1. The Ontario Labour Market and ITIs July 14, 2008 Funded by the Government of Ontario, Ministry of Citizenship & Immigration Presented by: Nikhat Rasheed, Employment Support Expert
2. Agenda <ul><li>Overview of the Ontario labour market </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for labour </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrant Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Integration? </li></ul><ul><li>Profession/ Trade-specific Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Advising Issues </li></ul>
3. Labour Markets and Jobs <ul><li>What is a labour market? </li></ul><ul><li>A labour market is a place where individuals exchange their labour for compensation. Labour markets are identified and defined by a combination of the following factors, including the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geography, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education and/or technical background required, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience required by the job, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Licensing or certification requirements, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupational membership, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why are jobs changing? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demographics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer behavior </li></ul></ul>
4. Demographic Shifts Declining birth rate + Growing seniors population = Reduced Labour Force Growth (mitigated by immigration) Note: According to Statistics Canada, as early as 2015 a fertility rate of 1.5 children per woman - which is below the population-replacement level - will mean that the number of Canadians older than 65 will surpass the number younger than 15.
5. Projected Retirement Our retirement rates are highest within the primary sector (manufacturing, agriculture) and not in professional fields, with some exceptions like nursing.
6. Job Creation Trends Projected job creation is in professional and technical occupations, healthcare and management.
7. Emerging Jobs <ul><li>Emerging occupations are those that require knowledge, skills and abilitie s not defined by occupations in current occupational coding structures (e.g. National Occupational Classification Index). Basically, these are new occupations in the workforce - new titles with new skills. HRSD identifies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aerospace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>biotechnology in: agriculture; forestry; fishing; pharmaceuticals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>call centres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multimedia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>telehealth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tele-learning </li></ul></ul>Note: Emerging fields are usually within knowledge intensive areas requiring advanced levels of education and innovation. www.librariansmatter.com
8. Educational Backgrounds Needed Projected job growth and prospects will be best for: 22% will require a university degree. 29% will require extensive post-secondary but less than university degree. 29% will require high school and/or occupation-specific training. Specialist Physicians Electronic Service Technicians (Household and Business Equipment) Customer Service, Information and Related Clerks General Practitioners and Family Physicians Respiratory Therapists, Clinical Perfusionists and Cardio-Pulmonary Technologists Dental Assistants Dentists Medical Radiation Technologists Retail Salespersons and Sales Clerks Optometrists Ambulance Attendants and Other Paramedical Occupations Food and Beverage Servers Pharmacists Paralegal and Related Occupations Truck Drivers Audiologists and Speech-Language Pathologists Chefs Physiotherapists Hairstylists and Barbers Occupational Therapists Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Mechanics Registered Nurses Automotive Service Technicians, Truck Mechanics and Mechanical Repairers Secondary School Teachers Elementary School and Kindergarten Teachers Source: www.ontariojobfutures.com Social Workers
9. Demand for Labour <ul><li>Predicted shortages due to retirements in many sectors – especially primary and service (some professional fields). </li></ul><ul><li>Economic growth and technological change likely to fuel demand for university-educated professionals. Trades and support professions shortages identified (college-educated/apprenticeships). </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration the only source of work-force growth by 2017 , as there will be more current workers leaving the labour pool than entering it. </li></ul><ul><li>If so, what kind of immigrants do we need? And what kind of immigrants are we bringing in? </li></ul>www.canadian-immigration.org
10. Immigrant Characteristics Immigration Facts 225,000 arrive annually and 60% (approx.135,000) come to Ontario. 2/3 rds are in economic class. 20% approx. are in regulated professions. 60-70% of all regulated professionals to Ontario are engineers, technicians and technologists; health, teaching , accounting and social work make up the other major groups. Selected characteristics of immigrants Canada Toronto Vancouver Montréal Calgary Ottawa-Gatineau Other CMAs % Admission class Family class immigrants 26.9 26.7 27.2 21.1 28.6 27.8 29.3 Economic class immigrants 66.7 69.9 67.8 73 62.4 62.4 55.4 Principal applicants in the economic class immigrants 37.5 38.9 34.7 47.4 32 37 31.4 Spouse and dependents in the economic class immigrants 29.2 31 33.1 25.6 30.4 25.4 24 Refugees 6 3.3 4 5.5 8.6 9.8 15.2
11. Immigrant Characteristics Immigration Facts Our immigration system was/is skewed towards professionals with high levels of education and experience. Immigrants must demonstrate language proficiency of IELTS 7.0. ON PNP Pilot (May 2007) includes skilled trades. Selected characteristics of immigrants Canada Toronto Vancouver Montréal Calgary Ottawa-Gatineau Other CMAs Other education characteristics Newcomers with at least one foreign credential 76 76.7 71.8 83.3 73.4 81 70.6 Newcomers who tried to get at least one credential checked 39 35.2 31.8 54.1 34.2 37.8 46.9 Plan to obtain further training 65.9 64.9 70.5 66.5 73.3 65.1 66.3 Ease of accessing services Difficulties accessing education and training 39.6 40.8 45.1 39.9 44.5 48.4 26.7 Difficulties entering the labour market 69.9 74.1 72.9 75.8 58.1 75.4 58.4
12. Integration? Note: Proportion of immigrants in management, business, finance, natural and applied science, health, social service, art – considered ‘professional’ occupations have reduced considerably for both men and women. Service, sales, trades, primary and manufacturing occupations have increased exponentially. Major occupation groups of immigrants before and after arriving in Canada, 2001 Occupation groups Men Women Before arriving After arriving Before arriving After arriving Number Immigrants with occupations before and after arriving in Canada 39,700 43,800 22,300 28,300 % Management occupations 12.7 4.4 8 2.6 Occupations in business, finance and administration 8.1 9.8 25.3 17.9 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations 38.6 18.8 16.8 6.8 Health occupations 3.5 1.8 10 4.2 Occupations in social science, education, government service and religion 7.3 4.8 17.6 6.2 Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport 1.8 1.0 E 3.8 1.8 E Sales and service occupations 10.2 24.9 12.1 37.3 Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations 9.9 10.4 0.7 E 2.7 Occupations unique to primary industry 3.6 1.8 1.3 E 2.6 Occupations unique to processing, manufacturing and utilities 4.1 22.3 4.4 17.9 Source: Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada, 2001.
