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Biochem1
Biochem1
Biochem1
Biochem1
Biochem1
Biochem1
Biochem1
Biochem1
Biochem1
Biochem1
Biochem1
Biochem1
Biochem1
Biochem1
Biochem1
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  • 1. INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY What is Biochemistry?Biochemistry -is the study of life on a molecular level.
  • 2. Biochemistry can be divided into three areas of study Conformational-structure and three- dimensional arrangements of biomolecules. Metabolism–energy production and utilization Informational-language for communication inside and between cells
  • 3.  Biochemistry seeks to describe the structure, organization, and function of living organisms in molecular terms In order to understand the life on the molecular level, you mustfirst have a:  •Knowledge of the chemical structures of the biological molecules  •Understanding of the biological function of the molecules •Understanding of bioenergetics –the study of energy flow in cells
  • 4. Biochemistry is a Research Discipline Applicable to Real World Medicine –Clinical  Diagnose and monitor diseases * Scurvy, Phenylketonuria,Kwashiorkor, Diabetes, Cholera* Designer Drugs  –New and Improved antibiotics  –New and Improved chemotherapy agents
  • 5.  Protein Diseases Agriculture  •Herbicides and Pesticides Transgenic crops Industry -Synthesis -Detoxification
  • 6. CHAPTER 1- THE LIVING CELLThe cell -is the structural and functional unit of all known living organisms. - smallest unit of an organism that is classified as living, and is often called the building bricks of life .*ORIGIN OF THE CELL
  • 7. History OF THE CELL: 1632 – 1723: Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 1665: Robert Hooke 1839: Theodor Schwann and Matthias Jakob Schleiden 1855: Rudolph Virchow (omnis cellula ex cellula). 1953: Watson and Crick made their first announcement on the double-helix structure for DNA on February 28.
  • 8. GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE CELL:1. Eukaryotic cell -with true nucleus -contain membrane-bound compartments in which specific metabolic activities take place.2. Prokaryotic cell - no defined-nucleus -simpler than the nucleus
  • 9. Diagram of a prokaryotic cell
  • 10. Diagram of a typical eukaryotic cell
  • 11. Basis Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic cellTypical bacteria, archaea protists, fungi, plants, animalsorganismsTypical size 1-10 µm 10-100 µm (sperm cells, apart from the tail, are smaller)Cytoplasmatic very few structures highly structured bystructure endomembranes and a cytoskeletonCell movement flagella made of flagella and cilia containing flagellin microtubulesMitochondria None one to several thousandBinary fission (simple division) Mitosis (fission or budding) Meiosis
  • 12. TYPES OF EUKARYOTIC CELLBasis: Animal Cell Plant cell1.Nucleus + +2. Mitochondria + +3. ER + +4. GA + +5.Cytoplasm + +6. Membrane Plasma Cell wall membrane7.Lysosomes + +8. Centrioles + +9. Chloroplast - +10.Vacuole + +
  • 13. Biological composition of the cell
  • 14. BIOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELLOrganelles FUNCTIONSNucleus Control center; genetic informationMitochondria Produces ATP thru cellular respirationRibosomes Site for protein synthesisER SER-lipids synthesis; RER-CHON synthesisVacuoles Storage and ExcretionMembrane Regulation and TranportationCilia/Flagella MovementLysosomes Cellular digestion
  • 15. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE LIVING CELLH, O, C and N make up 99+% of atoms in the human body ELEMENT PERCENTAGE Oxygen- 63 Hydrogen -25.2 Carbon- 9.5 Nitrogen -1.4 •Hydrogen, Carbon, Oxygen and Nitrogen comprise over 99% of the mass in most cells •These elements are the backbone of biomoleculesbecause they are capable of forming strong covalent bonds *Chemical Reactions that occur inside the cell are the same that occur outside the cell*
  • 16. Biological Macromolecules of the living cells4. Nucleic Acids-that store and transmit genetic information5. Proteins- Transportation; Storage; Defense mechanisms6. Polysaccharides-Insulation and Regulation of heat
  • 17. Biological Micromolecules Nucleotide (RNA/DNA)- Nucleic Acids Amino acid- Protein Simple sugars-Carbohydrates Fatty acids, Glycerol etc.- Lipids
  • 18. Organelles Biochemical SystemsNucleus - Nucleic acids, Protein and LipidsRibosomes - RNA and ProteinsLysosomes -Proteins (enzymes)Membranes Lipids, Protein, CarbohydratesGolgi Protein, lipids, carbohydratesApparatusMitochondria Proteins, lipids, Carbohydrates, nucleic acids
  • 19. PHYSICAL BIOCHEMICAL METHODS (ORGANELLES)4. EXTRACTION5. HOMOGENIZATION6. CENTRIFUGATION

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