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  • Introduce the students to the course by asking them what they know about forensics. Next, ask the students what they know about system forensics and why is it required in organizations dependent on IT. This could be a brief discussion of about 5 minutes. Lead the discussion to the objectives of this chapter.
  • Introduce the students to the different types of threats that systems face by: Asking the students to give examples of what they think are environmental and human threats. Asking the students to give instances of what they think are malicious and non-malicious threats. Conclude the discussion on the different types of threats by giving additional examples of malicious and non malicious threats.
  • Introduce the students to the different types of threats that systems face by: Asking the students to give examples of what they think are environmental and human threats. Asking the students to give instances of what they think are malicious and non-malicious threats. Conclude the discussion on the different types of threats by giving additional examples of malicious and non malicious threats.
  • Hold a two- three minute discussion on the different types of system-related crimes that the students have experienced or heard. At the end of the discussion, give additional examples of system-related crimes.
  • While explaining the definition of system forensics, ask the students to note the following key words in the definition: Identify Extract Process Analyze Digital and hardware evidence Tell the students that these form an integral aspect of system forensics and would be discussed in detail. Before moving on to the next slide, hold a brief discussion on why is it important for organizations to take the help of system forensics. The discussion should be focused on: The role that system forensics plays in organizations having an IT set up. This discussion will serve as a precursor to the next slide.
  • While explaining the definition of system forensics, ask the students to note the following key words in the definition: Identify Extract Process Analyze Digital and hardware evidence Tell the students that these form an integral aspect of system forensics and would be discussed in detail. Before moving on to the next slide, hold a brief discussion on why is it important for organizations to take the help of system forensics. The discussion should be focused on: The role that system forensics plays in organizations having an IT set up. This discussion will serve as a precursor to the next slide.
  • While explaining the definition of system forensics, ask the students to note the following key words in the definition: Identify Extract Process Analyze Digital and hardware evidence Tell the students that these form an integral aspect of system forensics and would be discussed in detail. Before moving on to the next slide, hold a brief discussion on why is it important for organizations to take the help of system forensics. The discussion should be focused on: The role that system forensics plays in organizations having an IT set up. This discussion will serve as a precursor to the next slide.
  • While explaining the definition of system forensics, ask the students to note the following key words in the definition: Identify Extract Process Analyze Digital and hardware evidence Tell the students that these form an integral aspect of system forensics and would be discussed in detail. Before moving on to the next slide, hold a brief discussion on why is it important for organizations to take the help of system forensics. The discussion should be focused on: The role that system forensics plays in organizations having an IT set up. This discussion will serve as a precursor to the next slide.
  • While explaining the definition of system forensics, ask the students to note the following key words in the definition: Identify Extract Process Analyze Digital and hardware evidence Tell the students that these form an integral aspect of system forensics and would be discussed in detail. Before moving on to the next slide, hold a brief discussion on why is it important for organizations to take the help of system forensics. The discussion should be focused on: The role that system forensics plays in organizations having an IT set up. This discussion will serve as a precursor to the next slide.
  • While explaining the definition of system forensics, ask the students to note the following key words in the definition: Identify Extract Process Analyze Digital and hardware evidence Tell the students that these form an integral aspect of system forensics and would be discussed in detail. Before moving on to the next slide, hold a brief discussion on why is it important for organizations to take the help of system forensics. The discussion should be focused on: The role that system forensics plays in organizations having an IT set up. This discussion will serve as a precursor to the next slide.
  • While explaining the definition of system forensics, ask the students to note the following key words in the definition: Identify Extract Process Analyze Digital and hardware evidence Tell the students that these form an integral aspect of system forensics and would be discussed in detail. Before moving on to the next slide, hold a brief discussion on why is it important for organizations to take the help of system forensics. The discussion should be focused on: The role that system forensics plays in organizations having an IT set up. This discussion will serve as a precursor to the next slide.
  • While explaining the definition of system forensics, ask the students to note the following key words in the definition: Identify Extract Process Analyze Digital and hardware evidence Tell the students that these form an integral aspect of system forensics and would be discussed in detail. Before moving on to the next slide, hold a brief discussion on why is it important for organizations to take the help of system forensics. The discussion should be focused on: The role that system forensics plays in organizations having an IT set up. This discussion will serve as a precursor to the next slide.
  • While explaining the definition of system forensics, ask the students to note the following key words in the definition: Identify Extract Process Analyze Digital and hardware evidence Tell the students that these form an integral aspect of system forensics and would be discussed in detail. Before moving on to the next slide, hold a brief discussion on why is it important for organizations to take the help of system forensics. The discussion should be focused on: The role that system forensics plays in organizations having an IT set up. This discussion will serve as a precursor to the next slide.
  • While explaining the definition of system forensics, ask the students to note the following key words in the definition: Identify Extract Process Analyze Digital and hardware evidence Tell the students that these form an integral aspect of system forensics and would be discussed in detail. Before moving on to the next slide, hold a brief discussion on why is it important for organizations to take the help of system forensics. The discussion should be focused on: The role that system forensics plays in organizations having an IT set up. This discussion will serve as a precursor to the next slide.
  • While explaining the definition of system forensics, ask the students to note the following key words in the definition: Identify Extract Process Analyze Digital and hardware evidence Tell the students that these form an integral aspect of system forensics and would be discussed in detail. Before moving on to the next slide, hold a brief discussion on why is it important for organizations to take the help of system forensics. The discussion should be focused on: The role that system forensics plays in organizations having an IT set up. This discussion will serve as a precursor to the next slide.
  • Elaborate on the role that system forensics plays in an organization, based on the discussion in the previous slide and the information given on this slide.
  • Connect the information given on this slide to the initial discussion held on the different types of system-related crimes.
  • Connect the information given on this slide to the initial discussion held on the different types of system-related crimes.
  • Connect the information given on this slide to the initial discussion held on the different types of system-related crimes.
  • Connect the information given on this slide to the initial discussion held on the different types of system-related crimes.
  • Connect the information given on this slide to the initial discussion held on the different types of system-related crimes.
  • Connect the information given on this slide to the initial discussion held on the different types of system-related crimes.
  • Connect the information given on this slide to the initial discussion held on the different types of system-related crimes.
  • Tell the students that the key words that they were told to note while discussing the definition of system forensics, will be elaborated as part of the system forensics process.
  • While explaining the definition of system forensics, ask the students to note the following key words in the definition: Identify Extract Process Analyze Digital and hardware evidence Tell the students that these form an integral aspect of system forensics and would be discussed in detail. Before moving on to the next slide, hold a brief discussion on why is it important for organizations to take the help of system forensics. The discussion should be focused on: The role that system forensics plays in organizations having an IT set up. This discussion will serve as a precursor to the next slide.
  • Reiterate the concepts taught earlier by asking the given question.
  • Reiterate the concepts taught earlier by asking the given question.
  • Reiterate the concepts taught earlier by asking the given question.
  • Reiterate the concepts taught earlier by asking the given question.
  • Reiterate the concepts taught earlier by asking the given question.
  • Reiterate the concepts taught earlier by asking the given question.

