Journal Reading

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Journal reading: An introduction to journal wiritng & research proposal.

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Journal Reading

  1. 1. JOURNAL READINGJOURNAL READING
  2. 2. Research paperResearch paper  AbstractAbstract  IntroductionIntroduction  MethodMethod  ResultResult  DiscussionDiscussion  ReferencesReferences
  3. 3. Sample of law journalSample of law journal The orthodox view has it that the explanation must begin inThe orthodox view has it that the explanation must begin in nonnormative elucidation of what is legally significant in legal practicenonnormative elucidation of what is legally significant in legal practice and why, by the lights of the practice itself. From that “legal point ofand why, by the lights of the practice itself. From that “legal point of view” we notice that the practice assigns to some of aspects ofview” we notice that the practice assigns to some of aspects of Itself – institutional directives – a certain kind of binding force. TheItself – institutional directives – a certain kind of binding force. The unqualified normative question of why those parts of the practice shouldunqualified normative question of why those parts of the practice should have the contemplated role comes last, and concerns whether the law inhave the contemplated role comes last, and concerns whether the law in fact has the force it claims for itself – whether the law so understoodfact has the force it claims for itself – whether the law so understood ought to be obeyed. Interpretivism, by contrast, begins by rejecting theought to be obeyed. Interpretivism, by contrast, begins by rejecting the claim that nonnormative elucidation of the point of view of the practiceclaim that nonnormative elucidation of the point of view of the practice determines the correct explanation of the legal relevance of institutionaldetermines the correct explanation of the legal relevance of institutional practice.practice.
  4. 4. Sample of science journalSample of science journal Of all the outcomes of cannabis prohibition, none is asOf all the outcomes of cannabis prohibition, none is as disastrous as the deprivation of medicinal marijuana todisastrous as the deprivation of medicinal marijuana to the many patients who could gain from its therapeuticthe many patients who could gain from its therapeutic value. A recent research showed that medical marijuanavalue. A recent research showed that medical marijuana has established result in the medication of nausea,has established result in the medication of nausea, premenstrual syndrome, lack of appetite, vomiting,premenstrual syndrome, lack of appetite, vomiting, unintentional weight loss and insomnia. Otherunintentional weight loss and insomnia. Other established effects could be made use of in theestablished effects could be made use of in the treatment of conditions which are extremely painfultreatment of conditions which are extremely painful especially neurogenic pain, asthma, glaucoma, andespecially neurogenic pain, asthma, glaucoma, and movement disorders. Research has also found out thatmovement disorders. Research has also found out that medical marijuana can be utilized to alleviate somemedical marijuana can be utilized to alleviate some symptoms of multiple sclerosis and injuries of the spinalsymptoms of multiple sclerosis and injuries of the spinal cord; by showing spasmolytic and muscle-relaxantcord; by showing spasmolytic and muscle-relaxant characteristics as well as arousing appetite.characteristics as well as arousing appetite.
  5. 5. ABSTRACTABSTRACT An abstract summarizes, in one paragraph (usually), the majorAn abstract summarizes, in one paragraph (usually), the major aspects of the entire paper in the following prescribedaspects of the entire paper in the following prescribed sequence:sequence:  thethe question(s) you investigatedquestion(s) you investigated (or purpose), ((or purpose), (fromfrom IntroductionIntroduction)) – state the purpose very clearly in the first or secondstate the purpose very clearly in the first or second sentence.sentence.  thethe experimental designexperimental design andand methodsmethods used, (used, (fromfrom MethodsMethods)) – clearly express the basic design of the study.clearly express the basic design of the study. – name or briefly describe the basic methodology usedname or briefly describe the basic methodology used without going into excessive detail-be sure to indicate thewithout going into excessive detail-be sure to indicate the key techniques used.key techniques used.
  6. 6.  thethe major findingsmajor findings includingincluding key quantitativekey quantitative resultsresults, or, or trendstrends ((fromfrom ResultsResults)) – report those results which answer the questionsreport those results which answer the questions you were askingyou were asking – identify trends, relative change or differences, etc.identify trends, relative change or differences, etc.  a brief summary of youra brief summary of your interpetationsinterpetations andand conclusionsconclusions. (from. (from DiscussionDiscussion)) – clearly state the implications of the answers yourclearly state the implications of the answers your results gave you.results gave you.
  7. 7. How do you know when you haveHow do you know when you have enough information in yourenough information in your Abstract?Abstract? A simple rule-of-thumb is to imagine thatA simple rule-of-thumb is to imagine that you are another researcher doing an studyyou are another researcher doing an study similar to the one you are reporting. If yoursimilar to the one you are reporting. If your Abstract was the only part of the paperAbstract was the only part of the paper you could access, would you be happyyou could access, would you be happy with the information presented there?with the information presented there?
  8. 8. The Abstract is ONLY text. Use the active voice whenThe Abstract is ONLY text. Use the active voice when possible, but much of it may require passivepossible, but much of it may require passive constructions. Write your Abstract using concise, butconstructions. Write your Abstract using concise, but complete, sentences, and get to the point quickly.complete, sentences, and get to the point quickly. UseUse past tensepast tense. Maximum length should be 200-300 words,. Maximum length should be 200-300 words, usually in a single paragraph.usually in a single paragraph. The AbstractThe Abstract SHOULD NOTSHOULD NOT contain:contain:  lengthy background information,lengthy background information,  references to other literature,references to other literature,  elliptical (i.e., ending with ...) or incomplete sentences,elliptical (i.e., ending with ...) or incomplete sentences,  abbreviations or terms that may be confusing to readers,abbreviations or terms that may be confusing to readers,  any sort of illustration, figure, or table, or references toany sort of illustration, figure, or table, or references to them.them.
  9. 9. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION  Establish the context of the work being reported.Establish the context of the work being reported. This is accomplished by discussing the relevantThis is accomplished by discussing the relevant primary research literatureprimary research literature (with(with citationscitations) and) and summarizing our current understanding of thesummarizing our current understanding of the problem you are investigating;problem you are investigating;  State the purposeState the purpose of the work in the form of theof the work in the form of the hypothesis, question, or problem youhypothesis, question, or problem you investigated; and,investigated; and,  Briefly explain your rationale and approach and,Briefly explain your rationale and approach and, whenever possible, the possible outcomes yourwhenever possible, the possible outcomes your study can reveal.study can reveal.
  10. 10. How to write an introduction?How to write an introduction?  Begin your Introduction by clearlyBegin your Introduction by clearly identifying the subject area of interestidentifying the subject area of interest Do this by usingDo this by using key wordskey words from your Title in thefrom your Title in the first few sentences of the Introduction to get itfirst few sentences of the Introduction to get it focused directly on topic at the appropriate level.focused directly on topic at the appropriate level. This insures that you get to the primary subjectThis insures that you get to the primary subject matter quickly without losing focus, or discussingmatter quickly without losing focus, or discussing information that is too general.information that is too general.
  11. 11.  Establish theEstablish the contextcontext by providing a briefby providing a brief and balanced review of the pertinentand balanced review of the pertinent published literature that is available onpublished literature that is available on the subjectthe subject The key is to summarize (for the reader) whatThe key is to summarize (for the reader) what we knew about the specific problemwe knew about the specific problem beforebefore youyou did your experiments or studies. This isdid your experiments or studies. This is accomplished with a general review of theaccomplished with a general review of the primary research literatureprimary research literature (with citations) but(with citations) but should not include very specific, lengthyshould not include very specific, lengthy explanations that you will probably discuss inexplanations that you will probably discuss in greater detail later in the Discussion. Thegreater detail later in the Discussion. The judgment of what is general or specific is difficultjudgment of what is general or specific is difficult at first, but with practice and reading of theat first, but with practice and reading of the scientific literature you will develop e firmerscientific literature you will develop e firmer sense of your audience.sense of your audience.
  12. 12. TaskTask  Write an introduction to a scientificWrite an introduction to a scientific research proposal:research proposal: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) inRadio Frequency Identification (RFID) in monitoring Elephas Maximus in the statemonitoring Elephas Maximus in the state of Kelantan’s forests.of Kelantan’s forests.
  13. 13.  What is the problem?What is the problem?  How are you going to set up the procedure ofHow are you going to set up the procedure of tagging all Elephas maximus? Where?tagging all Elephas maximus? Where?  How many Elephas will be tagged?How many Elephas will be tagged?  What are the method that can possibly be usedWhat are the method that can possibly be used to monitor the tag?to monitor the tag?  What are the advantages or limitation of the tag?What are the advantages or limitation of the tag?  Why the research / the studies is very importantWhy the research / the studies is very important

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