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Vb.net session 11

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  • 1. Accessibility and GlobalizationObjectives In this lesson, you will learn to: • Identify the standard design guidelines for building accessibile applications • Implement the standard accessibility options in Visual Basic .NET • Identify the role of globalization and localization in designing world ready applications • Identify the factors related to globalized applications • Create applications for multiple cultures • Deploy application resources using satellite assemblies • Describe the help system • List the various files that constitute a help system • Implement context-sensitive help • Implement pop-up help • Provide help for an application using tool-tips ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 1 of 38
  • 2. Accessibility and GlobalizationApplication Accessibility • Application Accessibility refers to the usability and approachability of an application for a wide audience, including those with special needs. • Applications need to be built in such a way as to make the application as accessible as possible to people with impairments or those with reduced abilities due to aging. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 2 of 38
  • 3. Accessibility and GlobalizationDesign Guidelines for AccessibleApplications • Applications can be made accessible by offering built-in options that allow all types of users to use the applications more effectively. • Certain guidelines to be followed for designing applications that are accessible to a large audience are given below: • Flexibility in Use: The user interface should be flexible and customizable so that it accommodates a variety of user needs and preferences. • Simple and Intuitive: The user interface should be simple and easy to understand, regardless of the users experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level. • Compatibility with Accessibility Aids: Application should be compatible with a variety of techniques or devices used by people with sensory limitations. • Redundant Input and Output Methods: Application should provide multiple input and output techniques. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 3 of 38
  • 4. Accessibility and GlobalizationStandard Accessibility Options inVB .NET • To make an application accessible, certain properties need to be set for the various controls on a form. • The table given below lists the various control properties and a description of how these properties should be set to make the applications more accessible: Control Property Accessibility Considerations AccessibleName This property specifies a name for a control by which the accessibility aids identify the control. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 4 of 38
  • 5. Accessibility and GlobalizationStandard Accessibility Options inVB .NET (Contd.) • The list of various control properties:(Contd.) Control Property Accessibility ConsiderationsAccessibleDescription This property specifies a description for a control. This description is reported to the accessibility aids.AccessibleRole This property specifies the use of the element in the user interface and reports it to the accessibility aids.TabIndex The TabIndex property helps to creates a logical navigational path through the form.Text The Text property provides keyboard access to all the controls on the form. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 5 of 38
  • 6. Accessibility and GlobalizationStandard Accessibility Options inVB .NET (Contd.) • The list of various control properties:(Contd.) Control Property Accessibility ConsiderationsFont Size All controls added to a form have the same font size as the form by default.Forecolor By setting the Forecolor property to default, you can enable the form to use the user’s default system settings for forecolor.Backcolor By setting the Backcolor property to default, you can enable the form to use the user’s default system settings for backcolor. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 6 of 38
  • 7. Accessibility and GlobalizationStandard Accessibility Options inVB .NET (Contd.) • The list of various control properties:(Contd.) Control Property Accessibility Considerations BackgroundImage This property should be left blank so as to make the text more readable. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 7 of 38
  • 8. Accessibility and GlobalizationBuilding International Applications • The .NET Framework provides unprecedented support for the development of world-ready applications. • It helps you create applications that adapt to different languages, currency formats, date/time formats, and other culture-specific information. • When developing a world-ready application, the process should be divided into three phases: • Globalization • Localizability • Localization ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 8 of 38
  • 9. Accessibility and GlobalizationGlobalization and Localization • Globalization: In this step, the applications executable code is written in such a way that makes it culture-neutral and language-neutral. • Localizability: The purpose of this step is to test whether the applications executable code is independent of the culture and language-specific data. • Localization: In this step, you customize the application for specific cultures or regions. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 9 of 38
  • 10. Accessibility and GlobalizationFactors Related to Globalization ofApplications • Numerous factors need to be considered by application designers when developing world-ready applications. These include: • Language Issues: Language issues are the result of differences in how languages around the world differ in display, alphabets, grammar, and syntactical rules. • Formatting Issues: Formatting issues are the main source of discrepancies in applications designed for multiple languages or cultures. • String-related Issues: When developing a world-ready application, differences among languages, especially those related to strings, must be considered. • User-Interface Issues: Various user interface issues are associated with the designing of a world-ready application. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 10 of 38
  • 11. Accessibility and GlobalizationGlobalizing and Localizing WindowsFormsWorking with Multiple Cultures • For developing an application that works for multiple cultures, you need to include support for culture-specific sorting rules, date and time formatting, numeric and monetary conventions and symbols and character encoding. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 11 of 38
  • 12. Accessibility and GlobalizationCulture Codes • The .NET Framework represents different cultures across the world using either a two-letter code that specifies the language or a two-letter language code followed by a dash and another two-letter-code that specifies the region. • Some culture codes and their descriptions are: • En: Specifies English language, no region • en-CA: Specifies English language, Canada • fr-FR: Specifies French language, France • De: Specifies German language, no region • Zh-CN: Specifies Chinese language, China region • de-DE: Specifies German language, Germany region • Culture codes that only specify a language are called neutral cultures, whereas culture codes that specify a language as well as the region are called specific cultures. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 12 of 38
  • 13. Accessibility and GlobalizationRetrieving and Setting the CurrentCulture and Current UI Culture • The Current Culture and Current UI Culture values determine what resources are loaded for an application and how information like currency, numbers, and dates is formatted. • The CultureInfo class holds the information about a culture and how it should interact with your application. • You can set the culture of an application programmatically by setting the CurrentThread.CurrentCulture property to a new instance of the CultureInfo class. • The current UI culture can be set in the same way as the current culture. • The CurrentUICulture can be retrieved by accessing the CultureInfo.CurrentUICulture property ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 13 of 38
  • 14. Accessibility and GlobalizationCulture-specific Formatting • The CultureInfo class has three members. These formatting members are: • DateTimeFormat: Contains information about how dates and times are formatted. • NumberFormat: Contains information about how numbers and currency are formatted. • TextInfo: Contains information about how text is formatted. • The properties of the above members can be changed for specific culture formatting needs. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 14 of 38
  • 15. Accessibility and GlobalizationUnicode Support • Different character sets needed to be used for representing data from different cultures. • Unicode provides a standard encoding scheme for characters of different languages all over the world. • Unicode assigns a unique numeric value, called a code point, to each character used in the written languages of the world. • Characters are represented in the .NET Framework using Unicode UTF-16 (Unicode Transformation Format, 16-bit encoding form) character encoding. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 15 of 38
  • 16. Accessibility and GlobalizationConvert Existing Encodings • The .NET Framework allows you to convert data from other formats to Unicode data. • This can be done using the Encoding class. • The Encoding class is found in the System.Text namespace and cannot be directly instantiated. • An instance of this class can be obtained by using the Shared method, Encoding.GetEncoding. • To convert an existing encoding to Unicode, you can use the Encoding.Convert method. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 16 of 38
  • 17. Accessibility and GlobalizationImplementing Right-to-Left Display • Some languages such as Arabic have scripts that read from right-to-left instead of left-to-right. • In order to enable implementation of a right-to-left user interface, the RightToLeft property of a form must be set to Yes. • The RightToLeft property can be set to one of three values viz. Yes, No and Inherit, where No is the default value. • When a form’s RightToLeft property is set to Yes, formatting of each control on the form becomes a mirror image of itself. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 17 of 38
  • 18. Accessibility and GlobalizationValidating Non-Latin User input • When developing an application for different cultures, you might need to incorporate techniques for validating non-Latin input into your application. • The Char structure exposes some validation methods that can be used to determine the category of a non-Latin alphabet input in the same way as a Latin alphabet input. • The Char.IsDigit, Char.IsLetter, and other methods return appropriate values no matter what input character set is used. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 18 of 38
  • 19. Accessibility and GlobalizationCulture-specific Classes and Methods • Different cultures use different conventions for displaying currency, dates, time, numbers and other information. • Classes that automatically format information according to the culture setting are called culture-specific classes. • The System.Globalization namespace contains classes that can be used to modify the display of culture-specific values, namely, DateTimeFormatInfo, Calendar, and NumberFormatInfo. • Some culture-specific methods like, IFormattable.ToString, Console.Writeline, String.Format, MonthName and WeekDayName are also available. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 19 of 38
  • 20. Accessibility and GlobalizationGlobalizing Windows Forms • Globalization is the identification of all localizable resources in the application and their separation from the executable code so that the localizable resources can be modified easily. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 20 of 38
  • 21. Accessibility and GlobalizationLocalizing Windows Forms • Localization is the process of customizing an application for a given culture. • A form can be localized by setting its Localizable property to True. • Text property allows the application to automatically display the date in a format corresponding to the current culture settings. • For each language or culture the application needs to support, a user interface needs to be created. • Different user interfaces can be created for different cultures by changing the Language property of the form. • Other elements like form layouts, display formats for dates and times, currency, numbers, and graphics with local content, can also be localized. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 21 of 38
  • 22. Accessibility and GlobalizationApplication Resources • A resource is any non-executable data that is logically deployed with an application. • A resource might be displayed in an application as error messages or as part of the user interface. • Examples of resources include strings displayed in the user interface based on the culture settings of the system or a set of images. • Packaging your localizable data in a resource file allows you to change the data without recompiling your entire application. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 22 of 38
  • 23. Accessibility and GlobalizationResource Assemblies • Resource assemblies are assemblies that contain only resources. • By placing all of your resources into a resource-only assembly, you can update the assembly as and when you need without having to recompile your application. • When creating an application for multiple cultures, different sets of resources are required to be created for different cultures. • Satellite assemblies are resource assemblies that include separate resources for different cultures. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 23 of 38
  • 24. Accessibility and GlobalizationCreating Resource-only Assemblies • To create a resource-only assembly, the following steps need to be performed: 1. Create a new Visual Basic project with the Empty Project template. 2. From the Project menu, choose Add Existing Item to add your resource files to your project. 3. In Solution Explorer, right-click your project and choose Properties. The property pages open. 4. In the Output Type drop-down menu, change the output type of your project to Class Library. This will cause your assembly to be compiled as a .dll file. 5. From the Build menu, choose Build <your project> where <your project> is the name of your project. The resources you added to the project, are compiled into the assembly. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 24 of 38
  • 25. Accessibility and GlobalizationCreating Satellite Assemblies • To create satellite assemblies, the following steps need to be followed: 1. Create alternate versions of your resource files specific to locales where your application will be run. 2. Name your resource files correctly for their specific culture. Names for resource files for satellite assemblies must contain the culture code separated by periods between the base name and the extension. The base name and extension must be the same as the resource file for the invariant culture. 3. From the Project menu, use Add Existing Item to add these files to your application. 4. From the Build menu, choose Build Solution to build your solution. 5. Culture-specific resource files are automatically compiled into satellite assemblies and placed in an appropriate directory structure. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 25 of 38
  • 26. Accessibility and GlobalizationRetrieving Resources at Runtime • At run-time, the ResourceManager class can be used to retrieve resources from an assembly. • An instance of the ResourceManager can be created by specifying two parameters in its constructor: the base name of the embedded resource file and the assembly in which the file is found. • The base name of a resource file is the name of the namespace that contains the file and the filename without any extensions. • The assembly parameter refers to the assembly in which the resource file is located. • To retrieve a string, the ResourceManager.GetString method can be used. • The GetString method requires you to specify the name of the string resource you want to retrieve as a parameter. • Images and other objects can also be retrieved from a resource file by using the ResourceManager.GetObject method. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 26 of 38
  • 27. Accessibility and GlobalizationIntroducing Help System • While using an application, a user might need help on performing an operation or require information about a button or a dialog box. • To assist the user while using the application, provide a help system with the application. • Help system can be created using HTML Help Workshop. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 27 of 38
  • 28. Accessibility and GlobalizationHelp Files • A help system is made up of several different help files and components that are created using HTML Help Workshop. • Some of the files that make up a help system are: • HTML Files • Graphics and Multimedia Files • Help Project Files • Contents Files • Index Files • The HTML Help Workshop allows you create a help system with standard features of any help system like: • Table of Contents • Index ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 28 of 38
  • 29. Accessibility and GlobalizationBuilding a Help System • To build a help system, the following steps need to be performed: 1. Create a Project File 2. Create HTML Topic Pages 3. Create an Index 4. Create a Table of Contents 5. Compile the Help Project ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 29 of 38
  • 30. Accessibility and GlobalizationImplementing Help • The user should be able to access the help system by pressing the F1 key. • A help system can be associated with your Windows application with the help of the HelpProvider control. • The HelpProvider control needs to be linked with a help file. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 30 of 38
  • 31. Accessibility and GlobalizationProviding Context Sensitive Help • Context-sensitive help assists users by providing help based on a specific dialog box or control in a program. • To add context-sensitivity to the application, the various controls in the form need to be linked with the Help file. • To add context-sensitive help to a control, the following properties need to be set for the control: • Set the ShowHelp on <HelpProvider control> to True. • Set the HelpKeyword on <HelpProvider control> to an appropriate keyword for retrieving help. • Set the HelpNavigator property. • To implement context-sensitive help, the following steps need to be performed: 1. Link your application with a help file. 2. Add context sensitive help to various form elements. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 31 of 38
  • 32. Accessibility and GlobalizationUnderstanding Pop-up Help Displaying Pop-up Help • Pop-up help can be provided in an application through the Help button, also called the What’s This button. • The Help button is displayed when the Maximize and Minimize buttons are not there on the title bar. • To display Help button on the title bar of a form, the following steps need to be performed: 1. Set the MinimizeBox and MaximizeBox properties of the form to False. 2. Set the HelpButton property of the form to True. • To associate pop-up help with different controls on the form set the HelpString on <HelpProvider Control> property of the controls to a string that specifies the help text for the control. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 32 of 38
  • 33. Accessibility and GlobalizationUnderstanding Tool-tips • A tool tip is a brief message for individual controls on a form. • Tool tips are generally used for displaying help for toolbar icons. • They can be displayed by using the Tooltip control present in the Toolbox. • The user can access a tool tip by pointing at the control for which the tool tip has been created. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 33 of 38
  • 34. Accessibility and GlobalizationDisplaying Tool-tips • To display a tool tip, you need to add a ToolTip control to the form and enter the text in the ToolTipText property of the control for which the tool tip is to be displayed. • The ToolTipText property can be used to set the tool tip for a StatusBarPanel control, a ToolBarButton control, and a selected tab. • The following code is to set a tool tip text for a ToolBarButton control programmatically: ToolbarButton1.ToolTipText="Add a record" • The SetToolTip() method of the ToolTip control is used to set the tool tip text for a control. • Some of the important properties of the ToolTip control are: • Active • AutomaticDelay ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 34 of 38
  • 35. Accessibility and GlobalizationDisplaying Tool-tips (Contd.) • There are three properties of the ToolTip control that have values based on the value of the AutomaticDelay property: • AutoPopDelay: This property is used to set the time period for which the tool tip is displayed on the screen when the mouse pointer is stationary in a tool tip region. • InitialDelay: This property is used to set the time period for which the mouse pointer should be stationary in the tool tip region before the tool tip appears. • ReshowDelay: This property is used to set the time taken by the subsequent instances of the tool tip to appear when the mouse pointer is moved from one tool tip region to another. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 35 of 38
  • 36. Accessibility and GlobalizationSummary In this lesson, you learned that: • Applications need to be made accessible so that they can be used by a wide range of audience, including those with special needs. • You need to follow a set of guidelines for developing accessible applications. • The .NET Framework provides support for the development of world-ready applications. It helps you create applications that adapt to different languages, currency formats, date/time formats, and other culture-specific information. • When developing a world-ready application, the process should be divided into three phases: globalization, localizability, and localization. • While globalizing an application, you should strive to code the application in such a way that allows it to work equally well for all cultures your application supports. • During the localizability phase, you test whether the applications executable code has been properly separated from its resources. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 36 of 38
  • 37. Accessibility and GlobalizationSummary (Contd.) • During localization an application is customized for specific cultures or regions. • Unicode provides a standard encoding scheme for characters of different languages all over the world and hence helps in creating application for multiple cultures and having a multilingual user interface. • A resource is any non-executable data that is logically deployed with an application. • Visual Studio.NET allows the creation of three types of help systems: • HTML Help • Pop-up Help • Tool Tips • The HelpProvider control is used to associate a Help file with an application. • The Help file to be associated with the HelpProvider control is specified using the HelpNamespace property of the HelpProvider control. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 37 of 38
  • 38. Accessibility and GlobalizationSummary (Contd.) • The HelpKeyword property under the Misc category of a control is used to set the keyword for retrieving Helphelp from the Help file specified in the HelpNamespace property. ©NIIT Enhancing and Distributing Applications Lesson 1A / Slide 38 of 38

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