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Module 1

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  • Organizational behavior can be examined at 3 levels: organizational, group, and individual. OB is particularly important to managers.
  • Figure 1.3 illustrates how the text covers the three levels of organizational behavior. Part I includes chapters 2-9. Part 2 includes chapters 10-15. Part 3 includes chapters 16-18.
  • Theory X and Theory Y This CTR relates to the material on p. 273. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor proposed two theories of how human beings view themselves. After studying the way managers treated their employees, McGregor concluded that managers based their decisions on group of assumptions about what motivates individuals and then shapes her or his behavior toward employees to align with those assumptions. He labeled each hypothetical set of assumptions Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X. Under Theory X, managers take an essentially negative view of human nature. Four assumptions of this perspective are: (1) Employees inherently dislike work and whenever possible will attempt to avoid it. (2). Because employees inherently dislike work they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve desired goals. (3) Employees will shirk responsibilities and seek form direction whenever possible. (4) Most workers place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition. Theory Y. Under Theory Y, managers take an essentially positive view of human nature. Four assumptions of this perspective are: (1) Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play. (2) Men and women will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives. (3) The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility. (4) The ability to make good decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province of managers. Discussion note: The text notes that McGregor believed in Theory Y as a more adaptive managerial philosophy. From the standpoint of Maslow’s Hierarchy, Theory X focuses on lower level needs while Theory Y emphasizes higher level needs. Given that managers of both styles can be successful, you might wish to discuss the demand characteristics or self-fulfilling prophecy effects of managerial styles: people behave the way you expect/treat them.
  • 2
  • 4 Figure 1.1 illustrates how organizational behavior concepts and theories allow people to correctly understand, describe, and analyze the characteristics of individuals, groups, work situations, and the organization itself.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Module one
    • 2.
      • What is Organisation Behaviour?
      • Some Definitions
      • Why study organisational behaviour?
      • Elements of Organisational behaviour
      • Contributing factors
      • Evolution of OB
      • Role of a Manager
      • Models of Organisational Behaviour
      • Learning Organisations
    • 3.
      • The study and application of how employees behave within organizations
      • Known as people skills
      • Field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behavior within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization.
    • 4.
      • O.B. is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals , groups and structures have on behaviour within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organization’s effectiveness.
      • O.B. can be defined as the systematic study of the actions and reactions of individuals, groups and sub-systems.
      • O.B. is the study and understanding of individual and group behaviour, patterns of structure in order to to help improve organizational performance and effectiveness.
      • O.B. is one of the most complex and perhaps least understood academic elements of modern general management, but since it concerns the behaviour of people within organizations it is also one of the most central- its concern with individual and group patterns of behaviour makes it an essential element in dealing with the complex behavioural issues thrown up in the modern business world.
      • O.B. is an inter-disciplinary behaviour science studying phenomena and dynamics(processes) of organizations and their various units.
      Some definitions of OB
    • 5.
      • Definition: The study of human behavior, attitudes, and performance in organizations.
      • Value of OB: Helps people attain the competencies needed to become effective employees, team leaders/members, or managers
      • Competency = an interrelated set of abilities, behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge needed by an individual to be effective in most professional and managerial positions
    • 6.
      • Chart the evolution of management thought on the nature of the organization
      • Understanding of the organizational factors that influence work
      • Understanding of how the work environment shapes organizational performance
    • 7.
      • consideration of the interaction among the formal structure (organisational context in which the process of management takes place)
      • the tasks to be undertaken
      • the technology employed and the methods of carrying out work
      • the behaviour of people
      • the process of management
      • the external environment
    • 8.
      • Interrelated dimensions influencing behaviour:
      • The Individual - working environment should satisfy individual needs as well as attainment of organisational goals.
      • The Group - formal and informal. Understanding of groups complements a knowledge of individual behaviour.
      • The Organisation - impact of organisation structure and design, and patterns of management, on behaviour.
      • The Environment - technological and scientific development, economic activity, governmental actions.
    • 9.  
    • 10. e.g., Selection Systems e.g., Groupthink e.g., Personality Group Level Individual Level Organizational Level
    • 11. Understanding organizational behavior requires studying Individuals in Organizations Group and Team Processes Organizational Processes
    • 12.
      • Note that organizations are “ open systems , ” such that their long term effectiveness is determined by their ability to anticipate, manage, and respond to changes in their environment, with such changes resulting from external forces and/or stakeholders
      • External forces include the labor force, the natural environment, the economy, and different cultures, while stakeholders include shareholders, customers, competitors, suppliers, creditors, governmental agencies and their regulations
        • Note the impact of these environmental influences on individual, interpersonal, team, and organizational processes; organizations that do not effectively adapt to environmental change will fail
      Organisations as Open systems
    • 13.
      • Consciously coordinated social unit
      • Composed of two or more people
      • Functions on a continuous basis to achieve a common goal
      • Characterized by formal roles that define the behavior of its members
    • 14.
      • Organization : An organization has four essential elements
      • (a) Group of people
      • (b) Interacting with each other
      • (c )In a structured manner
      • (d) Towards a common objective
      • Management: Implies getting things done through and with people
      • Manager: He is the dynamic, life-giving element in every organization. And it is the quality and performance of its managers which is the only effective advantage an enterprise in a competitive economy can have and particularly in a business enterprise.
      Basic Definitions related to OB
    • 15.
      • To provide an understanding of what goes on at the workplace. Four aspects need to be explained viz.
      • Definition, goals, forces and O. B. ’s major characteristics
      • O.B. is the systematic study and careful application of knowledge about how people- as individuals and as members of groups –act within organizations. It strives to identify ways in which people can act more effectively.
      • O.B. provides managers with the tools to:
      • (a) to understand the behavior of individuals
      • (b) to understand the complexities of inter-personal relations
      • (c )to examine the dynamics of relationships within small groups –both formal teams and informal groups
      • (d) organizations can be viewed as whole systems that have inter-organizational relationships
      What is organisational Behaviour?
    • 16.
      • 3 GOALS:
      • Most sciences share four goals-to describe, understand, predict and control some phenomena.
      • The field of OB seeks to replace intuitive explanations with systematic study O.B. has the following goals,
      • 1. Describe , systematically, how people behave under a variety of circumstances
      • 2. Understand why people behave as they do.
      • 3. Predicting future employee behavior.
      • 4. Control at least partially, and develop some human activity at work
      • Managers can utilize the tool of O.B.to influence human behavior , skill development, team effort and productivity.
      • 4 FORCES:
      • There are a wide array of issues and trends that affect the nature of organizations today.
      • They can be classified under four areas
      • PEOPLE, STRUCTURE, TECHNOLOGY and the ENVIRONMENT
    • 17. Organizational Behaviour Research Understand organizational events Predict organizational events Influence organizational events
    • 18. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Key forces affecting Organizational Behavior
      • People
      • Individuals
      • Groups
      • Environment
      • Government
      • Competition
      • Societal pressure
      Organizational Behavior
      • Technology
      • Machinery
      • Computer hardware ,software
      • Structure
      • Jobs
      • Relationships
    • 19.
      • The organization's base rests on management's philosophy, values, vision and goals.
      • This in turn drives the organizational culture which is composed of the formal organization, informal organization, and the social environment.
      • The culture determines the type of leadership, communication, and group dynamics within the organization.
      • The workers perceive this as the quality of work life which directs their degree of motivation.
      • The final outcome are performance, individual satisfaction, and personal growth and development.
      • All these elements combine to build the model or framework that the organization operates from.
      The Elements of Organizational Behavior
    • 20.
      • Coordination
      • Common Goals
      • Division of labor
      • Integration
    • 21.
      • Psychology : The science or study of individual human behaviour
      • Sociology : The study of group human behaviour
      • Social Psychology : Studies influences of people on one another
      • Anthropology : Study of the human race, and culture
      • Political Science :Behavior of individuals in political environment.
    • 22. Psychology seeks to measure,explain, and change behavior Sociology studies people in relation to their fellow human beings Social psychology focuses on the influence of people on one another Anthropology is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities Political science is the study of the behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment
    • 23.  
    • 24. Organizational Behavior Human Relations Hawthorne Studies Scientific Management 1900’s 1940’s 1970’s Classical Organization Theory
    • 25.
      • Three elements stand out in a manager-
      • Competence
      • Integrity
      • Performance
      • Who is a manager? The CEO or the middle manager or the supervisor?
      • A manager’s decision-making, action and behavior are all geared towards ‘ Economic Performance’ .
      • The objective of a business enterprise could be Survival, Profit and /or Growth ?
      • Peter Drucker feels otherwise-’creating a customer’.
      Who is a manager ?
    • 26.
      • Managing Managers
      • Managing Worker and Work
      • Managing a Business
      • Managing Time
      • A Manager has to manage Resources- 5 Ms- Money, Materials, Machines, Methods and Man. One of these resources is different from the others. Which one and why?
      • What about Time as a resource?
      • A manager also performs the following functions:
      • Planning, Organizing. Staffing, Directing and Controlling or
      • Leading, Planning, Organizing and Controlling
      • Planning –determines what results the organization will achieve
      • Organizing- specifies how it will achieve the results
      • Controlling –determines whether the results will be achieved
      • Leading- through planning, organizing and controlling managers exercise leadership
    • 27.
      • The three vital determinants of team work are the l eader ” subordinates and the environment .
      • These factors are interdependent. It is the leader’s responsibility to make the environment conducive to work.
      • He studies the employees individually and insists interest in them. By encouraging the inquisitive employees and by prohibiting insidious elements, he creates hygienic environment.
      • He inculcates the sense of collectivism in employees to work as a team. The resultant output will then be efficiency.
      • A person who manages, conducts, trains, manipulates, directs, deals, supervises, organizes and controls resources, expenditures, an organization, an institution, a team, a household, etc.
      Roles and Responsibilities of a manager
    • 28.
      • Supervise and manage the overall performance of staff in his department.
      • Analyzing , reporting, giving recommendations and developing strategies on how to improve quality and quantity.
      • Achieve business and organization goals , visions and objectives .
      •   Involved in employee selection , career development, succession planning and periodic training .
      •   Working out compensations and rewards . 
      • Responsible for the growth and increase in the organizations' finances and earnings.
      •   Identifying problems, creating choices and providing alternatives courses of actions.
      What are the roles and responsibilities of managerial positions?
    • 29.
      • Interpersonal relationship skill.
      • Communication skill.
      • A good planner.
      • Decision Maker.
      • Leadership skill.
      • Appraiser.
      • Provide satisfaction
      • Become an exemplary role model.
      • A good Listener
    • 30.
      • A representative of subordinates
      • An appropriate counselor
      • Uses power properly
      • Manages time well
      • Strives for effectiveness
      • Manages and leads
      •   Maintains relationships
      • Source of influence
      • Sanctions
    • 31.
      • Knowledge x Skill = Ability
      • Attitude x Situation = Motivation
      • Ability x Motivation =Potential Performance
      • Human Performance x Resources = Organizational Performance
      • Thusa manager’s knowledge of human relations and OB can help improve organizational performance.
    • 32.
      • There are four major models or frameworks that organizations operate out of:
      • Autocratic - The basis of this model is power with a managerial orientation of authority. The employees in turn are oriented towards obedience and dependence on the boss. The employee need that is met is subsistence. The performance result is minimal.
      Models of organizational behaviour
    • 33.
      • Custodial - The basis of this model is economic resources with a managerial orientation of money. The employees in turn are oriented towards security and benefits and dependence on the organization. The employee need that is met is security. The performance result is passive cooperation.
      • Supportive - The basis of this model is leadership with a managerial orientation of support . The employees in turn are oriented towards job performance and participation. The employee need that is met is status and recognition. The performance result is awakened drives.
