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  • 1. CollaborateKnowledge Byte In this section, you will learn about: • Object-Oriented Analysis and Design • Various Types of Inheritance • Abstract Classes and Methods ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 1 of 23
  • 2. CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis and Design • Consists of object-oriented analysis and object-oriented design. • In object-oriented analysis, the end users and the developers of the system analyze the requirements of the new system. • The Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a set of phases that divides the entire process of building a large program or application into smaller and more manageable units. ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 2 of 23
  • 3. CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.) • A stage of the SDLC consists of well-defined activities and methods needed to perform various tasks, such as: • Collecting information about the software that needs to be developed • Documenting the retrieved information • Creating design documents • Implementing and coding the software • Testing the software • Deploying the software ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 3 of 23
  • 4. CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.) • The four phases of SDLC are: • Inception • Elaboration • Construction • Transition ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 4 of 23
  • 5. CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.) • Inception • This is the first phase of the SDLC process. • Understanding the problem and the methods for solving it. • Specifying the scope, objectives, and requirements of the software system. • Specifying the estimates of the resources needed. • Planning a schedule of the various stages in the project. ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 5 of 23
  • 6. CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.) • Elaboration • This is the second phase of the SDLC process. • Elaborating the system specification obtained from the inception phase • Analyzing the problem • Describing the system’s requirements by creating a model of the system • Analyzing the requirements for the project • Developing the project plan ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 6 of 23
  • 7. CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.) • Construction • This is the third phase of the SDLC process. • Elaborating the solution specification obtained from the elaboration phase • Building and developing the software system • Completing implementation and testing of the software system • Analyzing the requirements for the project • Extending the functions of the system based on test results ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 7 of 23
  • 8. CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.) • Transition • This is the last phase of the SDLC process • Integrating different modules • Delivering the integrated modules • Deploying the integrated modules • Correcting problems in the deployed modules ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 8 of 23
  • 9. CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.) • Various Types of Inheritance • Multilevel • Hybrid • Hierarchical • Multipath ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 9 of 23
  • 10. CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.) • Multilevel Inheritance • A class is derived from an inherited class. Class A Parent Class for Class B Class B Parent Class for Class C Class C ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 10 of 23
  • 11. CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.) • Hybrid Inheritance • A derived class exhibits two or more than two types of inheritance. ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 11 of 23
  • 12. CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.) • Hierarchical Inheritance • More than one subclass can be derived from a single base class. Class A Parent Class for Classes B, C, and D Class B Class C Class D ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 12 of 23
  • 13. CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.) • Multipath Inheritance • Combination of multiple and hierarchical inheritance . ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 13 of 23
  • 14. CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.) • Abstract Classes and Methods • A class that cannot be instantiated. • