● Short-range radio technology- enables communication
between devices by either touch or when they are
momentarily held close together.
NFC is a variant of RFID technology which operates at
The NFC forum was formed in 2004 by major
technological pioneers which include Nokia, Sony and
Applications : "electronic wallet" - used to make
payments using the handset; "TecTiles" - NFC enabled
tags created by Samsung, people can use their NFCcapable handsets to change in phone settings, share
contacts, make a call, and more.
RFID AND NFC - DIFFERENCE
● NFC - emerging technology; RFID is currently in
widespread use all over the world.
● RFID tags contain an antenna and a memory chip that
stores data, read with RFID reader.
● Inventory and package tracking - two of the most
common uses of RFID
● RFID in highway toll tag in a car; in a living organism;
airlines use RFID tags in one-way communication
● NFC is short-range(max. 4 inches); can be set up for
one- or two-way communications.
● NFC tags in smartphones
● Sharing, pairing and transactions - objects that work on
● Always two parties to the communication; the protocol is
also known as peer-to-peer communication protocol.
● Protocol establishes wireless network connections
between network appliances and consumer electronics
devices. The interfaces operate in the unregulated RF
band of 13.56 MHz.
● Operating distances of 0~20 cm.
● Communication is half-duplex - devices implement
“listen before talk” policy.
● Initiator - device that initiates and controls the exchange
of data; Target - device that answers the request from
● Only one device generates the RF field while the other
device uses load modulation to transfer the data.
Active: In this mode, the target and the initiator devices have power
supplies and can communicate with one another by alternate signal
Passive:In this mode, the initiator device generates radio
signals and the target device gets powered by this
electromagnetic field. The target device responds to the
initiator by modulating the existing electromagnetic field.
● Read/Write: NFC enabled phone can read or write data
to any of the supported tag types in a standard NFC
● Peer to Peer: two NFC-enabled devices can exchange
data. For example, you can share Bluetooth or Wi-Fi
link set up parameters to initiate a Bluetooth or Wi-Fi
link. You can also exchange data such as virtual
business cards or digital photos.
● Card Emulation: An NFC-enabled phone acts as reader
when in contact with tags. In this mode, the phone can
act as a tag or contactless card for existing readers.
● A mobile device integrated with NFC basically
comprises of various integrated circuits (ICs), SEs
(Secure Elements) and an NFC interface
● The NFC enabled interface consists of a contactless,
analog/digital front end, an NFC controller, an NFC
antenna and an IC called NFC an NFC controller to
enable NFC transactions which basically acts as a
NFC enabled services must reassure users and service
providers that transaction takes place in a protected
This protection is achieved by using an SE which provides
the security mechanisms required to support various
VARIATIONS AND COMPETING
What are the top alternatives to NFC?
BLUETOOTH: There are several features in common
between Bluetooth and Near Field Communication, as both
are forms of wireless communication between devices over
short distances. NFC is limited to a distance of
approximately four centimeters while Bluetooth can reach
over thirty feet.
QR CODES: QR codes are those pixilated black and
white square boxes that is seen alongside movie
posters, newspapers and magazine advertisements,
VARIATIONS AND COMPETING
Like NFC, QR codes also allow people to visit a website,
access videos, download images and other content on their
smart phones. The difference is that users need to have a
QR code reader application installed on their smart phones.
It essentially turns the mobile phone into a cash
register complete with electronic receipts, high levels of
customization, and reports on one’s inventory and sales
● Commerce: NFC devices can be used in payment
systems , similar to those currently used in credit cards
and electronic ticket smart cards, thereby allowing
mobile payment to replace or supplement these
● Bluetooth and Wi-Fi connections NFC offers a lowspeed connection with extremely simple setup. For
example, the Android beam software uses NFC to
complete the steps of enabling, pairing and establishing a
Bluetooth connection when doing a file transfer.
● Social networking: NFC can be used in networking for
sharing contacts, photos, videos or files, and entering
multiplayer mobile games.
● Identity and access tokens
NFC-enabled devices act as electronic identity documents
keycards. As NFC has a short range and supports
encryption, it may
be more suitable than earlier, less private RFID systems.
● Smartphone automation and NFC tags
Smart phones equipped with NFC can be paired with NFC
stickers which can be programmed by NFC apps to
● NFC improves the user experience of mobile
services and makes service initiation more
● Customers will benefit by faster checkouts, shorter
and quicker lines, and the eventual elimination of
needing to carry a wallet at all.
● NFC smart phones will replace credit cards, social
security cards, birth certificates, licenses, and even
● Users will be able to purchase tickets online and just
walk past a scanner without slowing down or the
need to keep track of tickets.
● Also , it can be said that as long as security can
keep pace with the hackers..