The presentation focuses on the major bioactive compounds in alcoholic beverages mainly red wines components that aid in human heath with their antiaging, antiinflammatory, anticancer and neuroprotective activities.
Bioactive compounds in alcoholic beverages and their role in human health
Presented by-Pooja (L-2011-BS-65-D)Ph.D (Microbiology)COBS&H, PAULudhiana, Punjab, India.BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS INALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES AND THEIRROLE IN HUMAN HEALTH
CONTENTS Alcoholic beverages Bioactive compounds Wines as main source of bioactive compounds Important bioactive compounds in alcoholic beverages and theirsynthesis Bioactive compounds’ role in human health Antioxidant (antiaging effect) Antiaggregation properties Cancer chemopreventive and chemotheraupatic agents Cardioprotective action Neurodegenerative protection Conclusion Future prespectives
Any fermented liquor that contains ethylalcohol as an intoxicating agent.AlcoholicbeveragesBeer Wine Spirit
WINE AS MAIN SOURCE OFBIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS Wine contains enormous amount of health promoting biologicallyactive compounds. In comparison to beer, wine seems to have more health benefits duepresence of various flavonoids, non-flavonoids and anthocyanins.BioactivecompoundRed wine White wine BeerFlavonoids 5.9±1.6 mg/L 2.3± 1.2 mg/L 1.3±0.2 mg/LNon-flavonoids 5.4±2.8 mg/L 2.7±1.1 mg/L 1.8±0.3 mg/LAnthocyanins 4.7±2.6 mg/l ND ND
FRENCH PARADOX By Renauld and De lorgeril (1992) A Dutch epidemiological study showed inverserelationship between-“Large intake of wine lead to low mortality rate fromcardiovascular diseases among French people despitetheir high consumption of saturated fats”FlavonoidsintakeCoronaryheartdiseases(Fernandz et al
Bioactive compounds Biologically active compounds Extra nutritional constituents Occur in small quantity in foods Health stimulating – therapeutic benefits(Kris-Etherton et al
THREE MAJOR BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS INWINE RESVERATROL HYDROXYTYROSOL MELATONINA stillbene; synthesizefrom phenylalaninethrough shikimic acidpathwayA phenyl ethyl alcohol;synthesized from tyrosolAn indolamine;synthesized fromtryptophan(Fernandz et al
SYNTHESIS OFRESVERATROL 3,5,4 -trans-trihydroxystillbene Found in skin and seed ofgrapesThree key enzymes areinvolved in this pathway:phenylalanine ammoniumlyase, coenzyme A ligase andstilbene synthaseDerivatives: piceid,pterostilbene, ε-viniferin, and δ-viniferin Concentration in wine -2.7 1.5 mg/L
SYNTHESIS OF HYDROXYTYROSOL 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol (3,4-DHPEA)Found in grapes seedsand olivesSynthesized from tyrosoland oleuropein Concentration in wine-5.3 ± 0.2 mg/L
SYNTHESIS OF MELATONINN-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamineMelatonin synthesized fromtryptophan via 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotoninand N-acetylserotonin and to bemetabolized by deacetylation to5-methoxytryptamine .In yeast, melatonin can alsobe formed by O-methylation ofserotonin followed by N-acetylation of 5-methoxytryptamine.Concentration in wine - 0.5 ±0.4 ng/L
ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY Bioactive compounds act as free radical scavengers byacting reducing agent (donating the H atom). Chelation of transition metal ions by bioactive compoundsdiminishes the capacity of metal ions to generate reactiveoxygen radicals in Fenton reaction.
Antioxidant Capabilities of Resveratroland HydroxytyrosolWines ORAC value (mm TE/L)Red wine 14.60 ± 5.76White wine 3.37 ± 1.04(Arranz et al 2012)
Chelation of Cu2+ ions bypolyphenolsChelated copperion bypolyphenols
Resveratrol activates the Antiaginggene Sirtuins; family of NAD-dependent deacetylase. SIRT 1-SIRT7 promotesstress resistance andsurvival in times ofadversity and adaptability. Resveratrol activates theantiaging gene Sirt1by 13folds.
BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS INCREASES THEHIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CONTENT HDL – required for transport of cholesterol from arteries and other body partsback to the liver for its metabolism. HDL; protective against arteriosclerosis.
CARDIOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY Bioactive compounds protects the cardiovascularsystem in multidimensional way.Resveratrol - At low concentration• Inhibits apopotic cell deathResveratrol – At high concentration• Facilitates apopotic cell deathBehave as achemopreventive alternative
Ethanol reduces the calcium influxand releaseEthanol activates coronary vascularsmooth muscles by modulating Ca2+metabolismDecrease in Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent and receptor mediated Ca2+channels in sarcolemmal membrane anddecrease in Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmicreticulum.As a result, ethanol dilates the coronaryarteries and increases the coronary flowleading to cardioprotection(Das et al 2009)
Resveratrol action towardscardioprotectionReseveratrol mediates thevasorelaxation by-• Endothelial-dependent pathway• Endothelial-independentpathwayEndothelial-dependent• Increase in eNOS (endothelialnitric oxidee synthase) activity• Release of NO (Nitric) enzyme;modulates vascular toneEndothelial-independent• Release of K+ ions• Energy in form of ATP is required
ANTIINFLAMMATORYACTIVITY Arachidonic acid (stored in cell membranes of mammaliancells) is transformed into powerful pro-inflammatory andplatelet aggregating thromboxanes through cycloygenase(COX) and to leukotrienes through lipoxygenase (LOX)enzymes. 50% Inhibition concentrations (IC 5O) for both resveratroland quercetin are approximately 100µM. Other antioxidants, vitamin E and BHT are ineffective atinhibiting platelet aggregation.
INHIBITION OF COX AND LOXENZYMESResveratrolResveratrolResveratrol
ANTICANCER ACTIVITYBy Inhibition of polymearse DNAornithine decarboxylase enzymeBy antiproliferative effectBy inhibition of COX enzymeBy inducing apoptosis of cancer cellsBioactive compounds inhibit thecarcinogenesis at multiple stages-initiation promotion progression
Contd.. Anti-initiation activity of bioactive compounds is because of their anti-inflammatory and antimutagenic effects. Anti-promotion activity corresponds by inhibiting the action of carcinogens. Anti-progression activity by decreasing the MMPS (Metalloproteinases) andVEGF(Vascular endothelial growth factor) action. Resveratrol induces apoptosis in human breast carcinoma and human leukemiacells. Oral administration of 25µM of resveratrol and 30-32 µM of hydroxytyrosol leadto 70% growth inhibition of cancerous cells.(Arranz et al 2012)
NEUROPROTECTIVEACTIVITY Bioactive compounds have neuroprotective activity due totheir anti-inflammatory, estrogenic and hypolipemicproperties. They lowers the levels of amyloid-β peptides (formed by non-amyloidogenic pathways) whose aggregation leads to telltalesenile plaques of Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’sdisease. Bioactive compounds stimulates the degradation of amyloid-β peptides by proteasome; a barrel shaped multiproteincomplex that specifically digest proteins to small peptidesand amino acids.(Fernandz et al 2012)
AMYLOID-β PEPTIDES FORMATION ANDTHEIR DIGESTION BY PROTEASOME
Contd.. Bioactive compounds are capable of crossingblood-brain barrier and exerts strongneuroprotection; even at low doses. Consumption of 500nM resveratrol/day -needed to protect neurons.
COMMERCIAL FORMULATIONSAVAILABLE IN THE MARKET
Impressive progress is being made in defining the role ofbioactive compounds in reducing the risk of majorchronic diseases. Moderate wine consumption have antiaging, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, neuroprotectiveactivites. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism(NIAAA) reported that moderate drinkers have thegreatest longevity. Drinking alcohol in moderation (1-2drinks per day for women and 2-3 for men) was found toreduce risk of mortality significantly.
FUTURE PRESPECTIVES A deep study of bioavailability and pharmacokinetics ofbioactive compounds is required in humans. Various oenological practices and fermentative parameters(skin contact and maceration of grapes) need to be optimizedfor effective extraction of these bioactive compounds in wines. Awareness amongst the people to differentiate between thebenefits of undistilled and harmful effects of distilledbeverages.