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  • 1. Consumer Motivationsfor the Engagementin FMCG-Crowdsourcing Measures Program: International Marketing & Brand Management Course: Internet Marketing, Branding and Consumers BUSN32 Professor: Veronika Tarnovskaya Author: Jennifer Joan Williams Related question: Who is the New Consumer on the Internet? Number of Words: 2997
  • 2. BUSN32 Internet marketing, branding and consumersIndividual Assignment Introduction and Purpose.......................................................................................................................................... 3Index 1. Who is the New Consumer on the Internet?............................................................................................. 3 2. Crowdsourcing as Part of Co-creation ........................................................................................................ 4 3. The Crowdsourcing Phenomenon ................................................................................................................4 4. Theoretical Framework .................................................................................................................................... 5 4.1 Maslow 2.0 and the Motivation-Ability-Opportunity Model ........................................................... 5 4.2 Co-Creation and Crowdsourcing................................................................................................................. 7 5. Engaging Consumers in FMCG Crowdsourcing Activities................................................................... 8 5.1 Crowdsourcing Category: New Product Features and Innovations – Threadless..................8 5.2 Crowdsourcing Category: Product Designs, Names & Logos- Pril ................................................9 6. Conclusion .............................................................................................................................................................. 9 Appendix ........................................................................................................................................................................ 11 References ..................................................................................................................................................................... 12 2
  • 3. BUSN32 Internet marketing, branding and consumersIndividual AssignmentAs modern internet technologies continue to develop and spread, they constantly influence theIntroduction and Purposeway in which organizations interact with consumers. The increasing number of information andcommunication technologies has facilitated consumers’ possibilities to access, comprehend andshare information, which resulted in a power shift towards consumers 1.Thereby empowered consumers are interacting with companies, brands and other consumersand creating and sharing their own content over “one-to-many” and “many-to-many” onlinecommunication channels. As part of a steadily growing network consumers act as collaborators,co-developers and even competitors when creating content and extracting business value. 2 Therole of the customer as co-producer of mainly intangible values when engaging in marketingactivities furthermore shows a shift towards a service-centered logic for marketing 3.Virtual customer integration represents a promising tool 4 to engage consumers in co-creationprocesses, especially in the FMCG industry. Here crowdsourcing measures are the tool of choicefor the integration of virtual customers, to engage in co-creational processes.This short paper aims to characterize the new consumer on the internet, explain his role in theWeb2.0 environment and sets focus on his motivation to participate in co-creation activities,especially through engaging in crowdsourcing-activities. So far existing marketing literature didnot attach great importance to details of consumer-motivation to engage in virtual co-creationtasks of crowdsourcing within the FMCG industry, a gap which is examined by this paper.The species of the new, empowered consumer seeks customization and personalization of high 1. Who is the New Consumer on the Internet?involvement products and thereby making them his own creation and uses them as display ofhis personality. Empowered and active he takes control of the product he wants to purchase andsometimes even of the brand offering it. The thereby encouraged change in marketingapproaches brought about new possibilities for consumers to express their identity through avariety of formats offered by companies. 5The new consumer furthermore seeks affiliation to communities of likeminded consumers anddemands multiple interaction channels. 6 These characteristics are added to the rather classicones of competitive value and choice, which are also intensified due to increased consumeraccess to accurate, recent and unbiased information. Once organizations owned all theinformation, but now online agents allow easy prices comparisons and consumers are providingreviews, ratings and general information for other consumers. 7Due to almost unlimited ways of online communication consumers are aware of a company’sshortcomings and malpractices and can share their dissatisfaction with the whole world. 8 Itwould only take one customer, armed with PC and a Web site, to take on a large corporation andcause considerable damage by for example creating so called “spoof sites”. 91 Pires et al, 20062 Prahalad and Ramaswamy, 20003 Vargo and Lusch, 20044 Füller et al, 20105 Chernev et al, 20116 Wind, 20087 Pitt et al, 20028 Pitt et al, 20029 Pitt et al, 2002 3
  • 4. BUSN32 Internet marketing, branding and consumersIndividual AssignmentAs one can see, brand value creation in the current market is dominated by consumer agents. Co-creation concepts offer a possible solution to engage active consumers and extend trust throughan increased brand-authenticity. The aim is to engage the consumer as co-creator, as there isprobably nothing more authentic for a consumer than something he has created himself. 10More and more companies invite consumers to actively participate in product development and 2. Crowdsourcing as Part of Co-creationevaluation. Taking their role as co-creators, they discuss possible improvements and solutions,individualize prototypes, test product features or generate product ideas. 11 Thereby activeconsumers give input about products or services they really want to purchase, use or see andenable companies to offer products which are truly demanded. This interactive value creation isbasically conducted when an organization opens a challenge to solve a problem or design aproduct, to a broad mass of consumers, users or an online community. Consecutively individualscontribute to solving the problem, evaluating a concept or designing a product, and theconducting organization takes ownership of the ideas and incorporates them. 12 The term“crowdsourcing” was coined by Jeff Howe, to describe this Web-based business model, whichharnesses the creative solutions of a network of individuals through an open call for proposals. 13Crowdsourcing campaigns in marketing are particularly aiming at a mass of participants and areutilized to reinvigorate a company’s business or brand. These campaigns can be divided intothree major categories: New product features and innovations, Commercials and Product designs,names & logos. 14 In recent years crowdsourcing became a popular tool for the FMCG industry.Although it is not a new phenomenon as companies have been generating consumer insights andknowledge on product developments, design and advertising through focus groups andtraditional market research, online crowdsourcing remains a special case in which the particularneeds of the new consumer-generation are triggered. 3. The Crowdsourcing PhenomenonNumerous examples in the FMCG industry prove the attraction caused by crowdsourcingmeasures. When asked to upload their favorite design (Pril), customize beer bottles forthemselves (Heineken), create a new drink flavor (VitaminWater) or make their ownadvertisements (Doritos) consumers happily engage. Capitalizing on the possibilities offeredthrough Web2.0, organizations entice their target group to work on behalf of the brand and“play the brand’s game” 15. Being only constrained by the imagination and passion of theparticipants- there is, so to speak, no limit of possible outcomes. 16 As many consumers sharetheir participation via social media when for example letting their friends vote for theiruploaded design in a contest or by word of mouth, the company generates spinoff-effects andprofits in more than one way. Nevertheless this measure attracts broad masses and notprofessional niches, like in software development for example. Therefore companies need to be10 Bertilsson and Casinger, 201011 Füller et al, 201012 Brabham, 201013 Howe, 200614 Rudenko, 201115 Fournier and Avery, 201116 Howe, 2008 4
  • 5. BUSN32 Internet marketing, branding and consumersIndividual Assignmentaware and prepared to be parodied or played with. Several brands had to learn, thatcrowdsourcing is not a cheap way to drive business, but can be quite costly and time consuming,as some of the active consumers show their power and take advantage of it to “scrawl digitalgraffiti on the sponsor and its brand”. 17 4. Theoretical Framework4.1 Maslow 2.0 and the Motivation-Ability-Opportunity ModelWhen trying to understand what triggers the attraction to engage in crowdsourcing activities,consumer characteristics and needs have to be taken into consideration again. The options toexpress one’s identity, satisfy social needs through sharing of consumption related experiencesand to join online communities provided by the internet are numerous 18 and not reflected byexisting models. The theory of human motivation of A. Maslow 19 builds the foundation for thedescription of consumer needs. But considering the empowered consumer, there is a necessityfor a revised model, adapted to the world of today; Maslow 2.0. Although motivations andbehaviors also depend on the environment, certain developments in our surrounding havechanged our needs and it is time to include these changes into existing theoretical frameworks. Self- Enhance ment Self Actualization Co-Creation Needs Content Sharing Needs Esteem Needs Connectivity Needs Belongingness and Love Needs Safey NeedsFigure 1: “Human needs in the Web 2.0”, modified from Maslow (1943) Biological and Physical NeedsMaslow’s pyramid starts out with the undisputable Biological and Physical needs (breathing,food, water and sleep), Safety needs (property, health) and the need of Belongingness and Love(friendships, family, intimacy). Subsequently to the need of belonging one can say thatrespective for online engagement of consumers there is a Connectivity need, as it marks theessential requirement for the communication between parties. Once a need-level is met, anindividual seeks to satisfy growth needs by going on to the next level, following the drivers of17 Story, 200718 Christodoulides, 200919 Maslow, 1943 5
  • 6. BUSN32 Internet marketing, branding and consumersIndividual Assignmentpersonal growth. The Connectivity-Need-level includes the possibility to express the personalidentity (creating social media-profiles) and also belonging to online communities (people withsimilar tastes, opinions). The following level of Esteem needs refers to Maslow’s original again,although the need for self-esteem, achievement and respect by others refers in this case to theengagement in online communities, blogs, and social networks to fulfill the need for recognitionand achievement and thereby provide a way to develop a virtual status and reputation. Content-sharing is the next step of engagement, meaning the need to share consumption relatedexperiences, pictures, video, or audio-material. After the sharing of content and distribution ofinformation the next step in personal growth would be the need to engage in Co-creationprocesses (product development, open innovation, crowdsourcing) to get him further towardsSelf-actualization by contributing to value creation and mutual problem solving. It includes theneed to ask for help and provide help to others. Self-actualization, according to Maslow, is theneed for morality, creativity and problem solving, therefore it not completely disconnected fromCo-creation, and- as already stated complements the prior step. Finally, as tip of the pyramid;Self-enhancement refers to the need for further self-development through access to a world ofideas, the need to constantly improve oneself, inspired by the shared content or co-created valueof other individuals.After identifying specific needs in the web 2.0 environment, the MAO-model of Motivation-Ability-Opportunity allows to combine consumer Motivation and Ability with the Opportunitycreated by organizations when for example operating crowdsourcing measures. The MAO-modelis an integrative model for consumer action, which aims to improve predictions of behavior byincorporating the concept of “ability” in addition to the “motivation” component for theconsumer-side and “opportunity” of external influences/ the company side. MOTIVATION ABILITY Knowledge • Needs Habits (Maslow 2.0) Resources • Attitude towards BEHAVIOR Company/Brand Intention Participation • Attitude towards behavior • Perceived OPPORTUNITY empowerment External Conditions (overall and • Social Norms situational)Figure 2: “MAO-model of consumer behavior in the Web 2.0”, modified from Ölander andThøgersen (1995)Motivation is determined by the need-state of the consumer, based on Figure 1 and can differamong consumers. Furthermore the attitude towards the company/ brand conducting themeasure, the perceived level of empowerment and the alignment with social norms affectsconsumers’ intention and therefore motivation to participate. The Ability component relates toconsumers’ knowledge/ capability, resources and habits. The influence of Ability on consumerintention is characterized by the interrelating arrow. The Opportunity component relates to the 6
  • 7. BUSN32 Internet marketing, branding and consumersIndividual Assignmentfacilitation of external conditions, in this particular case the design of the crowdsourcing tooland the process management of the company. Opportunity also interacts with the intension asthe tool design has direct influence on the perceived empowerment and the related enjoymentof the virtual interaction 20. As the participation experience affects the fulfillment of needs,perception of empowerment and attitude towards behavior and the company/ brand, a cyclicinfluence is formed.The concept of co-creation can be divided into four major parts depending on the level of4.2 Co-Creation and Crowdsourcingopenness of measures (directed towards masses or selected participants) and the ownership ofthe outcome (owned by initiator or by contributor). These two dimensions form a matrix,describing the four types of co-creation: The Club of Experts, the Crowd of People, Coalition ofParties and the Community of Kindred Spirits.Figure 3: “Four Types of Co-creation”, Pater (2009)For the purpose of this paper the focus is set on crowdsourcing and therefore only conceptsowned by the initiator, but with the openness to the mass-market will be examined closer. Whenreferring to the “crowd” a high number plays an important role and almost anyone is invited toparticipate. Furthermore must be understood, that the crowd voluntarily engages in the valuecreation process and needs to be rewarded accordingly through recognition, attention, andeventually tangible goods. 21 When conducting crowdsourcing measures companies offer onlineplatforms through which people get in contact with the company and also rate and respond toeach other. Furthermore social networks mediate the propagation and validation of knowledgeat a much faster pace than traditional methods 22. As crowdsourcing is constructed to gain inputfrom the masses, it takes time and organizations cannot be sure that the best people will (bemotivated to) contribute. 23 Within the crowd, consumers can take different roles. There are forexample creators (generating the driving content), critics (reacting to content), and spectators(consuming the created content). Depending on the focus of which target group is supposed to20 Füller et al, 201021 Brabham, 201122 Huberman, 200823 Pater, 2009 7
  • 8. BUSN32 Internet marketing, branding and consumersIndividual Assignmentbe addressed primarily the social application needs to be designed respectively. 24 When forexample designing advertisement-crowdsourcing-measures for the FMCG industry, a certaindegree of “gamification” (the use of game design attributes to enhance non-games) can serve toattract the crowd, which is motivated by game mechanics 25. In this particular industrycrowdsourcing is often used as promotional tool with a seeding objective 26. 5. Engaging Consumers in FMCG Crowdsourcing Activities5.1 Crowdsourcing Category: New Product Features and Innovations – ThreadlessThreadless is a fashion retail website and online artist community in one. The sold designs arebased on uploads and choices of an online community. A constant “open call” on the companywebsite attains designs which are submitted online to the page and put up to a public vote.Based on their rankings, certain designs are selected, produced and sold worldwide. Designerswhose work is printed are rewarded monetary. 27 The company keeps rights to the design onclothing, but the designers keep their design-rights for all other media. Threadless has not onlyhosted “a” crowdsourcing contest, crowdsourcing is furthermore their business concept.In the early days of the company the designers were more motivated to make their designsknown by having them printed and sold through Threadless- it was “where unknown designerswent to make their names” 28 which shows the company driving impact of Content-sharing needsand Co-creation needs of consumers in the web 2.0. The artists promote their designs, whichdeveloped through exchange with other community members, promote their submissions onwebsites and blogs and have their friends vote for it. 29 The motivation behind this creation ofvirtual reputation and status relates to Maslow’s Esteem needs, and furthermore again to Co-creation needs when considering the joint development of a design based on communityfeedback. Within this community members take different roles. Many non-artist communitymembers offer their opinion on numerous designs. 30 Their way of participation can becharacterized as critics and spectators. Research has shown that among surveyed Threadlesscustomers only five percent were buying a shirt without first voting on other designs. It seemsthat "Almost no one was simply consuming," quite contrary "They were all participating". 31Considering the active online community as biggest asset of the company, authenticity of thecompany becomes an important issue. When Threadless engaged into a partnership with the bigfashion retailer GAP, community members actively shared their dissatisfaction 32, which can beseen when examining blog posts with high response rates on the company website. Suchdissatisfaction after participating actively can easily result in a change of attitude towardsCompany/Brand, the own participation behavior and level of perceived empowerment, leadingto a possible decrease in intention and refusal of participation.24 Bernoff, 200825 Shaughnessy, 201126 Pater, 200927 Threadless, 201128 Chafkin, 200829 Chafkin, 200830 Chafkin, 200831 Chafkin, 200832 Craquehaus [=Pseudonym of forum post], 2012 8
  • 9. BUSN32 Internet marketing, branding and consumersIndividual Assignment5.2 Crowdsourcing Category: Product Designs, Names & Logos- PrilThe German consumer goods company Henkel started an open call for a design competition forits dishwashing detergent brand “Pril”. As reward the winning design was supposed to belaunched as special edition. Users were able to create their own design, share their opinion onother designs and vote for their favorites. With a response rate exceeding 33,000 designs thecompany believed in a success of the crowdsourcing competition. 33 However, not all of thesubmitted designs met the expectations of the brand managers. One participant submittedrather provoking designs, as a joke to contrast the “flowery” other designs (Appendix 1, Figure aand b). Unfortunately for Henkel these designs were voted most popular among users. Asmanagers perceived this as threat for the brand-image, they decided to change the rules duringthe contest, so designs would first be reviewed by a jury. Consequently a protest wave ofparticipants intruded the company’s Facebook-page 34. Henkel intervened by deleting certainconsumer-posts and reassessing votes for designs- downgrading “Tastes yummy like chicken!”and the “Rage-face”, which resulted in an even larger uproar among the community. In the end ofthe contest two designs out of the ones with the lower votes were declared winners (Appendix 1,Figure c and d) although Breuer’s designs ranked first and second popular. 35 Henkel tried todownplay the manipulation, arguing that “It was not our aim to only have designs which matchour brand-image, but we need to consider the acceptance in retail distribution”. 36This case indicates a possible cycle of negative effects relating to the integrated MAO-model.When engaging consumers in crowdsourcing measures a company needs to do even more thansetting up a contest. Customer liaison and support are important to actively manage thedimensions of Opportunity and Behavior as they directly affect consumer Motivation. Thenegative experience, which is seen in the amount of complaints on the company’s Facebook-profile clearly affects the attitude towards the company and brand, as well as the attitudetowards the own participation and the perceived empowerment- which was undeniablysuppressed by the company. Ideally Perceived empowerment would lead to increased trust in theempowering organization, which enhances the Intention to repeat the empowering behavior. 37 6. ConclusionWhile analyzing these cases and applying my modified models of “Human needs in the Web 2.0”and “MAO-model of consumer behavior in the Web 2.0” I was not able to identify the oneparticular motivation which could be applicable to all crowdsourcing activities, but rather a setof common denominators. However, motivations will most likely be rather unique, based onsubjective needs and the specific context of the crowdsourcing measure. For this conclusion thecontext of crowdsourcing measures in the FMCG industry needs to be considered, ascrowdsourcing is primarily utilized as branding campaign. Rather than to retrieve knowledgefrom consumers, it aims to build goodwill and brand loyalty 38.33 Breithut, 201134 www.facebook.com/pril35 Reputation-manager, 201136 Susanna [=Pseudonym of blog post], 201137 Conger and Kanungo, 1988; Deci and Ryan, 200238 Howe, 2008 9
  • 10. BUSN32 Internet marketing, branding and consumersIndividual AssignmentNevertheless the analysis of the discussed cases indicates that consumers’ engagement is mainlymotivated by: Connectivity Needs, Esteem Needs, Content-sharing Needs, Co-creation Needs, andSelf-actualization Needs. Combined with the Attitude towards the company/ brand and behavioras well as Perceived level of empowerment and Standards of social norms, these needs affect theIntention to participate in crowdsourcing measures. Furthermore the Motivation correlates withthe consumer’s Ability and the Opportunity provided by the company.As the Pril-case has proven, the establishment of an optimal technological basis and set of rulesfor the crowdsourcing measure, relating to consumer Abilities and external and internalOpportunity are only prerequisites. The management of the process should not beunderestimated, as its direct effects on the Motivation drivers are undeniable.Companies make use of consumer needs and reward participation with their fulfillment, byproviding possibilities and platforms to get social attention, achieve virtual reputation andstatus, and acknowledgment of skills. Although the Threadless-case relates to Self-actualizationneeds of designers, and touches upon Self-Enhancement when considering the fact thatdesigners discuss ideas back and forth and learn from each other to improve their own skills, itis probably not the case that FMCG-crowdsourcing measures can fulfill the pyramid top need ofSelf-Enhancement. This would be more likely for other crowdsourcing contexts or co-creationalprocesses.The recent attention in the FMCG industry shows certain indicators of a “hype” which’sattractiveness could soon wear off, if every company “crowdsources” every design, commercialor product innovation. Also the spinoff effects, generated when consumers share theirparticipation experiences via social media, are likely to turn into reluctance when their numbersincrease and “spam” the virtual communication channels. This would result in the loss of one ofthe greatest benefits for consumer brand companies, as future spinoffs exceed the value of directspinoffs (Figure 4).Figure 4: Four Areas of Value in Co-creation 10
  • 11. BUSN32 Internet marketing, branding and consumersIndividual AssignmentAppendixAppendix 1 Pril design Crowdsourcing-contest Figure a: “Tastes yummy like chicken!” Figure b: “Rage-Face” Figure c: “Winning designs”Figure d:”Top Design Gallery” 11
  • 12. BUSN32 Internet marketing, branding and consumersIndividual AssignmentReferences Literature Bertilsson, J. and Cassinger, C. (2010), “Governing Consumers through Freedom: A theoretical discussion of the Co-creation Branding Paradigm”, European Advances in Consumer Research (Vol. 9), 1-5. Brabham, D. C. (in press), “Motivaties voor crowdsourcing [Motivations for crowdsourcing]”, in T. Meuleman & R. van Meer (Eds.), “De C2B revolutie [The crowd-to-business revolution]”, Chernev, A., Hamilton, R. and Gal, D. (2011), “Competing for Consumer Identity: Limits to Amsterdam: Lenthe Publishers Self-Expression and the Perils of Lifestyle Branding”, Journal of Marketing (Vol. 75), 66 –82. Christodoulides, G. (2009), “Branding in the post-internet era”, Marketing Theory (Vol.9), 141-144. Conger, J. A. and Kanungo, R. N. (1988), “The empowerment process: Integrating theory and practice”, Academy of Management Review, (Vol.13, No.3), 471–482. Deci, E. and Ryan, R. (2002), “Handbook of Self-Determination Research”. Rochester, New York: University of Rochester Press. Furnier, S. and Avery, J. (2011), “The uninvited brand”, Business Horizons (Vol. 54), 193-207. Füller, J., Mühlbacher, H., Matzler, K. and Jawecki, G. (2010), “Consumer Empowerment Through Internet-Based Co-creation”, Journal of Management Information Systems, (Vol. 26, No. 3,), 71–102. Howe, J. (2008), “Crowdsourcing-Why the Power of the Crowd is driving the future of business”, New York: Three Rivers Press Hubermann, B.A. (2008), “Crowdsourcing and Attention”, Computer, (Vol.41, No.11), 103- 105 Maslow, A. H. (1943), “A Theory of Human Motivation”, Psychological Review, (Vol. 50), 370- 396. Ölander, F. and ThØgersen, J. (1995) “Understanding of consumer behaviour as a prerequisite for environmental protection” Journal of Consumer Policy, (Vol. 18, No. 4), 345- 385. Pires, G., Stanton, J. and Rita, P. (2006), “The internet, consumer empowerment and marketing strategies”, European Journal of Marketing, (Vol. 40 No. 9/10), 936-949. Pitt, L.F., Berthon, P.R., Watson R.T. and Zinkhan G.M. (2002) “The Internet and the birth of real consumer power”. Business Horizons, (July-August), 7-14. Prahalad, C.K. and Ramaswamy, V. (2000) “Co-opting Customer Competence”, HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW, (January-February 2000), 79-87. 12
  • 13. BUSN32 Internet marketing, branding and consumersIndividual Assignment Vargo, S.L. and Lusch, R. (2004) “Evolving to a New Dominant Logic for Marketing”, Journal of Marketing (Vol. 68), 1–17. Online Bernoff, J. (2008), Groundswell Profile: Lego, [Online] Available at: Harvard Business Publishing http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nMRLPlAhfM8 [Accessed 21 February 2012] Bevarly, D. (2009), Maslow 2.0 – A New Hierarchy of Needs for Collaboration, [Online] Available at: http://www.aheadofideas.com/?p=156 [Accessed 20 February 2012] Brabham, D. C. (2010), Crowdsourcing, [Online] Available at: http://dbrabham.wordpress.com/crowdsourcing/ [Accessed 23 February 2012] Breithut, J. (2011), Pril schmeckt nach Hähnchen [Pril tastes like chicken], [Online], Available at: http://www.spiegel.de/netzwelt/web/0,1518,756532,00.html [Accessed 27 February 2012] Chafkin, M. (2008), The Customer is the Company, [Online] Available at: http://www.inc.com/magazine/20080601/the-customer-is-the-company_pagen_6.html [Accessed 27 February 2012] Craquehaus [=Pseudonym of forum post] (2012), Threadless + Gap: An Inner Conflict of Epic Proportions [Online] Available at:http://www.threadless.com/profile/1190661/craquehaus/blog/801805/Threadless_Ga p_An_Inner_Conflict_of_Epic_Proportions [Accessed 27 February 2012] Howe, J. (2006), The Rise of Crowdsourcing, [Online] Available at: http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/14.06/crowds.html [Accessed 24 February 2012] Pater, M. (2009), The 5 Guiding Principles in Co-creation, [Online] Available at: Fronteer Strategy http://www.fronteerstrategy.com/writings-events-news/whitepapers [Accessed 03 February 2012] Reputation-manager (2011), Crowdsourcing Kampagne von Pril: Fettnäpfchen statt [Online] Available at: http://www.reputation-manager.de/blog/crowdsourcing-kampagne- Fettlösung[Pril’s Crowdsourcing Campaign-putting a foot in it instead of dissolving fat], von-pril-fettnaepfchen-statt-fettloesung/ [Accessed 27 February 2012] Rudenko, A. (2011), Crowdsourcing: You Create, Brand Capitalizes—Both Happy, [Online] Available at: http://popsop.com/44299 [Accessed 25 February 2012] Shaughnessy, H. (2011), Prediction 1 for 2012: Crowdsourcing Outshines Innovation and Jobs Issue Takes a New Turn, [Online] Available at: Forbes http://www.forbes.com/sites/haydnshaughnessy/2011/07/30/prediction-1-for-2012- crowdsourcing-outshines-innovation-and-jobs-issue-takes-a-new-turn/ [Accessed 25 February 2012] 13
  • 14. BUSN32 Internet marketing, branding and consumersIndividual Assignment Story, L. (2007), The high price of creating free ads, [Online] Available at: The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/26/business/26content.html [Accessed 28 February 2012] Susanna [=Pseudonym of blog post] (2011), Facebook-Marketing – Henkel zeigt mit Pril, wie not do it], [Online] Available at: http://www.go-crowdsourcing.de/articles/facebook- man es besser nicht macht [Facebook-Marketign-Henkel shows withPril, how you should better marketing-henkel-zeigt-mit-pril-wie-man-es-besser-nicht-macht-0 [Accessed 28 February 2012] Threadless (2011), Submitt an idea for the chance at fame, friends & Twenty-Five-Hundret Dollars!, [Online] Available at: http://www.threadless.com/submit [Accessed 28 February 2012] 14