Xml session02 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Extensible Markup LanguageObjectives In this session, you will learn to: Create an XML schema Declare attributes in an XML schema Identify the need for XML namespaces Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 1 of 36
  • 2. Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML Schema An XML schema defines the list of elements and attributes that can be used in an XML document. An XML schema specifies the order in which the elements appear in the XML document, and their data types. Microsoft has developed the XML Schema Definition (XSD) language to define the schema of an XML document. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 2 of 36
  • 3. Extensible Markup LanguageAdvantages of XML Schema Created Using XSDs Some of the advantages of creating an XML schema by using XSD are: XSD provides control over the type of data that can be assigned to elements and attributes. XSD enables you to create your own data types. XSD enables you to specify restrictions on data. The syntax for defining an XSD is the same as the syntax used for XML documents. XML schema content models can be used to validate mixed content. XML schema is extensible. XML schema is self documenting. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 3 of 36
  • 4. Extensible Markup LanguageSupport for XML Schemas in Various Parsers Parsers that provide support for XML schemas are: – IBM XML4J: Validates XML documents against several types of XML schemas. – MSXML 6.0: Enables loading of XML data from anonymous or untrusted sources in a secured manner. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 4 of 36
  • 5. Extensible Markup LanguageData Types in XML Schemas In an XML schema created using XSD, every element must be associated with a data type. XSD provides the following list of predefined data types: Primitive Derived Atomic List Union Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 5 of 36
  • 6. Extensible Markup LanguageData Types in XML Schemas (Contd.) In an XML schema created using XSD, every element must be associated with a data type. XSD provides the following list of predefined data types:   Do not contain elements or attributes. Primitive   Contain only values. Derived  Atomic  List  Union Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 6 of 36
  • 7. Extensible Markup LanguageData Types in XML Schemas (Contd.) In an XML schema created using XSD, every element must be associated with a data type. XSD provides the following list of predefined data types:  Primitive  Derived Are defined by using other data types called base types.  Atomic Can be built-in or user-defined.  List  Union Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 7 of 36
  • 8. Extensible Markup LanguageData Types in XML Schemas (Contd.) In an XML schema created using XSD, every element must be associated with a data type. XSD provides the following list of predefined data types:  Primitive  Derived  Atomic Cannot be broken down into smaller units.  List Can be primitive or derived.  Union Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 8 of 36
  • 9. Extensible Markup LanguageData Types in XML Schemas (Contd.) In an XML schema created using XSD, every element must be associated with a data type. XSD provides the following list of predefined data types:  Primitive  Derived  Atomic  List  Are derived data types that contain a set of values of atomic data types.  Union  Elements referring to a list data type can contain a value only from that defined set. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 9 of 36
  • 10. Extensible Markup LanguageData Types in XML Schemas (Contd.) In an XML schema created using XSD, every element must be associated with a data type. XSD provides the following list of predefined data types:  Primitive  Derived  Atomic  List  Union  Are derived from the atomic and list data types. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 10 of 36
  • 11. Extensible Markup LanguageElements in XML Schemas There are two types of elements, simple and complex that can be defined in a schema. Simple Element A simple element does not contain any child elements or attributes. It contains only values, such as numbers, strings, and dates. You can specify restrictions on elements by defining a new simple data type from an existing data type using facet values. You can also associate an element with a simple data type. Let us look at the syntax for declaring a simple element. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 11 of 36
  • 12. Extensible Markup LanguageElements in XML Schemas (Contd.) <xsd:element name= The name attribute specifies the name of the element declared. “element-name" type="data type" The type attribute specifies the data min0ccurs="nonNegativeInteger" type of the element declared. max0ccurs="nonNegativeInteger| minOccurs specifies the minimum unbounded"/> number of times the element can occur. maxOccurs specifies the maximum number of times the element can appear. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 12 of 36
  • 13. Extensible Markup LanguageElements in XML Schemas (Contd.) Complex Element A complex element contains other elements, attributes, and mixed content. To declare a complex element, you need to first define a complex data type. After defining the complex data type, you can declare a complex element by associating this data type with the element. Let us look at the syntax for declaring a complex element. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 13 of 36
