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Sql xp 01 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Querying DatabasesObjectivesIn this lesson, you will learn to: Identify the features of client/server architecture Identify the input requirements for a query Plan and create a format for the query output Identify and use sources of data for a query Identify and use different types of queries Use the SELECT statement with logical operators©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 1 of 50
  • 2. Querying DatabasesGetting Started Client/Server Architecture  In this architecture, the functionality of the application is split between two processes: the client process and the server process  The client process handles the data input and the user interface issues  The server process performs all validations on the data©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 2 of 50
  • 3. Querying DatabasesGetting Started (Contd.) Benefits of the two-tier model (Client/Server) model are:  Data Sharing: Data is separated from the client side and is stored at a central location where all users have access to the data.  Reduces duplication and maintenance: Since data is stored centrally, data maintenance is easy. There is no duplication of data and therefore no inconsistency in the data stored.©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 3 of 50
  • 4. Querying DatabasesGetting Started (Contd.) Features of MS SQL Server  Microsoft SQL Server provides various features to manage data. Some of the features offered by Microsoft SQL Server are: ® Web-Enabled ® Scalable and Reliable ® Fastest Time-to-Market©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 4 of 50
  • 5. Querying DatabasesGetting Started (Contd.) Structured Query Language  SQL Server provides the Structured Query Language (SQL) to access data objects from the server  MS-SQL Server has added more features to the base-level syntax of SQL and has its own SQL called Transact-SQL (T-SQL) Datatypes in SQL Server  SQL Server can store various types of data like char, money, int, or datetime©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 5 of 50
  • 6. Querying Databases1.D.1 Displaying Specific Attributes From a Table The details regarding recruitment are stored in the RECRUITMENT database on the local SQL server. These tables contain data on candidates, their qualifications and contact details, the vacancies available, and other information required by the recruitment agency. A report containing the name, city, and telephone number of all the external candidates is required.©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 6 of 50
  • 7. Querying DatabasesTask List Create a format for the query output Draft the query Execute the query Verify that the query output is as per the required results©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 7 of 50
  • 8. Querying DatabasesCreate a format for the query output Result:  The output required from the query is the specific details of all the external candidates  The column headings required in the report are the name, city, and telephone number of the external candidates  The format of the report is as follows: vFirstName vLastName cCity cPhone©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 8 of 50
  • 9. Querying DatabasesDraft the query The SELECT Statement  Enables you to access and retrieve data from a database  Syntax: SELECT [ALL | DISTINCT] select_column_list [INTO [new_table_name]] [FROM {table_name | view_name} [(optimizer_hints)][[, {table_name2 | view_name2}[(optimizer_hints)] [WHERE clause] [GROUP BY clause][HAVING clause] [ORDER BY clause][COMPUTE clause] [FOR BROWSE]©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 9 of 50
  • 10. Querying DatabasesDraft the query (Contd.) Using Literals  The result set of a data query statement can be made more readable by including a string called a literal in the SELECT list  Literals are enclosed in single quotes and get printed exactly as they are written in the SELECT list©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 10 of 50
  • 11. Querying DatabasesDraft the query (Contd.) Result:  The information is available in the Recruitment database  The information available in the table ExternalCandidate is required  The specific attributes required from the ExternalCandidate table are vFirstName, vLastName, cCity, and cPhone©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 11 of 50
  • 12. Querying DatabasesExecute the query Action:  Connect to the server  Connect to the database ® Method 1: Choose the database (RECRUITMENT) from the SQL Query Analyzer database drop-down list ® Method 2: In the Query Analyzer window, type: USE RECRUITMENT©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 12 of 50
  • 13. Querying DatabasesExecute the query (Contd.)  In the Query Analyzer window, type: SELECT vFirstName, vLastName, cCity, cPhone FROM ExternalCandidate  Execute the query ® Click the Execute option from the Query menu on the menu bar or ® Click the Execute button on the toolbar©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 13 of 50
  • 14. Querying DatabasesVerify that the query output is as per the requiredresults Check whether:  The required columns are displayed©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 14 of 50
  • 15. Querying DatabasesJust a Minute… In Tebisco, there is a review by senior management on manpower. You need to write a query to display a list of the budgeted and the actual people available for various roles from the Recruitment database.©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 15 of 50
  • 16. Querying Databases1.D.2 Displaying Specific Columns With User-FriendlyColumn Headings The percentage charge of contract recruiters for hiring candidates is under review. The names of the contract recruiters and their hire charges are required. The report should contain user-friendly column headings as specified in the following format: Recruiter Name Hire Charge©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 16 of 50
  • 17. Querying DatabasesTask List Draft the query Execute the query Verify that the query output is as per the required results©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 17 of 50
  • 18. Querying DatabasesDraft the query Displaying Columns With User-Defined Headings  Syntax ® Method 1: SELECT column_heading=column_name[,column name…] FROM table_name ® Method 2: SELECT column_name column_heading [,column_name…] FROM table_name©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 18 of 50
  • 19. Querying DatabasesDraft the query (Contd.) Result:  The information is available in the table ContractRecruiter  The columns required are cName, siPercentageCharge with the column headings Recruiter Name and Hire Charge from the table©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 19 of 50
  • 20. Querying DatabasesExecute the query Action:  In the Query Analyzer window, type: SELECT Recruiter Name = cName, Hire Charge = siPercentageCharge FROM ContractRecruiter  Execute the query©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 20 of 50
  • 21. Querying DatabasesVerify that the query output is as per the requiredresults Check whether:  The required columns are displayed  The required column headings are displayed©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 21 of 50
  • 22. Querying Databases1.D.3 Displaying Selected Rows From a Table Campus recruitment by Tebisco needs to be conducted in the state of California. Therefore, details of all colleges in the state of California are required.©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 22 of 50
  • 23. Querying DatabasesTask List Create a format for the query output Draft the query Execute the query Verify that the query output is as per the required results©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 23 of 50
  • 24. Querying DatabasesCreate a format for the query output Result:  The output required is the details of all colleges in the state of California  The format of the report is shown below: cCollegeCode cCollegeName vCollegeAddress cCity cState cZip cPhone©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 24 of 50
  • 25. Querying DatabasesDraft the query The SELECT…WHERE Statement  Retrieves and displays data with a specific condition  Syntax SELECT column_list FROM table_name WHERE search_condition©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 25 of 50
  • 26. Querying DatabasesDraft the query (Contd.)  Result: ® The information is available in the College table ® The column headings are the attribute names of the College table ® Thecondition is that the state is ‘California’, that is, cState=‘California‘ ® Therefore, the query using the SELECT statement should be: SELECT * FROM College WHERE cState = California©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 26 of 50
  • 27. Querying DatabasesExecute the query Action:  In the Query Analyzer window, type the query.  Execute the query©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 27 of 50
  • 28. Querying DatabasesVerify that the query output is as per the requiredresults Check whether:  All columns are displayed  Only rows in which the value of the cState attribute is California are displayed©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 28 of 50
  • 29. Querying DatabasesJust a Minute… The hiring charges of contract recruiters (charging more than 8 percent of the annual salary as their percentage) are under review. The names, addresses, and the hiring charges of these contract recruiters are required. Write a query to display the required information.©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 29 of 50
  • 30. Querying DatabasesArithmetic Operators SQL Server supports operators that perform arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication on numeric columns The arithmetic operators supported by SQL Server are:  + (for Addition)  - (for Subtraction)  / (for Division)  * (for Multiplication)  % (for Modulo)©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 30 of 50
  • 31. Querying DatabasesArithmetic Operators (Contd.) Some rules regarding the use of arithmetic operators are:  Arithmetic operations can be performed on numeric columns or numeric constants  The Modulo (%) operator cannot be used with columns of money, smallmoney, float, or real datatypes©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 31 of 50
  • 32. Querying DatabasesArithmetic Operators (Contd.) Operator Precedence  When multiple arithmetic operators are used in a single query, the processing of the operation takes place according to the precedence of arithmetic operators  The precedence level of arithmetic operators in an expression is multiplication (*), division (/), modulo (%) followed by subtraction (-) and addition (+)  The precedence of the operators can be changed by using the primary grouping object called parentheses (())©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 32 of 50
  • 33. Querying DatabasesSearch Based on Conditions SQL Server provides a few methods for searching rows in a table. These methods can be broadly categorized as follows:  Logical operators  Comparison operators  Range operators  List operators©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 33 of 50
  • 34. Querying Databases1.D.4. Displaying Rows That Satisfy Multiple Conditions Candidates who have scored marks between 80 and 100 in a test need to be called for an interview. Therefore, a report displaying the names of candidates and their scores is required©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 34 of 50
  • 35. Querying DatabasesTask List Create a format for the query output Draft the query Execute the query Verify that the query output is as per the required results©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 35 of 50
  • 36. Querying DatabasesCreate a format for the query output Result:  The output requirements for the report are the names and the test scores of only those candidates who have scored marks between 80 and 100 in a test  The format of the report is shown below: vFirstName vLastName siTestScore©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 36 of 50
