Extensible Markup LanguageRationale               • Data interchange is essential to carry out business                 tr...
Extensible Markup LanguageObjectives                In this session, you will learn to:                   Identify the nee...
Extensible Markup LanguageGetting Started with XML                Traditionally, preprinted formats were used to exchange ...
Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML               XML is a text-based markup language that enables storage          ...
Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML (Contd.)                  .                                         Mobile Appli...
Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML (Contd.)                Web Architecture Using XML                   In a tradit...
Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML (Contd.)                Web Architecture Using XML (Contd.)                   Th...
Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML (Contd.)                Difference Between SGML, HTML, and XML                  ...
Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML (Contd.)                Difference Between SGML, HTML, and XML (Contd.)         ...
Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML (Contd.)                Advantages of XML                   Some of the advantag...
Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML (Contd.)                Advantages of XML                   Some of the advantag...
Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML (Contd.)                Advantages of XML                   Some of the advantag...
Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML (Contd.)                Advantages of XML                   Some of the advantag...
Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML (Contd.)                Advantages of XML                   Some of the advantag...
Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML (Contd.)                Advantages of XML                   Some of the advantag...
Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML (Contd.)                Advantages of XML                   Some of the advantag...
Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML (Contd.)                Future of XML                   The future uses of XML c...
Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing W3C               W3C is responsible for the development of Web               specif...
Extensible Markup LanguageIdentifying the Structure of XML Documents                An XML application is considered well ...
Extensible Markup LanguageInformation Modeling                An information model is a description of the information    ...
Extensible Markup LanguageInformation Modeling (Contd.)                Types of information models that can be created for...
Extensible Markup LanguageComponents of an XML Document               The various components of an XML document used for  ...
Extensible Markup LanguageComponents of an XML Document (Contd.)               <?xml version=“1.0” encoding=“UTF-8”?>     ...
Extensible Markup LanguageComponents of an XML Document (Contd.)               <?xml version=“1.0” encoding=“UTF-8”?>     ...
Extensible Markup LanguageComponents of an XML Document (Contd.)               <?xml version=“1.0” encoding=“UTF-8”?>     ...
Extensible Markup LanguageComponents of an XML Document (Contd.)               <?xml version=“1.0” encoding=“UTF-8”?>     ...
Extensible Markup LanguageComponents of an XML Document (Contd.)               <?xml version=“1.0” encoding=“UTF-8”?>     ...
Extensible Markup LanguageComponents of an XML Document (Contd.)               <?xml version=“1.0” encoding=“UTF-8”?>     ...
Extensible Markup LanguageComponents of an XML Document (Contd.)               <?xml version=“1.0” encoding=“UTF-8”?>     ...
Extensible Markup LanguageComponents of an XML Document (Contd.)               <?xml version=“1.0” encoding=“UTF-8”?>     ...
Extensible Markup LanguageIdentifying the Rules for Creating XML Documents                The rules that govern the creati...
Extensible Markup LanguageDemo: Creating an XML Document               Problem Statement:                  CyberShoppe, In...
Extensible Markup LanguagePractice Questions                Consider the following statement:                <?xml version...
Extensible Markup LanguagePractice Questions                Bob is the EDP head of an organization that manufactures      ...
Extensible Markup LanguagePractice Questions (Contd.)                In addition, Bob also wants that the sales personnel ...
Extensible Markup LanguagePractice Questions                Which of the following statement is NOT true about            ...
Extensible Markup LanguagePractice Questions                Which one of the following statements is true about XML?      ...
Extensible Markup LanguagePractice Questions                Which one of the following is a disadvantage of traditional   ...
Extensible Markup LanguageSummary               In this session, you learned that:                  EDI refers to the proc...
Extensible Markup LanguageSummary (Contd.)                 In future, XML will be widely used in:                      E-...
Extensible Markup LanguageSummary (Contd.)               In a dynamic model, data flow diagrams and process diagrams      ...
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Xml session01

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  • Students have learnt the structure of different types of dimensions and the importance of surrogate keys in Module I. In this session, students will learn to load the data into the dimension tables after the data has been transformed in the transformation phase. In addition, students will also learn to update data into these dimension tables. Students already know about different types of dimension tables. Therefore, you can start the session by recapitulating the concepts. Initiate the class by asking the following questions: 1. What are the different types of dimensions? 2. Define flat dimension. 3. What are conformed dimension? 4. Define large dimension. 5. Define small dimension. 6. What is the importance of surrogate key in a dimension table? Students will learn the loading and update strategies theoretically in this session. The demonstration to load and update the data in the dimension table will be covered in next session.
  • Introduce the students to the course by asking them what they know about forensics. Next, ask the students what they know about system forensics and why is it required in organizations dependent on IT. This could be a brief discussion of about 5 minutes. Lead the discussion to the objectives of this chapter.
  • Introduce the students to the different types of threats that systems face by: Asking the students to give examples of what they think are environmental and human threats. Asking the students to give instances of what they think are malicious and non-malicious threats. Conclude the discussion on the different types of threats by giving additional examples of malicious and non malicious threats.
  • Hold a two- three minute discussion on the different types of system-related crimes that the students have experienced or heard. At the end of the discussion, give additional examples of system-related crimes.
  • While explaining the definition of system forensics, ask the students to note the following key words in the definition: Identify Extract Process Analyze Digital and hardware evidence Tell the students that these form an integral aspect of system forensics and would be discussed in detail. Before moving on to the next slide, hold a brief discussion on why is it important for organizations to take the help of system forensics. The discussion should be focused on: The role that system forensics plays in organizations having an IT set up. This discussion will serve as a precursor to the next slide.
  • While explaining the definition of system forensics, ask the students to note the following key words in the definition: Identify Extract Process Analyze Digital and hardware evidence Tell the students that these form an integral aspect of system forensics and would be discussed in detail. Before moving on to the next slide, hold a brief discussion on why is it important for organizations to take the help of system forensics. The discussion should be focused on: The role that system forensics plays in organizations having an IT set up. This discussion will serve as a precursor to the next slide.
  • While explaining the definition of system forensics, ask the students to note the following key words in the definition: Identify Extract Process Analyze Digital and hardware evidence Tell the students that these form an integral aspect of system forensics and would be discussed in detail. Before moving on to the next slide, hold a brief discussion on why is it important for organizations to take the help of system forensics. The discussion should be focused on: The role that system forensics plays in organizations having an IT set up. This discussion will serve as a precursor to the next slide.
  • While explaining the definition of system forensics, ask the students to note the following key words in the definition: Identify Extract Process Analyze Digital and hardware evidence Tell the students that these form an integral aspect of system forensics and would be discussed in detail. Before moving on to the next slide, hold a brief discussion on why is it important for organizations to take the help of system forensics. The discussion should be focused on: The role that system forensics plays in organizations having an IT set up. This discussion will serve as a precursor to the next slide.
  • While explaining the definition of system forensics, ask the students to note the following key words in the definition: Identify Extract Process Analyze Digital and hardware evidence Tell the students that these form an integral aspect of system forensics and would be discussed in detail. Before moving on to the next slide, hold a brief discussion on why is it important for organizations to take the help of system forensics. The discussion should be focused on: The role that system forensics plays in organizations having an IT set up. This discussion will serve as a precursor to the next slide.
  • While explaining the definition of system forensics, ask the students to note the following key words in the definition: Identify Extract Process Analyze Digital and hardware evidence Tell the students that these form an integral aspect of system forensics and would be discussed in detail. Before moving on to the next slide, hold a brief discussion on why is it important for organizations to take the help of system forensics. The discussion should be focused on: The role that system forensics plays in organizations having an IT set up. This discussion will serve as a precursor to the next slide.
  • While explaining the definition of system forensics, ask the students to note the following key words in the definition: Identify Extract Process Analyze Digital and hardware evidence Tell the students that these form an integral aspect of system forensics and would be discussed in detail. Before moving on to the next slide, hold a brief discussion on why is it important for organizations to take the help of system forensics. The discussion should be focused on: The role that system forensics plays in organizations having an IT set up. This discussion will serve as a precursor to the next slide.
  • While explaining the definition of system forensics, ask the students to note the following key words in the definition: Identify Extract Process Analyze Digital and hardware evidence Tell the students that these form an integral aspect of system forensics and would be discussed in detail. Before moving on to the next slide, hold a brief discussion on why is it important for organizations to take the help of system forensics. The discussion should be focused on: The role that system forensics plays in organizations having an IT set up. This discussion will serve as a precursor to the next slide.
  • While explaining the definition of system forensics, ask the students to note the following key words in the definition: Identify Extract Process Analyze Digital and hardware evidence Tell the students that these form an integral aspect of system forensics and would be discussed in detail. Before moving on to the next slide, hold a brief discussion on why is it important for organizations to take the help of system forensics. The discussion should be focused on: The role that system forensics plays in organizations having an IT set up. This discussion will serve as a precursor to the next slide.
  • While explaining the definition of system forensics, ask the students to note the following key words in the definition: Identify Extract Process Analyze Digital and hardware evidence Tell the students that these form an integral aspect of system forensics and would be discussed in detail. Before moving on to the next slide, hold a brief discussion on why is it important for organizations to take the help of system forensics. The discussion should be focused on: The role that system forensics plays in organizations having an IT set up. This discussion will serve as a precursor to the next slide.
  • While explaining the definition of system forensics, ask the students to note the following key words in the definition: Identify Extract Process Analyze Digital and hardware evidence Tell the students that these form an integral aspect of system forensics and would be discussed in detail. Before moving on to the next slide, hold a brief discussion on why is it important for organizations to take the help of system forensics. The discussion should be focused on: The role that system forensics plays in organizations having an IT set up. This discussion will serve as a precursor to the next slide.
  • While explaining the definition of system forensics, ask the students to note the following key words in the definition: Identify Extract Process Analyze Digital and hardware evidence Tell the students that these form an integral aspect of system forensics and would be discussed in detail. Before moving on to the next slide, hold a brief discussion on why is it important for organizations to take the help of system forensics. The discussion should be focused on: The role that system forensics plays in organizations having an IT set up. This discussion will serve as a precursor to the next slide.
  • While explaining the definition of system forensics, ask the students to note the following key words in the definition: Identify Extract Process Analyze Digital and hardware evidence Tell the students that these form an integral aspect of system forensics and would be discussed in detail. Before moving on to the next slide, hold a brief discussion on why is it important for organizations to take the help of system forensics. The discussion should be focused on: The role that system forensics plays in organizations having an IT set up. This discussion will serve as a precursor to the next slide.
  • Elaborate on the role that system forensics plays in an organization, based on the discussion in the previous slide and the information given on this slide.
  • Explain to the students that a system can be secured by sealing the system(s) that have been a part of the crime. This involves: Immediately sealing the system by removing the hard disk and other components of the system. Ensuring that no other routine activity is conducted, using any component of the system. Taking snapshots and back ups of all digital evidences such as documents, system files, and e-mails. Tell the students that the ‘chain of evidence’ is most critical to a system forensic investigation. It helps in reconstructing a crime occurred from the beginning to the end.
  • Connect the information given on this slide to the initial discussion held on the different types of system-related crimes.
  • Connect the information given on this slide to the initial discussion held on the different types of system-related crimes.
  • Tell the students that the key words that they were told to note while discussing the definition of system forensics, will be elaborated as part of the system forensics process.
  • Tell the students that the key words that they were told to note while discussing the definition of system forensics, will be elaborated as part of the system forensics process.
  • Tell the students that the key words that they were told to note while discussing the definition of system forensics, will be elaborated as part of the system forensics process.
  • Tell the students that the key words that they were told to note while discussing the definition of system forensics, will be elaborated as part of the system forensics process.
  • Tell the students that the key words that they were told to note while discussing the definition of system forensics, will be elaborated as part of the system forensics process.
  • Tell the students that the key words that they were told to note while discussing the definition of system forensics, will be elaborated as part of the system forensics process.
  • Tell the students that the key words that they were told to note while discussing the definition of system forensics, will be elaborated as part of the system forensics process.
  • Tell the students that the key words that they were told to note while discussing the definition of system forensics, will be elaborated as part of the system forensics process.
  • Tell the students that the key words that they were told to note while discussing the definition of system forensics, will be elaborated as part of the system forensics process.
  • Reiterate the concepts taught earlier by asking the given question.
  • Reiterate the concepts taught earlier by asking the given question.
  • Reiterate the concepts taught earlier by asking the given question.
  • Reiterate the concepts taught earlier by asking the given question.
  • Reiterate the concepts taught earlier by asking the given question.
  • Reiterate the concepts taught earlier by asking the given question.
  • Xml session01

    1. 1. Extensible Markup LanguageRationale • Data interchange is essential to carry out business transactions. However, organizations store data in disparate formats, which makes the process of data interchange complex and time-consuming. • Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a standard, simple way of storing the data in a format that can be exchanged across multiple systems across an enterprise. Providing an insight into XML will benefit students as it is a standard technology to describe and define documents. • The course is applicable to students who want to create well-formed XML documents. This course introduces students to the fundamentals of XML and enable them to effectively use XML as a markup language to develop Web applications. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 1 of 41
    2. 2. Extensible Markup LanguageObjectives In this session, you will learn to: Identify the need for XML as a standard data interchange format Identify the structure of XML documents Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 2 of 41
    3. 3. Extensible Markup LanguageGetting Started with XML Traditionally, preprinted formats were used to exchange information between businesses. Need for a more effective way of communicating and processing business data led to the emergence of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI). EDI refers to the process of exchanging documents in a standard format between two computer systems. EDI has the following limitations: Rigid transaction set Fixed business rules High costs Slow pace of standards evolution Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 3 of 41
    4. 4. Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML XML is a text-based markup language that enables storage of data in a structured format. XML is a cross-platform, hardware and software independent markup language that enables structured data transfer between heterogeneous systems. XML is used as a common data interchange format in a number of applications. Let us understand the usage of XML with the help of the diagram. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 4 of 41
    5. 5. Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML (Contd.) . Mobile Application Web Services Windows Application Web Application XML DB2 Oracle SQL Server Access Data Sources Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 5 of 41
    6. 6. Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML (Contd.) Web Architecture Using XML In a traditional Web architecture, a client sends a request to the server in a pre-defined format and receives the response accordingly. The advantage of using XML in the Web architecture is that the structure of the request can be obtained from the server at run time. XML can encode non-relational data as well as relational data structure. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 6 of 41
    7. 7. Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML (Contd.) Web Architecture Using XML (Contd.) The following figure depicts the XML Web architecture. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 7 of 41
    8. 8. Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML (Contd.) Difference Between SGML, HTML, and XML Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) allows documents to describe their grammar by specifying the tag set used in the document and the structural relationship that these tags represent. Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is used for data presentation. XML is used for data description and definition. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 8 of 41
    9. 9. Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML (Contd.) Difference Between SGML, HTML, and XML (Contd.) SGML HTML XML Extensibility Yes Yes Yes Structure Yes No Yes Validation Yes No Yes Browser Low High Low Dependency Cost/Benefit Poor Good Medium Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 9 of 41
    10. 10. Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML (Contd.) Advantages of XML Some of the advantages of XML are: Domain-specific vocabulary Data interchange Smart searches Granular updates User-selected view of data Message transformation Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 10 of 41
    11. 11. Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML (Contd.) Advantages of XML Some of the advantages of XML are:  Domain-specific vocabulary In HTML, only the predefined tags can  Data interchange be used.  Smart searches In XML, you can create new tags based on the requirements of the application.  Granular updates Various languages such as MathML and  User-selected view of data WML have been derived from XML.  Message transformation Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 11 of 41
    12. 12. Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML (Contd.) Advantages of XML Some of the advantages of XML are:  Domain-specific vocabulary  Data interchange XML produces files that are unambiguous, easy to generate,  Smart searches and easy to read.  Granular updates XML provides a structure to  User-selected view of data store data in textual format,  Message transformation which can then be used as a standard format or protocol for data interchange. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 12 of 41
    13. 13. Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML (Contd.) Advantages of XML Some of the advantages of XML are:  Domain-specific vocabulary  Data interchange  Smart searches  The flexibility to create user-defined tags in XML enables creation of  Granular updates smart search engines.  User-selected view of data  You can differentiate whether you  Message transformation want do to search based on a text or on a tag, which enables the browser to perform a focused search and return precise information that matches the search query. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 13 of 41
    14. 14. Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML (Contd.) Advantages of XML Some of the advantages of XML are:  Domain-specific vocabulary  Data interchange  Smart searches  Granular updates  Document updates in HTML are slow as the entire  User-selected view of data document needs to be  Message transformation refreshed from the server.  Document updates in XML are faster as only the changed content needs to be downloaded. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 14 of 41
    15. 15. Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML (Contd.) Advantages of XML Some of the advantages of XML are:  Domain-specific vocabulary  Data interchange  Smart searches  Granular updates  User-selected view of data In HTML, you need to create separate HTML pages to  Message transformation display the same information in different formats while XML concentrates on data and not on its presentation. HTML does not allow conditional formatting of a document while in XML conditional formatting is possible. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 15 of 41
    16. 16. Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML (Contd.) Advantages of XML Some of the advantages of XML are:  Domain-specific vocabulary  Data interchange  Smart searches  Granular updates  User-selected view of data  Message transformation  In XML, a message can be stored in the form of a document, object data, or data from a database.  XML design provides flexibility while storing data as it does not impose any restriction on the field size and the order in which the data is stored. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 16 of 41
    17. 17. Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing XML (Contd.) Future of XML The future uses of XML can be summarized as: XML will be widely used in e-commerce. XML will have a huge core market in the form of Business to Business (B2B). XML will be used for mobile devices due to its ability to easily convert into the appropriate format for any device. XML will be used to solve communication problems in EDI and Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) as it provides interoperability between disparate applications. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 17 of 41
    18. 18. Extensible Markup LanguageIntroducing W3C W3C is responsible for the development of Web specifications that describe communication protocols and technologies for the Web. Due to the flexibility for customization in XML, W3C has laid down these rules that need to be followed by all XML vendors: XML must be directly usable over the Internet. XML must support a wide variety of applications. XML must be compatible with SGML. XML should have absolute minimum number of optional features, ideally zero. XML documents must be human legible and clear. XML design must be formal and concise. XML documents must adhere to a set of constraints called full normalization. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 18 of 41
    19. 19. Extensible Markup LanguageIdentifying the Structure of XML Documents An XML application is considered well designed if it is robust and scalable. To design a robust and scalable XML application, the following steps need to be performed: 1. Create an information model. 2. Identify the required components of the XML document. 3. Create the XML document. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 19 of 41
    20. 20. Extensible Markup LanguageInformation Modeling An information model is a description of the information used in an organization. Information modeling helps identify: Objects involved in an application Properties of the objects Relationships among objects XML provides the following additional capabilities to information modeling: a Heterogeneity Each record can contain different data fields.  New data types can be added a Extensibility  whenever required. in size and Data fields can vary a Flexibility configuration between instances. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 20 of 41
    21. 21. Extensible Markup LanguageInformation Modeling (Contd.) Types of information models that can be created for an XML application are: a Static model: Helps define all the objects in an application and the relationships among them. a Dynamic model: Helps to determine the information flow of an application in the form of messages. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 21 of 41
    22. 22. Extensible Markup LanguageComponents of an XML Document The various components of an XML document used for representing data in a hierarchical order are: Processing Instruction (PI) Tags Elements Content Attributes Entities Comments Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 22 of 41
    23. 23. Extensible Markup LanguageComponents of an XML Document (Contd.) <?xml version=“1.0” encoding=“UTF-8”?> <STOREDATA> Processing Instruction (PI) <!--STOREDATA is the root element--> Provides information on how the XML file should be <STORE STOREID=“S101”> processed. <PRODUCTNAME>Toys</PRODUCTNAME> <QUANTITY>100</QUANTITY> <DISPLAY>The price of this toy is &lt; 200 </DISPLAY> </STORE> </STOREDATA> Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 23 of 41
    24. 24. Extensible Markup LanguageComponents of an XML Document (Contd.) <?xml version=“1.0” encoding=“UTF-8”?> <STOREDATA> <!--STOREDATA is the root element--> Tags <STORE STOREID=“S101”> Is a means of identifying <PRODUCTNAME>Toys</PRODUCTNAME> data. Tags consist of start tag and end tag. <QUANTITY>100</QUANTITY> <DISPLAY>The price of this toy is &lt; 200 </DISPLAY> </STORE> </STOREDATA> Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 24 of 41
    25. 25. Extensible Markup LanguageComponents of an XML Document (Contd.) <?xml version=“1.0” encoding=“UTF-8”?> <STOREDATA> Root Element <!--STOREDATA is the root element--> Contains all other elements <STORE STOREID=“S101”> in the document. <PRODUCTNAME>Toys</PRODUCTNAME> <QUANTITY>100</QUANTITY> <DISPLAY>The price of this toy is &lt; 200 </DISPLAY> </STORE> </STOREDATA> Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 25 of 41
    26. 26. Extensible Markup LanguageComponents of an XML Document (Contd.) <?xml version=“1.0” encoding=“UTF-8”?> <STOREDATA> <!--STOREDATA is the root element--> Comments <STORE STOREID=“S101”> Are statements used to <PRODUCTNAME>Toys</PRODUCTNAME> explain the XML code. <QUANTITY>100</QUANTITY> <DISPLAY>The price of this toy is &lt; 200 </DISPLAY> </STORE> </STOREDATA> Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 26 of 41
    27. 27. Extensible Markup LanguageComponents of an XML Document (Contd.) <?xml version=“1.0” encoding=“UTF-8”?> <STOREDATA> <!--STOREDATA is the root element--> <STORE STOREID=“S101”> Child Elements <PRODUCTNAME>Toys</PRODUCTNAME> Are the basic units used to identify and describe data in <QUANTITY>100</QUANTITY> XML. <DISPLAY>The price of this toy is &lt; 200 </DISPLAY> </STORE> </STOREDATA> Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 27 of 41
    28. 28. Extensible Markup LanguageComponents of an XML Document (Contd.) <?xml version=“1.0” encoding=“UTF-8”?> <STOREDATA> <!--STOREDATA is the root element--> <STORE STOREID=“S101”> Attributes <PRODUCTNAME>Toys</PRODUCTNAME> Provide additional information about the <QUANTITY>100</QUANTITY> elements for which they are <DISPLAY>The price of this toy declared. is &lt; 200 </DISPLAY> </STORE> </STOREDATA> Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 28 of 41
    29. 29. Extensible Markup LanguageComponents of an XML Document (Contd.) <?xml version=“1.0” encoding=“UTF-8”?> <STOREDATA> <!--STOREDATA is the root element--> <STORE STOREID=“S101”> <PRODUCTNAME>Toys</PRODUCTNAME> Content Refers to the information <QUANTITY>100</QUANTITY> represented by the elements <DISPLAY>The price of this toy of an XML document. An is &lt; 200 </DISPLAY> element can contain: </STORE> • Character or data content </STOREDATA> • Element content • Combination or mixed content Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 29 of 41
    30. 30. Extensible Markup LanguageComponents of an XML Document (Contd.) <?xml version=“1.0” encoding=“UTF-8”?> <STOREDATA> <!--STOREDATA is the root element--> <STORE STOREID=“S101”> <PRODUCTNAME>Toys</PRODUCTNAME> <QUANTITY>100</QUANTITY> Entities <DISPLAY>The price of this toy Is a set of information that is &lt; 200 </DISPLAY> can be used by specifying a single name. </STORE> </STOREDATA> Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 30 of 41
    31. 31. Extensible Markup LanguageIdentifying the Rules for Creating XML Documents The rules that govern the creation of a well-formed XML document: Every start tag must have an end tag. Empty tags must be closed using a forward slash (/). All attribute values must be given in double quotation marks. Tags must have proper nesting. XML tags are case sensitive. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 31 of 41
    32. 32. Extensible Markup LanguageDemo: Creating an XML Document Problem Statement: CyberShoppe, Inc. sells toys and books in the United States. It has three branches in different parts of the country. Currently, the three branches maintain data on their local computer systems. The IT manager at CyberShoppe has identified that a centralized data repository on the products sold through its e-commerce site is required. The data from all branches must be collated and housed in a centralized location. This data must be made available to the Accounts and Sales sections at the individual branches, regardless of the hardware and software platforms being used at the branches. In addition, the sales personnel require access to the data using palmtops and cellular phones. The product details of CyberShoppe consist of the product name, a brief description, the price, and the available quantity on hand. A product ID uniquely identifies each product. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 32 of 41
    33. 33. Extensible Markup LanguagePractice Questions Consider the following statement: <?xml version="1.0" encoding= "UTF-8"?> Which component of an XML document does the preceding statement represent? a. Element b. Content c. Entity d. Processing Instruction Answer: d. Processing Instruction Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 33 of 41
    34. 34. Extensible Markup LanguagePractice Questions Bob is the EDP head of an organization that manufactures and sells hardware parts. The organization has presence in all the major cities of the United States. At present, all branch offices maintain their data locally. Bob wants to centralize the repository of data in his organization. Data from all the branch offices needs to be collated and stored in a centralized location. Data pertaining to a branch should be available only to that branch office. However, the head office should be able to access all the data. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 34 of 41
    35. 35. Extensible Markup LanguagePractice Questions (Contd.) In addition, Bob also wants that the sales personnel should be able to access sales data from mobile devices, such as palmtops and mobile phones. This sales information should have a brief description of the product, the price, and the available inventory. Using which of the following markup languages can Bob achieve the preceding goals? a. HTML b. XML c. SGML d. EDI Answer: b. XML Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 35 of 41
    36. 36. Extensible Markup LanguagePractice Questions Which of the following statement is NOT true about information modeling? a. Information Modeling is used to understand the structure and meaning of information that will be stored in XML documents. b. Information Modeling helps you identify the objects involved in an application, the properties of the objects, and the relationships among them. c. In an Information Model, each record can contain different data fields. d. An information model imposes restrictions on data. Answer: d. An information model imposes restrictions on data. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 36 of 41
    37. 37. Extensible Markup LanguagePractice Questions Which one of the following statements is true about XML? a. XML is a text-based markup language that provides predefined tags to store data. b. XML is a platform-neutral data interchange format. c. XML requires VAN for data interchange. d. XML allows you to specify data formatting instructions. Answer: b. XML is a platform-neutral data interchange format. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 37 of 41
    38. 38. Extensible Markup LanguagePractice Questions Which one of the following is a disadvantage of traditional EDI? a. It provides fixed transaction sets. b. It increases the communication lag time between an agency and a customer. c. It increases data entry errors. d. It increases the time taken to process orders. Answer: a. It provides fixed transaction sets. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 38 of 41
    39. 39. Extensible Markup LanguageSummary In this session, you learned that: EDI refers to the process of exchanging documents in a standard format between two computer systems. XML is a text-based markup language that enables you to store data in a structured format by using meaningful tags. Using XML in Web architecture enables loose coupling between the server application and the client application. XML has the following advantages: Domain‑specific vocabulary Data interchange Smart searches Granular updates User‑selected view of data Message transformation Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 39 of 41
    40. 40. Extensible Markup LanguageSummary (Contd.) In future, XML will be widely used in:  E-commerce  B2B services  Mobile services  EDI and EAI  XML was defined by W3C to ensure that structured data is uniform and independent of vendors and applications.  In XML, an information model is used to understand the structure and meaning of information that will be stored in XML documents.  You can create static, dynamic, or a combination of both these information models for an XML application.  A static information model helps you define all the objects in an application and the relationships among them. Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 40 of 41
    41. 41. Extensible Markup LanguageSummary (Contd.) In a dynamic model, data flow diagrams and process diagrams are used to determine the flow of information. An XML document consists of: Processing Instruction (PI) Tags Elements Content Attributes Entities Comments Ver. 1.0 Session 1 Slide 41 of 41

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