13. Professions and Trades <ul><li>80% of the Canadian workforce is employed in non-regulated occupations/20% in regulated occupations requiring licensing, certification or registration. There are two main types of regulated occupations in Canada: Regulated professions & Apprenticeable trades. </li></ul><ul><li>Regulated professions ( 38 in Ontario of which 22 are health ) usually require several years of university or college education, practical experience under the supervision of a licensed worker in the chosen profession, and the successful completion of a licensure examination. They receive a license to practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Apprenticeable trades ( certification for 28 is mandatory, 34 voluntary ) usually require the completion of a period of apprenticeship training on the job by a licensed supervisor, some specialized college education courses, and the successful completion of a certification examination. They receive a “ Certificate of Qualification” </li></ul>“ What is a regulated profession? In Ontario, some professions set their own standards of practice. These are called regulated professions. They set standards to protect the public.” ~ Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration Source: www.workdestinations.org
14. Regulated Professions <ul><li>Regulation vs. Self-Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Need for regulation vs. Public interest argument </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges of self-regulation from an ITI perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Fair Access to Regulated Professions Act & Office of Fairness Commissioner </li></ul><ul><li>The OFC reports released June 26 and July 3, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>NOC Index (occupational classification by skills, education needed) </li></ul><ul><li>Licensing – certification – registration: are there any differences in the terms? </li></ul>
15. NOC Index: skills vs. occupations? Schematic prepared by Nikhat Rasheed – For illustration purposes only. NOC Index Occupational Example Licensure Type Management Engineering Manager Not specific (usually P.Eng) Skill Level A: requires university [Professions] Construction Engineer --------------------------------- Engineer in Training or Engineering Professional Require license Professional Engineer * ---------------------------------- 80% of jobs in engineering do not require licensing Skill Level B: require college diploma, certificate or apprenticeship (skill level reduces) [Support Professions] [Skilled Trades] Technicians and Technologists --------------------------------- Electrician (construction and maintenance) Require certification Certified Engineering Technologist ------------------------------------ Require certification Electrician Skill Level C: require high school or occupation-specific training [Skilled Trades] Heavy Equipment Operator May require certification or registration or not Mobile crane operator Skill Level D: on-the-job training [Semi-skilled] Public works and other labourers' No formal certification
16. NOC Index: skills vs. occupations? Schematic prepared by Nikhat Rasheed – For illustration purposes only. NOC Index Occupational Example Licensure Type Management Health Managers Not specific (depends) Skill Level A: requires university [Professions] [Allied Health Professions] Physicians and Dentists ---------------------------------- Registered Nurses, Pharmacists License ------------------------------------ Registration Pharmacist Skill Level B: require college diploma, certificate or apprenticeship (skill level reduces) [Allied Health Professions] [Allied Health Aides] Pharmacy Technician ----------------------------------- Medical Lab Technicians Personal support workers (college certificate) Certification Certified Pharmacy Technician Medical Lab Technician Personal Support Worker Skill Level C: require high school or occupation-specific training [Allied Health Aides] Health care aides None Skill Level D: on-the-job training [Semi-skilled] None None
17. Profession-specific Issues <ul><li>In health professions – licensing (accreditation, exams, simulations, changes to requirements e.g. nursing) and specific competencies (occupation-specific language, occupational teams) may be key barriers to employment. </li></ul><ul><li>In engineering and applied sciences licensing is not a major problem as 80% of jobs don’t require it. However, for those going for licensing, 60-70% get educational accreditation but experience requirement is an issue. Key barriers to employment are employer resistance and workplace communications. </li></ul><ul><li>In teaching , both certification and employment are problematic. In addition, Ontario certifies around 10,000 teachers/year and employs only 2,500 (including ITIs) and recommendations by school boards is important to get a job. </li></ul>Getting Employed in a Regulated Profession Accrediting education (credential assessment/) Supplementary information e.g. police check) Licensing or certification examinations Experience and/competency assessments Achieving licensure Employment issues Employment Schematic prepared by Nikhat Rasheed – For illustration purposes only.
18. Trades-specific Issues <ul><li>There has historically been limited research into the trades areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Predicted shortages in trades. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires different skill set e.g. engineers cannot lay cables, construction workers cannot design. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to points system the traditional recruitment has been towards professions; some changes have been made especially to PNP. </li></ul>www.janetrades.com
19. Advising Issues <ul><li>Many professionals are becoming downwardly mobile under the notion of ‘alternative’ employment pathways. We need to ensure that we are up-skilling not down-skilling people. </li></ul><ul><li>We are in the business of enhancing ITI capacities to achieve their goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Successful advising will result in informed decision making, leading to the fulfillment of ITI goals. </li></ul>users.ipfw.edu/Blumenth/Advising/Cartoon.jpg
20. <ul><li>For more information, refer to the resource list provided. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact details </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nikhat Rasheed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment Support Expert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>416-351-7531 ext. 3600 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul>