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Code Analysis-run time error prediction
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Code Analysis-run time error prediction



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  • 1. Code Analysis
  • 2. Overview • Introduction • Existing solutions • Run time errors • Design • Implementation • Future Work
  • 3. Code Analysis Difference between project success & failure. • If there's going to be a program, there has to be construction. • Code is often the only accurate description of the software available. • Code must follow coding standards and code conventions.
  • 4. Source code Conventions • 80% of the lifetime cost of a piece of software goes to maintenance. • Hardly any software is maintained for its whole life by the original author. • Code conventions improve the readability of the software. • Source code like any other product should be well packaged
  • 5. Code optimization based analysis • Code Verification and Run-Time Error prediction at compile time using syntax directed translation. • Predict run time errors without program execution or test cases. • Uses Intermediate Code
  • 6. Existing Solutions
  • 7. Possible Run time Errors 1) Detecting uninitialized Variables Using variables before they have been initialized by the program can cause unpredictable results 2) Detecting Overflows, Underflows, and Divide by Zeros
  • 8. Consider pseudo-code: X=X/(X-Y) Identifying all possible causes for error on the operation: o X and Y may not be initialized   X-Y may overflow or underflow  - X and Y may be equal and cause a division by zero  e X/(X–Y) may overflow or underflow  
  • 9. All possible values of x & y in program p If the value of x & y both fall on the black line, there is a divide by zero error.
  • 10. 3) Detecting incorrect argument data types and incorrect number of arguments   • Checking of arguments for type and for the correct order of occurrence. • Requires both the calling program and the called program to be compiled with a special compiler option. • Checks can be made to determine if the number and types of arguments in function (and subroutine) calls are consistent with the actual function definitions.
  • 11. 4) Detecting errors with strings at run-time • A string must have a null terminator at the end of the meaningful data in the string. A common mistake is to not allocate room for this extra character. This can also be a problem with dynamic allocation. char * copy_str = malloc( strlen(orig_str) + 1); strcpy(copy_str, orig_str); • The strlen() function returns a count of the data characters which does not include the null terminator. • In the case of dynamic allocation, it might corrupt the heap
  • 12.   a. Detecting Out-of-bounds indexing of statically and dynamically allocated arrays   A common run-time error is the reading and writing of arrays outside of their declared bounds. b. Detecting Out-of-Bounds Pointer References   A common run-time error for C and C++ programs occurs when a pointer points to memory outside its associated memory block.
  • 13. Pseudo code for out of bound references for(i=0;i<5;i++) A[i]=i; p=A; for(i=0;i<=5;i++) p++; a=*p; /* out-of-bounds reading using pointers */
  • 14. 5) Detecting Memory Allocation and Deallocation Errors • A memory deallocation error occurs when a portion of memory is deallocated more than once. • Another common source of errors in C and C++ programs is an attempt to use a dangling pointer. A dangling pointer is a pointer to storage that is no longer allocated.
  • 15. 6) Detecting Memory Leaks • A program has a memory leak if during execution the program loses its ability to address a portion of memory because of a programming error; • A pointer points to a location in memory and then all the pointers pointing to this location are set to point somewhere else • A function/subroutine is called, memory is allocated during execution of the function/subroutine, and then the memory is not deallocated upon exit and all pointers to this memory are destroyed
  • 16. Source code analyzer predicates Reliable: Proven free of run- time errors and under all operating conditions within the scope Faulty: Proven faulty each time the operation is executed. Dead: Proven unreachable (may indicate a functional issue) Unproven: Unproven code section or beyond the scope of the analyzer.
  • 17. Specifications •Why Java for developing analyser?
  • 18. Specifications •Why C/C++ as input language?
  • 19. Design for Code Analyzer Input program (C File) S Lexical Analyzer y m b o l T a b l Parser e IC(SDT) Generation Run Time Error Predictions
  • 20. Analysis of Code Input Program Lexical Analysis-Stream Tokenizer Parser- Condition = "(" Expression ("=="|"!="|">"|"<"|">="|"<=") Expression ")" Expression = Term {("+"|"-") Term} Term = Factor {("*"|"/") Factor} Factor = number | identifier | Intermediate code generation: Postfix Evaluation
  • 21. 3 address code generation Target Source File: argument operator operand operand result Test(n){ 1 2 int b,a,n,j; 0 < j n if(j<n) 1 if 0 gotol0 { 2 + a b a=a+b;} 3 = a 2 } l0:
  • 22. Work Done: Intermediate Code
  • 23. Further Work • Evaluation of intermediate code for performing data flow and control flow analysis. • Prediction of run time errors using intermediate code. • Using code optimization techniques such as constant folding to predict code behavior
  • 24. REFERENCES • A V. Aho, R Sethi, J D. Ullman., Compilers: Principles, Techniques and Tools, 2nd ed. , Addison-Wesley Pub. Co. • G R. Luecke, J Coyle, J Hoekstra “A Survey of Systems for Detecting Serial Run-Time Errors”, The Iowa State University's High Performance Computing Group, Concurrency and Computation. : Practice and Experience. 18, 15(Dec. 2006), 1885-1907. • T Erkkinen, C Hote “Code Verification and Run-Time Error Detection Through Abstract Interpretation”, AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference and Exhibit ,21 - 24 Aug 2006, Keystone, Colorado. • PolySpace Client for C/C++ 6 datasheet. Available HTTP: • D.M. Dhamdhere, Compiler Construction, Tata McGraw-Hill. • Semantic designs, “Flow analysis for control and data”, Available HTTP: