Introduction Jane Eyre is a novel by English author Charlotte Bronte. It was published in London, England, in 1847 with the title Jane Eyre. An Autobiography und er the pen name "Currer Bell”
INTRODUCTION Its a story about a female orphan’s life, focusing on the emotions and experiences that accompany growth to adulthood. The novel also contains a strong sense of morality at its core.o Its often considered ahead of its time due to its portrayal of the development of a passionate young woman, desiring a full life, while also being highly moral.o Jane is a poor and plain woman without captivating charm developing into a compassionate and confident woman.o Although Jane suffers much, she is never portrayed as a DAMSEL IN DISTRESS who needs rescuing. For this reason, it is sometimes regarded as an important early feminist novel.
SETTING The setting of the story is carefully divide into five distinct locales: Her early childhood is spent in Gateshead hall, the home of the Reeds; Lowood where she comes under the influence of Mr. Brocklehurst, Miss Temple, and Helen Burns; At Thornfield manor, as Adele’s governess & where she falls in love with Rochester. Moor house, the home of her cousins, the Rivers family; In the conclusion of the book she and Rochester are united at his crumbling hunting-lodge, Ferndean Manor.
CHARACTERS Jane Eyre: The protagonist of the novel and the title character. Orphaned as a baby, she struggles through her nearly loveless childhood and becomes governess at Thornfield Hall Mr. Reed: Janes maternal uncle, who adopts Jane & makes his wife promise to care for Jane. Mrs. Sarah Reed: Janes aunt by marriage, who adopts Jane but abuses and neglects her John Reed: Janes cousin, who bullies Jane constantly, sometimes in his mothers presence Eliza Reed: Janes cousin. Georgiana Reed: Janes cousin. Though spiteful and insolent, she is also beautiful and indulged. She also becomes a friend of Janes towards the end of the novel Bessie Lee: The plain-spoken nursemaid at Gateshead. She sometimes treats Jane kindly, telling her stories and singing her songs.
Mr. Lloyd: A compassionate apothecary who recommends that Jane be sent to school. Mr. Brocklehurst: The clergyman headmaster and treasurer of Lowood School, whose maltreatment of the students is eventually exposed Miss Maria Temple: The kind superintendent of Lowood School, who treats Jane and Helen (and others) with respect and compassion. She helps clear Jane of Mr. Brocklehursts false accusation of deceit.. Helen Burns: A fellow-student and best friend of Janes at Lowood School. She dies of consumption in Janes arms. Edward Fairfax Rochester: The master of Thornfield Manor. He is tricked into making an unfortunate first marriage before he meets Jane, with whom he falls madly in love. Bertha Antoinette Mason: The violently insane first wife of Edward Rochester. Adele Varens: An excitable French child to whom Jane is governess at Thornfield. She is Mr. Rochesters ward and possibly his daughter. Mrs. Alice Fairfax: An elderly widow and housekeeper of Thornfield Manor. She treats Jane kindly and respectfully, but disapproves of her engagement to Mr. Rochester. Grace Poole: Bertha Masons keeper. Jane is told that it is Grace Poole who causes the mysterious things to happen at Thornfield Hall.
St. John Eyre Rivers: A clergyman who befriends Jane and turns out to be her cousin. He is Jane Eyres cousin on her fathers side. By nature he is very reserved and single-minded. Diana and Mary Rivers: St. Johns sisters and (as it turns out) Janes cousins. They are governesses like her. Rosamond Oliver: A beautiful, wealthy, young woman who patronizes the village school where Jane teaches, and who is attracted to the Rev. St. John. John Eyre: Janes paternal uncle, who leaves her his vast fortune of 20,000 pounds. He never appears as a character. Blanche Ingram: A socialite whom Mr. Rochester appears to court in order to make Jane jealous. She is described as having great beauty, but displays callous behavior and avaricious intent. Richard Mason: An Englishman from the West Indies, whose sister is Mr. Rochesters first wife. He is spineless and is disliked by Mr. Rochester.
ORPHANS in the Victorian era The “abandoned child” was society’s scapegoat- a person without a past, without connections, without status. Orphans were also often treated with disdain and distrust, due to their reputation as “criminally prone” individuals. The upper and middle classes often had a somewhat romantic perception of them, due to their prevalence in Victorian literature. Novels like Jane Eyre and Wuthering Heights made heroines/heroes out of orphans. Children who were adopted by their own social class were usually treated fairly and equally but if they were adopted by a family whose status was above and beyond their original class, they were frequently mistreated and neglected.
Orphanages and schools for orphans Many philanthropists donated money to these “schools” for the express purpose of boarding and educating orphans. Their education was rarely as good as those whose families paid for it. Most of these programs were designed specifically to train children to a lower-middle class occupation, such as becoming a governess. Food, education, and lodging were provided until the orphan turned 17; then they were expected to begin working Many were underfunded, crowded, and unsanitary. Disease spread rapidly in such close quarters, and poor nutrition and excess punishment didn’t help matters much.
Class divisions in the Victorian society Working class - men and women who performed physical labor, paid daily or weekly wages Middle class - men performed mental or "clean" work, paid monthly or annually.( doctors, bankers etc) Upper class - did not work, income came from inherited land and investments
“Women” in the Victorian society Two hundred years ago, the barriers of the Victorian class system rigidly defined the role of a woman. Divided into distinct classes, Nobility and Gentry, Middle Class, Working Class, these women each had their own specific standards and roles. They were expected to adhere to these standards alone.
Women of the upper class They inherited their land, titles, and wealth. It might seem as if women of this class did very little but their work was very important as they were expected to manage the home and the household. Social parties and balls were held often & dancing was a favorite pastime among most upper-class women and men. An evening party often would end with a few sets among the four or five couples present. Unmarried women spent a great deal of time with other unmarried women Like: Blanche and Mary Ingram
Woman of the middle class Women of the middle class depended on marrying into the upper classes, to gain social prestige & worldly goods. The roles of middle class women varied from family to family; some might have a place in the family shop, while others might live very much as a genteel woman, with little work and much leisure. A many of these women became governesses, relaying their own high-class tutoring to upper class children. i.e. Jane Eyre, Diana & Mary Rivers.
Women in the lower class This included the desperately poor, typically single women of the Victorian era working class men in the factories and other places offering jobs of taxing physical labor. Another popular employment for working class women was domestic service. i.e. Bessie, Leah, Mary
Role of governesses in the Victorian era A governess was in an awkward position in the Victorian household, neither quite a servant nor a member of the family. Being a governess was one of the few legitimate ways an unmarried middle class woman could support herself in that society. Her position was often depicted as one to be pitied, and the only likely way out of it was to marry. Once her charges grew up, she had to seek a new position, or, exceptionally, might be retained by the grown-up daughter as a paid companion. This position was a deplorable one, as the governess was found a worthy scapegoat in the eyes of everyone, from the master and mistress to the house-maid .
Job of a governess:The ideal governess had a good temper and good manners and was very well-educated and accomplished. She had a broad range of skills and knowledge, and had to teach ‘the three Rs’, French and Italian, teach arithmetic, science and geography, instruct young ladies in drawing and needlework. at least two musical instruments (preferably the pianoforte and harp), the rudimentary dance-steps She taught essential etiquette, Gave religious and moral instructionUnder her tutelage, her female charges became accomplished ladies, while their brothers were prepared for the best preparatory schools in the country.
Christianity in the era On Sunday’s the family would get up, wash and dress to go to the church. For many families the church was a source of entertainment and friends. Festivals like Easter, Christmas and harvest marked the year. Christian beliefs inspired many to help others and to work to improve our society. Church schools brought education for all; people like William Barnardo and George Müller cared for orphans. William Booth helped the homeless, poor and unemployed. Christian politicians like Shaftesbury and Gladstone cared deeply about social justice and tried to change what they could.
Christian missionaries took great risks to help people in other countries, building hospitals, schools and orphanages as well as churches. The Christian faith was the reason for much of what happened in Victorian Britain The main belief of the christians is the “Holy Trinity”; which means the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost. They follow the teachings of Jesus (Hazrat Esa)
Christian festivals Church year Lent and Holy week Mothering Sunday Good Friday Easter Pentecost Harvest All Saints’ Day
Remembrance Sunday ChristmasRight: Christmas celebrated in Pakistan.
Bibliography http://www.request.org.uk/main/history/victorians/vi ctorians01.htm http://www.english.uwosh.edu/roth/VictorianEnglan d.htm Wikipedia “Orphans In The 19th Century Victorian England” by Jodi Greig Google Images