  • 37. Querying DatabasesDraft the query Logical Operator - Multiple search conditions can be combined by using the following logical operators:  ORreturns the result when any of the specified search conditions is true  ANDreturns the result when all the specified search conditions are true  NOT neutralizes the expression that follows it When more than one logical operator is combined in the WHERE clause, the order of precedence is NOT, AND, and OR Parentheses can be used to change the logical order of precedence©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 37 of 50
  • 38. Querying DatabasesDraft the query (Contd.) Syntax SELECT column_list FROM table_name WHERE conditional_expression{AND/OR}[NOT] conditional_expression©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 38 of 50
  • 39. Querying DatabasesDraft the query (Contd.) Result:  The required information is available in the ExternalCandidate table  The column headings are the attribute names of the relevant columns in the ExternalCandidate table  The condition to be satisfied is that the test score should be greater than or equal to 80 (siTestScore >= 80) and less than or equal to 100 (siTestScore <= 100)  Therefore, the query using the SELECT statement should be: SELECT vFirstName, vLastName, siTestScore FROM ExternalCandidate WHERE siTestScore >= 80 AND siTestScore <=©NIIT 100 SQL/lesson 1/Slide 39 of 50
  • 40. Querying DatabasesExecute the query Action:  In the Query Analyzer window, type the query  Execute the query©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 40 of 50
  • 41. Querying DatabasesVerify that the query output is as per the requiredresults Check whether:  The required columns are displayed  All the rows displayed have values of siTestScore between 80 and 100©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 41 of 50
  • 42. Querying DatabasesMore on Operators Apart from logical operators, SQL Server also supports the following operators:  Comparison Operators  Range Operators  List Operators©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 42 of 50
  • 43. Querying DatabasesMore on Operators (Contd.) Comparison Operators  Comparison operators allow row retrieval from a table based on the condition specified in the WHERE clause  Syntax SELECT column_list FROM table_name WHERE expression1 comparison_operator expression2©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 43 of 50
  • 44. Querying DatabasesMore on Operators (Contd.) Range Operators  The range operator is used to retrieve data that can be extracted in ranges. The range operators are: ® BETWEEN ® NOT BETWEEN  Syntax SELECT column_list FROM table_name WHERE expression1 range_operator expression2 AND expression3©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 44 of 50
  • 45. Querying DatabasesMore on Operators (Contd.) List Operators  The IN operator allows the selection of values that match any one of the values in a list  The NOT IN operator restricts the selection of values that match any one of the values in a list  Syntax SELECT column_list FROM table_name WHERE expression list_operator (‘value_list‘)©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 45 of 50
  • 46. Querying DatabasesJust a Minute… In order to identify the successful candidates, who took the test between March 5, 2001 and March 12, 2001, a report displaying the names of candidates and their scores needs to be created. The format of the report is as follows: vFirstName vLastName siTestScore dTestDate©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 46 of 50
  • 47. Querying DatabasesSummaryIn this lesson, you learned that: A database management system consists of a Server, a database (or multiple databases) with tables containing data, and a client (front-end) that helps a user interact with the server to retrieve data. The language provided by SQL Server to access data from a database is known as Structured Query Language (SQL). Microsoft SQL Server provides a customized implementation of SQL called T-SQL.©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 47 of 50
  • 48. Querying DatabasesSummary (Contd.) SQL Server provides a SELECT statement to access and retrieve data from a database. The SELECT statement queries the server to prepare a result and return it to the client application. The SELECT statement can be used to retrieve specific column(s) from the table by specifying the column names from the table. The SELECT statement along with the asterisk (*) symbol produces the result that contains the details of all the columns in the table.©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 48 of 50
  • 49. Querying DatabasesSummary (Contd.) The order of the columns can be changed in the result set of the SELECT statement by specifying the individual column names separated by a comma. SQL Server provides two methods for specifying the column heading. In the first method, the column heading is specified before the column name whereas in the second method, the column name is specified before the column heading. The WHERE clause is provided by SQL Server to specify the condition to retrieve specific data. The result set of the data query statement can be made more readable by including a string called literals in the SELECT list.©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 49 of 50
  • 50. Querying DatabasesSummary (Contd.) SQL Server supports operators that perform arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication on numeric columns. In a mixed mode arithmetic operation, the lower datatype value gets converted into a higher datatype value according to datatype precedence. SQL Server provides the following set of operators:  Logical operators like AND, OR and NOT  Comparison operators like =, >, <, >=, <=, ! =, !< and !>  Range operators like BETWEEN and NOT BETWEEN  List operators like IN and NOT IN©NIIT SQL/lesson 1/Slide 50 of 50