Organizational behavior can be examined at 3 levels: organizational, group, and individual. OB is particularly important to managers.
Figure 1.3 illustrates how the text covers the three levels of organizational behavior. Part I includes chapters 2-9. Part 2 includes chapters 10-15. Part 3 includes chapters 16-18.
Theory X and Theory Y This CTR relates to the material on p. 273. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor proposed two theories of how human beings view themselves. After studying the way managers treated their employees, McGregor concluded that managers based their decisions on group of assumptions about what motivates individuals and then shapes her or his behavior toward employees to align with those assumptions. He labeled each hypothetical set of assumptions Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X. Under Theory X, managers take an essentially negative view of human nature. Four assumptions of this perspective are: (1) Employees inherently dislike work and whenever possible will attempt to avoid it. (2). Because employees inherently dislike work they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve desired goals. (3) Employees will shirk responsibilities and seek form direction whenever possible. (4) Most workers place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition. Theory Y. Under Theory Y, managers take an essentially positive view of human nature. Four assumptions of this perspective are: (1) Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play. (2) Men and women will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives. (3) The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility. (4) The ability to make good decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province of managers. Discussion note: The text notes that McGregor believed in Theory Y as a more adaptive managerial philosophy. From the standpoint of Maslow’s Hierarchy, Theory X focuses on lower level needs while Theory Y emphasizes higher level needs. Given that managers of both styles can be successful, you might wish to discuss the demand characteristics or self-fulfilling prophecy effects of managerial styles: people behave the way you expect/treat them.
4 Figure 1.1 illustrates how organizational behavior concepts and theories allow people to correctly understand, describe, and analyze the characteristics of individuals, groups, work situations, and the organization itself.
O.B. is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals , groups and structures have on behaviour within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organization’s effectiveness.
O.B. can be defined as the systematic study of the actions and reactions of individuals, groups and sub-systems.
O.B. is the study and understanding of individual and group behaviour, patterns of structure in order to to help improve organizational performance and effectiveness.
O.B. is one of the most complex and perhaps least understood academic elements of modern general management, but since it concerns the behaviour of people within organizations it is also one of the most central- its concern with individual and group patterns of behaviour makes it an essential element in dealing with the complex behavioural issues thrown up in the modern business world.
O.B. is an inter-disciplinary behaviour science studying phenomena and dynamics(processes) of organizations and their various units.
Note that organizations are “ open systems , ” such that their long term effectiveness is determined by their ability to anticipate, manage, and respond to changes in their environment, with such changes resulting from external forces and/or stakeholders
External forces include the labor force, the natural environment, the economy, and different cultures, while stakeholders include shareholders, customers, competitors, suppliers, creditors, governmental agencies and their regulations
Note the impact of these environmental influences on individual, interpersonal, team, and organizational processes; organizations that do not effectively adapt to environmental change will fail
Organization : An organization has four essential elements
(a) Group of people
(b) Interacting with each other
(c )In a structured manner
(d) Towards a common objective
Management: Implies getting things done through and with people
Manager: He is the dynamic, life-giving element in every organization. And it is the quality and performance of its managers which is the only effective advantage an enterprise in a competitive economy can have and particularly in a business enterprise.
To provide an understanding of what goes on at the workplace. Four aspects need to be explained viz.
Definition, goals, forces and O. B. ’s major characteristics
O.B. is the systematic study and careful application of knowledge about how people- as individuals and as members of groups –act within organizations. It strives to identify ways in which people can act more effectively.
O.B. provides managers with the tools to:
(a) to understand the behavior of individuals
(b) to understand the complexities of inter-personal relations
(c )to examine the dynamics of relationships within small groups –both formal teams and informal groups
(d) organizations can be viewed as whole systems that have inter-organizational relationships
Psychology : The science or study of individual human behaviour
Sociology : The study of group human behaviour
Social Psychology : Studies influences of people on one another
Anthropology : Study of the human race, and culture
Political Science :Behavior of individuals in political environment.
Psychology seeks to measure,explain, and change behavior Sociology studies people in relation to their fellow human beings Social psychology focuses on the influence of people on one another Anthropology is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities Political science is the study of the behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment
There are four major models or frameworks that organizations operate out of:
Autocratic - The basis of this model is power with a managerial orientation of authority. The employees in turn are oriented towards obedience and dependence on the boss. The employee need that is met is subsistence. The performance result is minimal.
Custodial - The basis of this model is economic resources with a managerial orientation of money. The employees in turn are oriented towards security and benefits and dependence on the organization. The employee need that is met is security. The performance result is passive cooperation.
Supportive - The basis of this model is leadership with a managerial orientation of support . The employees in turn are oriented towards job performance and participation. The employee need that is met is status and recognition. The performance result is awakened drives.
Collegial - The basis of this model is partnership with a managerial orientation of teamwork . The employees in turn are oriented towards responsible behavior and self-discipline. The employee need that is met is self-actualization. The performance result is moderate enthusiasm.
Although there are four separate models, almost no organization operates exclusively in one.
There will usually be a predominate one, with one or more areas over-lapping in the other models.
" The essence of organisational learning is the organisation's ability to use the amazing mental capacity of all its members to create the kind of processes that will improve its own" Nancy Dixon, 1994
"Organisations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to learn together"
Learning organizations are skilled at five main activities
Systematic problem solving
Experimentation with new approaches
Learning from their own experience
Transferring knowledge quickly & efficiently throughout the organization
Each is accompanied by its own distinctiveness
Function Traditional Organization Learning Organization Determination of overall Direction Vision is provided by top management Shared vision ,emerges from many places but top management to ensure that it is followed Formulation and implementation of ideas It is the prerogative of the top management Ideas take place at all level of the organization Nature of organizational thinking Each one is responsible for his or her job responsibilities and focus on individual competence Personnel understanding their own jobs as well as the way in which their own work interrelates with and influences that of other personnel Conflict Resolution Through the use of power and hierarchical influence Use of collaborative learning and the integration of diverse viewpoints of personnel in the organization Leadership and Motivation Role of leader is to establish the organization’s vision, provide rewards and punishment as appropriate and maintain overall control of employee activities Role of leader is to build a shared vision ,empower personnel ,inspire commitment and encourage effective decision making