K.D.K COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
NAGPUR.
PROJECT SEMINAR
ON
“AUTOMATIC LOAD SHARING OF TRANSFORMERS
USING GSM TECHNIQUE”
• pro...
CONTENTS
• INTRODUCTION
• OVERVIEW OF PREVIOUS SEMINAR
• OBJECTIVES
• BLOCK DIAGRAM
• CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
• POWER SUPPLY
• TRA...
INTRODUCTION
• The Project is all about the protecting transformer under
overload condition.
• Drop in efficiency and over...
OVERVIEW OF PREVIOUS SEMINAR
• PIC Microcontroller
• Transformers
• Precision rectifiers
• Current transformer
• Voltage t...
OBJECTIVES
• The main aim of the project is transformer sharing
whenever load is increased for certain value and also
send...
BLOCK DIAGRAM
EXPLANATION OF BLOCK DIAGRAM
• TRANSFORMER
– two parallel transformers for sharing load
• RELAYS and RELAY DRIVER
– It is ...
BLOCK DIAGRAM Cont’d
• Precision rectifier
– converts AC current to DC current
• PIC MICROCONTROLLER
– It compares voltage...
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
EXPLANATION OF CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
• 230 v ac supply is step down using CT and PT
• Whole circuit operates on 5 v or 12v suppl...
PARTS OF CIRCUIT
• Power supply
• PIC microcontroller
• Current measurement
• Voltage measurement
• Relay
POWER SUPPLY
• Whole circuitry work on +5v,+12v & -12v DC power
• Supply of 230v AC is applied to the transformer
• By usi...
TRANSFORMER RECTIFIER FILTER
IC
REGULATOR
LOAD
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF POWER SUPPLY
DESCRIPTION OF POWER SUPPLY
• Transformer
– 230v AC is step down to 5v and 12v as per requirement of
circuitry
• Rectifier...
TRANSFORMER
• An electrically isolated but magnetically coupled
device, which transformed electrical power from one
circui...
TRANSFORMER Cont’d
• There are basically two types
– Step Down transformer
– Step Up transformer
• We are using step down ...
RECTIFIER
• It is a circuit which converts AC to DC
• Output of a rectifier is not pure DC, it is pulsating DC
• There are...
BRIDGE RECTIFIER
230VAC
P S
0
9
D1 D2
D3 D4
4*1N4007
1000mF
25V 10mF
25V
7805
1
2
3
+
-
GND
+5V/500mA
+5V POWER SUPPLY
+
-...
WORKING OF BRIDGE RECTIFIER
• At +ve half cycle there is +ve potential at node A and –ve
potential at node B
• Due to whic...
FILTERS
• An element or device which removes unwanted
signals from the supply is called as filters
• Rectifier output is i...
IC REGULATOR
IC REGULATOR Cont’d
• Regulator IC is the IC which provides the fixed
voltage to the different components even if the inpu...
PIC MICROCONTROLLER
• PIC stand for programmable interrupt controller
• PICs are popular for low cost, wide availability, ...
PIN CONFIGURATION OF MICROCONTROLLER
PIC MICROCONTROLLER
•Pin no 3-current measurement
•The output of current measurements are given to microcontroller through...
PIC MICROCONTROLLER Cont’d
• Pin no 13,14-crystal oscillator
• Crystal oscillator generates about 1200MHZ of frequency
whi...
VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT
VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT Cont’d
• Potential transformer(PT) is use to monitor the
supply voltage
• Supply voltage that has to b...
CURRENT MEASUREMENT
CURRENT MEASUREMENT Cont’d
• Current transformer(CT) is use to step down
current
• The circuit is design to monitor the su...
RELAYS
RELAYS Cont’d
• It is an electromagnetic device which is use as switch
• it has a magnetic coil which is use to connect or...
CIRCUIT LAYOUT
ADVANTAGES
• It prevents circuitry from damage
• Avoid interruption in power supply
• Remove power black out at pick hours...
DISADVANTAGES
• Cost of whole circuitry will increased
• Circuitry become bulky
FUTURE SCOPE
• GSM-(global system for mobile
communication)
– GSM is globally accepted standard for digital
cellular commu...
REFERENCES
• Electrical technology volume 3rd and 4th by- B. L.
Theraja,1st edition 1959,reprint 2008
• Advance microproce...
THANK YOU
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  1. 1. K.D.K COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING NAGPUR. PROJECT SEMINAR ON “AUTOMATIC LOAD SHARING OF TRANSFORMERS USING GSM TECHNIQUE” • projectee- NIKHIL S HIWAREGUIDED BY: Prof. A. W. Pardhi sir DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING SESSION – 2012-2013
  2. 2. CONTENTS • INTRODUCTION • OVERVIEW OF PREVIOUS SEMINAR • OBJECTIVES • BLOCK DIAGRAM • CIRCUIT DIAGRAM • POWER SUPPLY • TRANSFORMER • RECTIFIER • BRIDGE RECTIFIER • FILTERS • IC REGULATOR • PIC MICROCONTROLLER • VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT • CURRENT MEASUREMENT • RELAYS • CIRCUIT LAYOUT • ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES • FUTURE SCOPE • REFERENCES • THANKYOU
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION • The Project is all about the protecting transformer under overload condition. • Drop in efficiency and overheating in secondary winding can be prevented with the help of this project. • Load sharing of the transformer is possible with the help of this project theme and the life of the transformer is increased. • The project is also used as a Un-interrupted power supply (UPS) • If short circuit fault is occurs the transformer will get protected.
  4. 4. OVERVIEW OF PREVIOUS SEMINAR • PIC Microcontroller • Transformers • Precision rectifiers • Current transformer • Voltage transformer • Relay driver circuit with relays • GSM
  5. 5. OBJECTIVES • The main aim of the project is transformer sharing whenever load is increased for certain value and also sending this change in information to the respective authority via SMS by using GSM modem • The objective of this project is to protect the Domestic supply and Power Transformers from over load power.
  6. 6. BLOCK DIAGRAM
  7. 7. EXPLANATION OF BLOCK DIAGRAM • TRANSFORMER – two parallel transformers for sharing load • RELAYS and RELAY DRIVER – It is electrically operated switch – It disconnect circuit when current flow becomes greater than desired value – Both relays are controlled by relay driver • CURRENT TRANSFORMER – It is a step down transformer – divide current according to load
  8. 8. BLOCK DIAGRAM Cont’d • Precision rectifier – converts AC current to DC current • PIC MICROCONTROLLER – It compares voltage with reference value – It drive a relay circuit as per the reference value and actual value • GSM MODEM – It performs digital cellular communication – IT gives digital information to respective authority via SMS
  9. 9. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
  10. 10. EXPLANATION OF CIRCUIT DIAGRAM • 230 v ac supply is step down using CT and PT • Whole circuit operates on 5 v or 12v supply, this supply provided by using bridge rectifier • The output of CT and PT given to current and voltage measurement circuit • PIC microcontroller compares the output of both circuits with reference value • Reference value are given by using keypad to the microcontroller • Relay are operated by PIC microcontroller • LCD displays the value of load
  11. 11. PARTS OF CIRCUIT • Power supply • PIC microcontroller • Current measurement • Voltage measurement • Relay
  12. 12. POWER SUPPLY • Whole circuitry work on +5v,+12v & -12v DC power • Supply of 230v AC is applied to the transformer • By using transformer, rectifier, filters, IC regulators etc. we get the desired output
  13. 13. TRANSFORMER RECTIFIER FILTER IC REGULATOR LOAD BLOCK DIAGRAM OF POWER SUPPLY
  14. 14. DESCRIPTION OF POWER SUPPLY • Transformer – 230v AC is step down to 5v and 12v as per requirement of circuitry • Rectifier – It converts the AC supply in to the pulsating DC supply • Filters – It removes the ripples from the DC supply which are coming from the rectifier • IC regulator – IC regulator is providing the fixed DC voltage which load (i.e. relays and PIC microcontroller) required
  15. 15. TRANSFORMER • An electrically isolated but magnetically coupled device, which transformed electrical power from one circuit to another circuit without changing frequency is called TRANSFORMER • It accomplishes this by electromagnetic induction
  16. 16. TRANSFORMER Cont’d • There are basically two types – Step Down transformer – Step Up transformer • We are using step down transformer • CT and PT are step down transformer
  17. 17. RECTIFIER • It is a circuit which converts AC to DC • Output of a rectifier is not pure DC, it is pulsating DC • There are basically two types of rectifier – Half wave rectifier – Full wave rectifier • Bridge rectifier • We are using Bridge rectifier to get desired DC output voltage of +5v,+12v and -12v
  18. 18. BRIDGE RECTIFIER 230VAC P S 0 9 D1 D2 D3 D4 4*1N4007 1000mF 25V 10mF 25V 7805 1 2 3 + - GND +5V/500mA +5V POWER SUPPLY + - 230VAC P S D4 4*1N4007 25V 25V 25V 25V 1000mF 1000mF 10mF 10mF 1 2 21 3 3 D1 D2 D3 - - -- + + ++ GND +12V -12V 7812 7912 15 15 +12V AND -12V POWER SUPPLY Circuit Diagram (Power Supply) a b c d d a b c
  19. 19. WORKING OF BRIDGE RECTIFIER • At +ve half cycle there is +ve potential at node A and –ve potential at node B • Due to which D1 and D4 are in forward bias and D2 and D3 are work in reverse bias, we get DC voltage of +ve half cycle • Similarly at -ve half cycle there is +ve potential at node B and –ve potential at node A • Due to which D2 and D3 are in forward bias and D1 and D4 are work in reverse bias, we get DC voltage of -ve half cycle • When the operation of full wave bridge rectifier is complete, we get output that is pulsating DC.
  20. 20. FILTERS • An element or device which removes unwanted signals from the supply is called as filters • Rectifier output is in the form of pulsating DC which contain certain ripples • To remove this ripples and to get pure DC supply filters are used • In Bridge rectifier capacitor works as filter which removes AC ripple components from the rectifier output
  21. 21. IC REGULATOR
  22. 22. IC REGULATOR Cont’d • Regulator IC is the IC which provides the fixed voltage to the different components even if the input of the regulator IC is vary • Regulator IC units contain the circuitry for reference source, comparator amplifier, control device, and overload protection all in a single IC • In our project we are using 7805,7812,7912 IC regulator
  23. 23. PIC MICROCONTROLLER • PIC stand for programmable interrupt controller • PICs are popular for low cost, wide availability, large user base, free development tools and serial programming (and reprogramming with flash memory) capability so we are using PIC microcontroller • PIC microcontroller is the first RISC base microcontroller
  24. 24. PIN CONFIGURATION OF MICROCONTROLLER
  25. 25. PIC MICROCONTROLLER •Pin no 3-current measurement •The output of current measurements are given to microcontroller through this pin •According to the measurement microcontroller giving the signal to various component of the circuit •Pin no 8,9,10,18,23-keypad •Keypad is connected through the microcontroller via this pins •The reference values of current and voltages through keypad to microcontroller •Pin no 1-reset •The microcontrollers data is reset via this pins •Pin no 12,31-gnd •This pins are connected to the ground
  26. 26. PIC MICROCONTROLLER Cont’d • Pin no 13,14-crystal oscillator • Crystal oscillator generates about 1200MHZ of frequency which is called oscillating frequency • Microcontroller works on oscillating frequency • Pin no 33,34-realy circuit • Relays are operated via this pins of microcontroller • Pin no 19,20,21,22,27,28,29,30-LCD • This pins of microcontroller are given to the LCD display unit • LCD display the load values • Pin no 11,32-VCC • Fixed voltage is given to the microcontroller via this pins
  27. 27. VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT
  28. 28. VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT Cont’d • Potential transformer(PT) is use to monitor the supply voltage • Supply voltage that has to be monitor is step down by PT • The step down voltage is rectified by bridge rectifier • Different DC voltage which required by relay and PIC are to be given by using IC regulator • The function of voltage measurement is to provide step down voltage
  29. 29. CURRENT MEASUREMENT
  30. 30. CURRENT MEASUREMENT Cont’d • Current transformer(CT) is use to step down current • The circuit is design to monitor the supply current • The step down current is converted by voltage with the help of shunt register
  31. 31. RELAYS
  32. 32. RELAYS Cont’d • It is an electromagnetic device which is use as switch • it has a magnetic coil which is use to connect or disconnect the transformer • It is electrically operated switch • It disconnect circuit when current flow becomes greater than desired value • Both relays are controlled by relay driver • If the current consumption is above 50% then the lower relay get switch OFF through the relay driver circuit. • IF the current consumption is above 80% then the all relay get switch OFF through the relay driver circuit.
  33. 33. CIRCUIT LAYOUT
  34. 34. ADVANTAGES • It prevents circuitry from damage • Avoid interruption in power supply • Remove power black out at pick hours • Accident prevention • Transformer safety
  35. 35. DISADVANTAGES • Cost of whole circuitry will increased • Circuitry become bulky
  36. 36. FUTURE SCOPE • GSM-(global system for mobile communication) – GSM is globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication – Frequency range 900MHZ to 1990MHZ – PIC microcontroller sends actual load value to the authority via SMS by using GSM – In our project we are using only transmitter to transmit the data – In our project we are not yet get the required frequency GSM
  37. 37. REFERENCES • Electrical technology volume 3rd and 4th by- B. L. Theraja,1st edition 1959,reprint 2008 • Advance microprocessor and microcontrollers by- A. P. Godse,3rd edition 2003 • Linear integrated circuits J.S. Katre, 4th edition 2002 • IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics, vol. 19, no. 6, November 2004 1551by-Mohammad N. Marwali, Member, IEEE, Jin-Woo Jung, Student Member, IEEE, and Ali Keyhani, Fellow, IEEE
  38. 38. THANK YOU

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