    • 34.
      • Collegial - The basis of this model is partnership with a managerial orientation of teamwork . The employees in turn are oriented towards responsible behavior and self-discipline. The employee need that is met is self-actualization. The performance result is moderate enthusiasm.
      • Although there are four separate models, almost no organization operates exclusively in one.
      • There will usually be a predominate one, with one or more areas over-lapping in the other models.
    • 35.
      • The first model, autocratic, has its roots in the industrial revolution.
      • The managers of this type of organization operate out of McGregor's Theory X.
      • The next three models begin to build on McGregor's Theory Y.
      • They have each evolved over a period of time and there is no one "best" model.
      • The collegial model should not be thought as the last or best model, but the beginning of a new model or paradigm.
    • 36. Theory Y Theory X Work is Natural Self- Direction Seek Responsibility Good Decisions Widely Dispersed Avoid Work Must be Controlled Avoid Responsibility Seek Security
    • 37.
      • Globalization
      • Changing nature of competition
      • Demographic changes and diversity
      • Lack of interpersonal (people) skills
      • Changing nature of competitive advantage, including innovation
      • Managing change
      • Changes in the employee – employer relationship, including declining loyalty
      • Increase in the number and severity of work/life conflicts
      • Importance of ethics
    • 38.
      • Four types of organization designs have emerged in response to certain deficiencies in conventional designs and to rapid advances in technology. They are
      • Matrix
      • Network
      • Virtual
      • Learning
    • 39.
      • Only Learning Organizations will survive in present competitive market
      • It ability is to learn ,create, codify and utilize knowledge faster.
      • It has the capacity to adapt and change.
      • Learning Organizations like individuals constantly learn.
      • Old shibboleth is demolished and a new order created
      • Teaches managers to look at the world afresh
    • 40.
      • Leader in this field is Senge –’The Fifth Discipline’, He says
      • Old methods of TQM, learning from mistakes etc are insufficient
      • He put forward 5 compact technologies
      • Systems Thinking
      • Personal Mastery
      • Mental Models
      • Building shared visions
      • Team learning
    • 41.
      • " The essence of organisational learning is the organisation's ability to use the amazing mental capacity of all its members to create the kind of processes that will improve its own" Nancy Dixon, 1994
      • "Organisations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to learn together"
    • 42.
      • “ A learning organization is an organization skilled at
        • creating,
        • Acquiring
        • Transferring knowledge
        • Modifying its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights”
      • New ideas are essential if learning is to occur
      • Ideas cannot change an organization, it can only trigger organizational improvement
      • Requires both generation and distribution
    • 43. Learning Organization Open Information Empowered Employees Team-Based Structure
    • 44.
      • Learning organizations are skilled at five main activities
        • Systematic problem solving
        • Experimentation with new approaches
        • Learning from their own experience
        • Transferring knowledge quickly & efficiently throughout the organization
      • Each is accompanied by its own distinctiveness
    • 45. Function Traditional Organization Learning Organization Determination of overall Direction Vision is provided by top management Shared vision ,emerges from many places but top management to ensure that it is followed Formulation and implementation of ideas It is the prerogative of the top management Ideas take place at all level of the organization Nature of organizational thinking Each one is responsible for his or her job responsibilities and focus on individual competence Personnel understanding their own jobs as well as the way in which their own work interrelates with and influences that of other personnel Conflict Resolution Through the use of power and hierarchical influence Use of collaborative learning and the integration of diverse viewpoints of personnel in the organization Leadership and Motivation Role of leader is to establish the organization’s vision, provide rewards and punishment as appropriate and maintain overall control of employee activities Role of leader is to build a shared vision ,empower personnel ,inspire commitment and encourage effective decision making
    • 46. Product Brand Brand Equity Organizational Learning Intellectual Capital Intellectual Equity
    • 47.
      • Learning is distributed & self-directed
      • Large investment in learning
      • Internal learning objects may have value to partners & customers
    • 48. Insert Figure 1.1 here
    • 49.
      • Any Questions