  • 14. Extensible Markup LanguageElements in XML Schemas (Contd.) <xsd:complexType name="data The complexType element is used to type name"> declare a new complex data type. Content model declaration The name attribute specifies the name of </xsd:complexType> the new complex data type. The Content model declaration contains the declaration for the elements and attributes that make up the content of the complex type. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 14 of 36
  • 15. Extensible Markup LanguageDemo: Creating an XML Schema Problem Statement: CyberShoppe, a toy and book store in the United States, sends its product information from the head office to the branch offices. The product details must be stored in a consistent format. Restrictions must be placed on the type of data that can be saved in the data store, in order to ensure uniformity and consistency of information. The product details include the product name, a brief description, product price, and the available quantity on hand. The price of the product must always be greater than zero. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 15 of 36
  • 16. Extensible Markup LanguageDeclaring Attributes in a Schema Attributes in an XML schema are declared in the same way as elements. Declaring attributes in an XML schema facilitates the assimilation of information for an XML document. Attribute declarations can be defined in two ways: – Simple type definitions: Facilitates local validation of the attribute information. – Global attribute declarations: Enables reuse of attributes. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 16 of 36
  • 17. Extensible Markup LanguageAttribute Element • In XSD, an attribute for a user-defined element is declared using the attribute element. • The syntax for declaring an attribute in XSD is: <attribute name="attributename" ref="attributename" type="datatypename" use="value" value="value"> </attribute> • The attribute element contains attributes that are used to further qualify and restrict the scope and usage of the user-defined attribute. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 17 of 36
  • 18. Extensible Markup LanguageAttribute Element (Contd.) • The attribute element consists of the following attributes: name ref type use Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 18 of 36
  • 19. Extensible Markup LanguageAttribute Element (Contd.) • The attribute element consists of the following Is used to specify the name of a attributes: user-defined attribute. a name Must be used when the schema element a ref is the parent element of the attribute element. a type Colon (:) should not be included in the a use value of the name attribute. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 19 of 36
  • 20. Extensible Markup LanguageAttribute Element (Contd.) • The attribute element consists of the following attributes: Is used to refer to a user-defined a name attribute declared either in the same or in a ref any other XSD document. a type a use Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 20 of 36
  • 21. Extensible Markup LanguageAttribute Element (Contd.) • The attribute element consists of the following attributes: a name a ref Takes a value that specifies the data type of the user-defined attribute. a type a use Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 21 of 36
  • 22. Extensible Markup LanguageAttribute Element (Contd.) • The attribute element consists of the following attributes: a name a ref a type  Specifies the way in which an attribute can be used in an XML document. a use  Values that can be assigned to the use attribute are optional, default, required, and fixed. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 22 of 36
  • 23. Extensible Markup LanguageGlobal Attributes Global attributes are declared outside all element declarations. Global attributes facilitate attribute reusability. Global attributes can be associated with simple and complex data types. Global attributes have the schema element as the parent element. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 23 of 36
  • 24. Extensible Markup LanguageRestricting Attributes Values In order to restrict values that can be assigned to an attribute: a Declare the attribute and associate it with a user-defined simple data type. a Create a simple data type by using the XSD simpleType element. a Use the XSD restriction element within the simpleType element to restrict the values that can be assigned to the elements or attributes that use the simple data type. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 24 of 36
  • 25. Extensible Markup LanguageDemo: Declaring Attributes in an XML Schema Problem Statement: The Marketing Manager at CyberShoppe sends its product information from its head office to the branch offices. The branch offices update this file and send it back to the head office on a routine basis. The product details must be stored in a consistent format at all branches. Restrictions must be placed on the type of data that can be saved in the data store, to ensure uniformity and consistency of information. CyberShoppe sells two categories of products, books and toys. Product details include the product name, a brief description, product price, and the available quantity on hand. The product price must always be greater than zero. In addition to these details, the data store needs to store the category and product ID. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 25 of 36
  • 26. Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML Namespaces In XML, a namespace is a virtual space that is assigned or recognized by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). A namespace is a string that uniquely identifies the elements and attributes from different schemas. A namespace is a unique identifier used to resolve conflicts between elements that have the same names. The following guidelines ensure the uniqueness of a URI: Using a URI that is controlled by the developer. Using a relative URI. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 26 of 36
  • 27. Extensible Markup LanguageDeclaring Namespaces • A namespace can be declared in an XSD document by using the xmlns keyword. • The general form of the xmlns keyword is: xmlns is the name of the attribute. xmlns:prefix="URI" prefix is an optional namespace. • There are two types of namespace declarations:  Default Declaration: Declares a default namespace for a document without specifying the prefix for a default namespace.  Explicit Declaration: Enables xmlns keyword to associate a prefix with a namespace. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 27 of 36
  • 28. Extensible Markup LanguagePractice Questions Harry is creating an XML schema using XSD. To associate each element, he is using a data type that specifies the type of content that an element can hold. Harry wants to use such data types that are defined using base data types. Base data types can either be primitive or derived data types. Which of the following data types should Harry use to accomplish this task? a. Primitive b. Union c. List d. Derived Answer: d. Derived Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 28 of 36
  • 29. Extensible Markup LanguagePractice Questions Which one of the following code snippets can be considered well-formed? a. <EMPLOYEE empid=e001> <EMPNAME> Alice Peterson</EMPNAME> <BASICPAY> $2000 </BASICPAY> </EMPLOYEE> b. <EMPLOYEE empid=“e001”> <EMPNAME> Alice Peterson<BASICPAY> $2000 </EMPNAME> </BASICPAY> </EMPLOYEE> c. <EMPLOYEE empid=“e001”> <EMPNAME> Alice Peterson<BASICPAY> $2000 </BASICPAY></EMPNAME> </EMPLOYEE> Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 29 of 36
  • 30. Extensible Markup LanguagePractice Questions (Contd.) d. <EMPLOYEE empid=“e001”> <EMPNAME> Alice Peterson<BASICPAY> $2000 </BASICPAY></EMPNAME> </employee> Answer: c. <EMPLOYEE empid=“e001”> <EMPNAME> Alice Peterson<BASICPAY> $2000 </BASICPAY></EMPNAME> </EMPLOYEE> Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 30 of 36
  • 31. Extensible Markup LanguagePractice Questions You have been assigned the task of developing an XML schema file for a new Web application in an organization. The application aims to deliver financial news to its subscribers. Financial news comprises the date, the name of the organization, and the pertinent financial information. What should you use to represent the financial news in the XML schema? a. Complex type element b. Simple type element c. Element d. Attribute Answer: a. Complex type element Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 31 of 36
  • 32. Extensible Markup LanguagePractice Questions Joe wants to specify a user-defined attribute in an XML schema. He wants to use the use attribute in the XML schema, but does not want to set the value for the attribute in his XML document. Which of the following values of the use attribute should Joe use in his XML schema? a. optional b. default c. required d. fixed Answer: a. optional Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 32 of 36
  • 33. Extensible Markup LanguagePractice Questions • You have created a global attribute named color. Which of the following attributes of the xsd:attribute element will you use to access color? a. use b. name c. ref d. type Answer: c. ref Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 33 of 36
  • 34. Extensible Markup LanguageSummary In this session, you learned that: An XML schema can be used to specify the list of elements and the order in which these elements must appear in the XML document. The XSD language is used to describe the structure of the elements in a schema. The data types supported by an XML schema can be categorized as follows:  Primitive  Derived  Atomic  List  The simpleType XSD element allows you to create user-defined simple data types.  The complexType XSD element allows you to create complex data types. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 34 of 36
  • 35. Extensible Markup LanguageSummary (Contd.)  The restriction element can be used to specify constraints on the values that can be stored in elements and attributes.  The attribute element is used to declare an attribute in an XSD document.  The attribute element has the following attributes:  name: Specifies the name of the user-defined attribute.  ref: Contains a reference to a global attribute.  use: Specifies whether the use of the user-defined attribute is mandatory or optional. In addition, it allows you to specify the default value for an attribute.  type: Specifies the data type of the attribute.  value: Specifies the default or fixed value for a user-defined attribute.  The use attribute of the attribute element can take optional, default, fixed, or required as its value. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 35 of 36
  • 36. Extensible Markup LanguageSummary (Contd.)  A global attribute is used to declare an attribute that is not associated with any element and can be reused within a schema.  A namespace is used to avoid naming conflicts between elements having the same name.  A namespace is declared using the xmlns keyword. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 36 of 36