluminium foil and plastics (accentuated by the surging crude oil prices), are thinning margins of consumer goods companies.
  112. 112. o Capitalising on flexibility • A big chunk of Indian consumers with low purchasing power continue to fuel the demand for low unit prices, hence the prevalence of small sized packs • Energised by the sachet success story, new categories like biscuits and crisps have moved to mini packs too. o Liquid potential • Liquid cartons has seen strong growth considering the huge marketing effort being made by Tetra Pak for this pack type and because its ambient shelf life is especially suitable for retailing. • Flexible packaging remains king, due to cost competitiveness but its biggest challenge is the adverse impact on the environment created by its disposal.
  113. 113. o Organised retail design • Shift from old-fashioned small scale retailing to organised large stores, product manufacturers have had to modernise packs. Milk, for example, shifted from being sold loose to flexible plastic pillow packs and now into premium liquid cartons. • Brands and packers are paying greater attention to pack design in order to help products break through shelf clutter
  114. 114. o Tighter Legislation • Legislation has progressively tightened on flexible packaging to help reduce its adverse environmental impact. Recycling initiatives have risen in tandem with rising packaging waste. • Low cost manufacturing advantage and special technological capabilities, including laminates/flexible packaging, flattened cans, closures and paperboard, will prove to be unique competitive advantages.
  115. 115. o Government of India has allowed 100% FDI under automatic route in food processing sector o Government has made plan allocation of Rs 5990 crore to implement various schemes for promotions and development of food processing sector o Ministry of Food Processing Industries and ‘Invest India’ have entered into an agreement for the setting up of an Investors' “Help Desk” for offering online support to investors, both domestic and international, with regard to their queries, and guide them particularly at the initial stage of setting up their units o Government has set up National Institute for Food Technology Entrepreneurship & Management to offer high quality educational research and management programme specific to the food industry
  116. 116. o Ministry has launched a Centrally Sponsored Scheme namely, National Mission on Food Processing during the 12th Plan to be implemented through State/UT Governments o Income Tax Reduction of 100% of profit for five year and 25% of profits for the next five years in case of new food processing industries o Exemption limit of excise duty for Small Scale Industry raised from Rs.1 crore to Rs.1.5 crores Excise duty on reefer vans reduced from 16% to 8% and on dairy machinery has been fully exempt for promotion of dairy processing industries. Excise duty on condensed milk, ice cream, preparations of meat, fish and poultry, pectins, pasta and yeast, soya and ready- to- eat packaged foods is fully exempt o Custom duty reduced from 7.5% to 5% on food processing machinery and packaging machinery from 15% to 5%
  117. 117. o Ministry of Food Processing Industry o Food Corporation of India o Food Safety and Standards Authority of India o Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution o National Food Processing Development Council o Agriculture and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority o Export Inspection Council o The Bureau of International Standard
  118. 118. Multiple laws/regulations prescribe varied standards regarding food additives, contaminants, food colours, preservatives and labelling.The food laws in India are enforced by the Director General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Laws applicable to Packaged Food Industry are: o Prevention of Food Adulteration Act (PFA), 1954 and Rules (Ministry of Health & Family Welfare) o The Standards of Weights and Measures Act, 1976, and Standards of Weights and Measures (Packaged Commodities) Rules, 1977 o Fruit Products Order (FPO), 1995 o Meat Food Products Order, 1973 (MFPO) o Milk and Milk Products Order, 1992 o Edible Oils Packaging, 1998 o Food and Safety Standards Act, 2006 (FSSA)
  119. 119. The Prevention of Food Adulteration Act 1954 was enacted by Central Government to strengthen the system for preventing adulteration in articles of food. Under Section 23 of the Act, the responsibility of implementation of PFA vests in State Government and Union Territories. Each State Government and Union Territory has created its own structure for implementation of the Act. Objective: o To protect the public from poisonous and harmful foods o To prevent the sale of substandard foods o To protect the interests of the consumers by eliminating fraudulent practices Salient Features of the Act include: o Concept of Adulteration o Prohibition of Sale of Certain Admixtures o Procedure for Sampling and Analysis o Penalties o Important Miscellaneous Provisions
  120. 120. The Standard of Weights and Measures Act 1976 was the first enactment by which the uniform standard weights and measures, based on the metric system was established. o Salient Features of the Act include: o Establishment of weights and measures based on SI unit, as adopted by CGPM and recognized by OIM o Prescription of specification of measuring instruments used in commercial transactions, industrial production involved in public Health and Human Safety o Regulation of inter-state trade and commerce in weights and measures and commodities sold, distributed, or supplied o Regulation of pre-packaged commodities sold or intended to be sold in the course of inter-state and commerce o Approval (before manufacture) of models of weights and measuring instrument intended to be manufactured o Control and regulation of import and export of weights and measures and commodities in packaged form o Establishment of an Indian Institute of Legal Metrology to provide training to inspectors and others o Inspection of weighing and measuring instruments during their use to prevent fraudulent practices o Power to file a case in the court for prosecution o Prescribe fee for services rendered o Appeal Provisions o Power to make rules for implementing the provisions of the Act
  121. 121. Fruit Products Order 1955, promulgated under Section 3 of the Essential Commodities Act - 1955, with an objective to manufacture fruit & vegetable products maintaining sanitary and hygienic conditions in the premises and quality standards laid down in the Order. It is mandatory for all manufacturers of fruit and vegetable products including some non fruit products like non fruit vinegar, syrup and sweetened aerated water to obtain a license under this Order. Following minimum requirements are laid down in the Fruit Product Order for hygienic production and quality standards: o Location and surroundings of the factory o Sanitary and hygienic conditions of premises o Personnel hygiene o Portability of water o Machinery & Equipment with installed capacity o Quality control facility & Technical staff o Product Standards o Limits for preservatives & other additives
  122. 122. Milk and Milk Products Sector is regulated by Milk and Milk Products Order 1992 (MMPO), which is administered by the Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying, under the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. Every person engaged in the business of handling, processing or manufacturing milk or milk product shall, in regard to the items of milk and milk product manufactured and the packing, marking and labeling of containers shall comply with the following: o Product related to those items should be certified by the Officer authorized o Where certificate is issued to any person in relation to any item, such person will be authorized to place an emblem of certification on packaged goods o The label on packaged good shall not contain any statement, claim, design or device which is false or misleading in any manner concerning milk or milk product contained in the package or about the quality or the nutritive value or of the place of origin of the same o A holder or registration certificate shall not pack milk or any milk product other than those processed or manufactured by him or those obtained from any other person holding a registration certificate
  123. 123. Processing of Meat Products are licensed under Meat Food Products Order (MFPO) 1973 is implemented by Ministry of Food Processing Industry. The order has undergone 11 amendments since its inception. Some of them being: o Inclusion of Fish and Fish Products o Frozen Meat covered o Chilled Meat producers can procure MFPO license on voluntary basis Objectives of the MFPO, 1973: o Regulate production and sale of meat food products through licensing of manufacturers o Enforce sanitary and hygienic conditions prescribed for production of wholesome meat food products o Exercise strict quality control at all stages of production of meat food products, fish products including chilled poultry etc. Under the provision of MFPO all manufacturers of meat food products engaged in the business of manufacturing, packing, repacking, relabeling meat food products meant for sale are licensed but excluding those manufacturers who manufactures such products for consumption on the spot. Depending on the source of meat the manufacturers are licensed under category A, B & C. Presently, 280-300 units that are licensed under MFPO
  124. 124. In order to ensure availability of safe and quality edible oils in packed form at pre-determined prices to the consumers, the Central Govt. promulgated an Edible Oils Packaging (Regulation) Order, 1998 under the Essential Commodities Act, 1955 to make packaging of edible oils, sold in retail, compulsory unless specifically exempted by the concerned State Govt. Salient Features of Act include: o Edible oils including edible mustard oil will be allowed to be sold only in packed form from 15th December, 1998 o Packers will have to register themselves with a registering authority o The packer will have to have his own analytical facilities or adequate arrangements for testing the samples of edible oils to the satisfaction of the Government o Only oils which conform to the standards of quality as specified in the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 and Rules made there under will be allowed to be packed o Each container or pack will have to show all relevant particulars so that the consumer is not misled, so also the identity of the packer becomes clear o Edible oils shall be packed in conformity with the Standards of Weights and Measures (Packaged Commodities) Rules, 1977, and the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 and Rules made there under o The State Governments will have power to relax any requirement of the packaging order for meeting special circumstances
  125. 125. The FSSA, 2006 aims to integrate the food safety laws in the country in order to scientifically and systematically develop the food processing industry and shift from a regulatory regime to self-compliance.Thus introduce a single statute relating to food. Salient features of the Act: o Defines the concept of ‘sub-standard’ and ‘unsafe’ food o Emphasis on the need of risk assessment and not trade restriction o Provisions relating to functional and novel food, packaging and labelling food o Import of articles of food o Responsibilities of food business operator o Liability of manufacturers, packers, wholesalers, distributors and sellers o Food recall procedures o Graded penalties for offenses/violations o Licensing and registration of food business o Improvement notices
  126. 126. o Pasta Products • Increased awareness of Italian cuisine, especially popular amongst vegetarians • Current market size of imported pasta is 5200 tonnes with growth rate of 26% • Top selling brands include Barilla and San Remo o Sauces and Dressing • Salad Dressing • Sauce – Tomato, chili, soya, garlic sauces are popular. Famous brands include Remia,Barilla, Prego and Tabasco • Honey – growing at a 150% per annum. Famous brands include Wescobee Honey and Airborne Honey o Dairy Products • Yoghurt • Cheese – occupies 5% of market share. Famous brands include Laughing Cow and Kraft o Olive Oil
  127. 127. Imported Food Ingredients suppliers can enter the Indian Market in 3 ways: o Supply directly to local food producers o Supply through local agents/distributors to local food producers o Start production/distribution in India
  128. 128. o Importers must furnish an Import Declaration in the prescribed Bill of Entry Format, disclosing the value of the imported goods o This must be accompanied by import licenses and phytosanitary certificates along with other documentation like sale invoices, freight and insurance certificates o The clearance of the imported products at the port of entry requires certification from the Port Health Authority that the product conforms to the standards and regulations of PFA o The customs experience may last between 1 day to 1 month depending on the product and experience of the importer o Incase of dispute or rejection of the consignment, the importer can file an appeal at the Customs Office
  129. 129. o Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is permissible for all the processed food products up to 100% on automatic route except for items reserved for Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) ` o For manufacture of items reserved for MSEs, FDI is permissible under automatic route up to 24%. . o If foreign investment is more than 24 per cent, it will require government route. Such an undertaking would require Industrial License under Industries (Development & Regulation), Act 1951.
  130. 130. Annual flow of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows to Processed Food sector in the country during the last few years
  131. 131. Fixed Capital in Processed Food industry stood at Rs. 1,20,705 Crore growing at an AAGR of 21.66 per cent between 2006-2011
  132. 132. o Exports have shown Average Annual Growth Rate (AAGR) of 20.4 per cent for five years ending 2012-13. Source: DGCIS, Kolkata
  133. 133. o Export Inspection Council, the official certification body of the Government of India for sound development of export trade through quality control and inspection o Certification of quality, health and safety of food items for export by installation through Food Safety Management Systems in the food processing units o Issue of various types of certificates such as Health, Authority, non-GMO to exporters under various schemes of export products o Issue of certificates of origin to exporters under various preferential tariff schemes for export products o Laboratory Testing
  134. 134. Packaged food is expected to continue grow positively with o Increasing urbanization o Expansion of organized retail o Rising incomes o Changing lifestyles o Local flavors in the portfolio o Stronger distribution These factors will further strengthen companies’ presence, particularly in the rural market.
  135. 135. o Several Government Plan Schemes provide financial assistance for setting up and modernizing food processing units, creation of infrastructure, support for research and development and human resource development in addition to other promotional measures to encourage the growth of the processed food sector. o The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) has estimated that the food processing sector has the potential of attracting US$ 33 billion of investment in 10 years and generate employment of 9 million person-days. o Though the industry is large in size, it is still at a nascent stage in terms of development of the country's total agriculture and food produce, only 2 per cent is processed.
  136. 136. o The dairy sector has the highest percentage share of processed food, with 37 per cent of total produce processed, of this only 15 per cent is processed by the organized sector. o The sector is expected to attract phenomenal investments of about Rs 1,400 billion in the next decade The food processing industry in the country is on track to ensure profitability in the coming decades.
  137. 137. o Britannia India Ltd to increase its rural distribution reach for increasing consumption of food products in rural markets. o The company has plans to increase overall distribution focusing on rural coverage. o Ice cream manufacturers are looking at the rural market but the largest bottle necks the companies face is the lack of cold chain. Hence companies are looking at ways to work around this. o Example: Vadilal Industries Ltd has provided special deep freezers to distributors to ensure that they can tap into the rural market.
  138. 138. o Private label producers such as Star Bazaar and Reliance Fresh are becoming prominent in the landscape of packaged food. o Many private label brands, including Tasty Treat from Food Bazaar, have captured a significant value share. o Trent Hypermarket also introduced a range of breakfast cereals in the flakes category. o Newer products, such as frozen processed food, margarine, pasta, cheese, sauces and spreads, which are finding increased use in foreign cuisines, are likely to experience a rise in demand from foodservice operators.
  139. 139. o The increased presence of such products in foodservice is also likely to fuel growth in the retail channel over the forecast period. o Mrs Bector’s Food Specialities Pvt Ltd has plans to sell a controlling stake in the biscuit business and is in talks with private equity investors. The firm has appointed Avendus Capital to advise in the sale. o Branded foodservice players such as Mrs Bector’s Food Specialities and Venky’s India are likely to focus on quality in order to meet the quality standards set by international players.
  140. 140. o Britannia Industries acquires the entire stake of Fonterra, the company’s joint venture partner since 2002 in Britannia New Zealand Foods Pvt. Ltd, which is engaged in the dairy business. o Britannia Industries entered into an agreement with Fonterra Brands (Mauritius Holding) Ltd, Mauritius, for acquiring the latter’s 49 per cent equity and preference shareholding in Britannia New Zealand Foods Pvt. Ltd (BNZF). o Britannia Industries Ltd has plans to enhance its position to become a comprehensive food company, offering a range of products from bakery to dairy. o Del Monte plans to enter the Indian snacks market with a range of fruit snacks in the forecast period, targeting health conscious consumers. o Sresta Natural Bioproducts, which owns the organic brand 24Mantra, has plans to introduce new products, including a healthy snacking range.
  141. 141. o The Central Arecanut and Cocoa Marketing and Processing Cooperative Ltd (Campco) has plans to launch Dairy Dream, a cocoa butter-based premium chocolate. o Amul has plans to venture into a new territory – the fast-growing cookie category – by setting up a plant to produce 20 tonnes of cookies a day. o Frito-Lay India has plans to acquire a stake in Balaji Wafers Pvt Ltd.The deal could help PepsiCo increase its share of the fast-growing snacks market in India, where it has been losing out to local players. o Balaji Wafers Pvt Ltd has a very strong presence in the Indian market, particularly in West India. Domestic players like Balaji Wafers Pvt Ltd, Prakash Snacks Pvt Ltd, Parle Products Ltd, Capital Foods Ltd used the strategy of developing products catering to regional tastes and ramping up their distribution in small towns through direct sales forces and sub- stockists.
  142. 142. Premiumisation in Impulse and Indulgence Products o Increased disposable incomes among the middle class, thus consumers are on the lookout for premium offerings. Indian consumers have shown a willingness to pay extra for indulgence even when unit prices are soaring. o Ice cream in India has seen the entry of several premium international brands, like Häagen- Dazs, Swensen’s, Magnum and Mini Melts. Hindustan Unilever Ltd launched its global brand Magnum in India in March 2013. o Similarly, Vadilal Industries Ltd, which is known for its mass and standard priced brands, has formulated a strategy to focus on higher end products. For instance, the company launched its Artisan range, including ice cream log, ice cream pastry, Sneak-a-Bar, Kewara Mataka Kulfi and the Falalaa brand.
  143. 143. Adults’ Demand for premium chocolate increased o Premium chocolates, such as Chocoladefabriken Lindt & Sprüngli, expanded their presence in premium stores such as Brown Tree in urban areas. o Nestlé India Ltd introduced premium confectionery Alpino priced at Rs25 for a pack of two bite-sized chocolates. o Sales of premium chocolates were supported further as consumers continued to prefer giving premium chocolates on occasions such as traditional Indian festivals, for example Diwali and Raksha Bandhan. o Cadbury brought in Toblerone to expand the gift giving chocolate segment, along with launching variants of its Bournville brand. Mars International India also launched its vegetarian Snickers chocolate in the country.
  144. 144. Premiumisation in Biscuits category o Parle G is a well-known mass brand of biscuits, which has been expanded to a premium quality variant under the brand name Parle G Gold. o The company claims that this biscuit is bigger, with a richer formulation. o Brands like Dark Fantasy Choco Fills and Hide & Seek are present.These premium brands are showcased with attractive packaging to portray a high-end brand image. Premiumisation in Biscuits category o Cremica launched Opera cottage style chips in four variants – Cheese Jalapeño, Piri Piri, Italian Herbs and Salt & Black Pepper – in Mumbai.These are premium chips priced at Rs50 for 60g.
  145. 145. o Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation, which owns the Amul brand, has identified the rural market as a strategic thrust area and has made giant strides to improve its distribution in rural India. o Hindustan Unilever Ltd’s Project Shakti received a technology boost in 2012.The company claims that about 40,000 Shakti Ammas (local entrepreneurs) were equipped with a basic smartphone with software to enable them to take and bill orders, manage inventory and receive updates on promotional schemes run by the company. o Dabur India Ltd uses hand-held devices to generate data, which is then used to decipher buying patterns and customise selling strategies. ITC Ltd has also invested in in-store visibility in rural markets and has leveraged Choupal Haats (village meeting places) in rural India for enhanced consumer engagement with the brands.
  146. 146. Digitization Of Means Of Communication o Companies are expected to reach rural consumers through mobile phones and televisions, which have penetrated well in the rural market. Companies are expected to develop value proposition products as rural consumers become more demanding. Penetration of Smaller SKUs o The launch of products at prices like Rs5 and Rs10 is helping companies protect their market share. For instance, Kellogg’s India has launched breakfast cereals priced at Rs10 which are mainly targeted at rural and semi-urban consumers. o Packaging companies like Tetra Pak is betting big on the rural India for which it is preparing to introduce smaller sized packs. For the rural areas, the company is focusing on different pack sizes which vary from 100ml, 200ml, 250ml, 500ml and 1,000ml, and also 65ml. Nestlé has launched smaller items of confectionery under its existing brands at Rs2 and Rs5 each to push rural sales.
  147. 147. North East o International manufacturers are expected to focus on introducing smaller pack sizes at lower price points to maintain the affordability of products. o The focus will mainly be on mass products, as premium products are not affordable for the great majority of consumers in the region. o ITC Ltd, in partnership with Keventer Agro Ltd, has plans to establish a manufacturing facility for Sunfeast Yippie! Noodles in Kolkata. The company states that the Rs500 million manufacturing unit will have capacity to manufacture 50 tonnes of instant noodles.
  148. 148. North o Along with large cities, growth has started coming from smaller cities as well, mainly because of the influence of media advertisements, the rising interest of consumers and promotional activities by companies. o Health and wellness will be seen across all product categories over the forecast period. Probiotic and sugar-free concepts in ice cream, low absorption factor in oils, and high-fibre and low-sugar biscuits and baked snacks have yet to establish a presence. o However, natural products, such as olive oil and oats, are likely to gain sales. A challenge for health and wellness products is consumer price sensitivity and low awareness of health benefits amongst consumers.
  149. 149. o A comparative analysis of the top five industries on basis of Market Capitalization and Net Profit Margin are as follows o We see that it may not necessarily be the case that the largest segments are the most profitable.While Auto Manufacturers account for the largest share of Market capitalization with $ 296 billion, it continues to have among the lowest profitability at 1.8%
  150. 150. o For the packaged food industry, the players must deal with a number of internal and external pressures and demands. o The fundamental principles to be followed should be directed towards protecting/increasing profits as well as reducing costs related to o Supply-chain management – Net asset turns on raw materials and finished goods inventories, efficient sourcing decisions and reducing scrap or return rates o Manufacturing – Improving operational efficiency and employee productivity o Information technology – Cost containment and outsourcing, standardization and consolidation of server assets, increasing reusability, and an application infrastructure that protects and maximizes key databases and information assets o Mergers, acquisitions, breakups and spin-offs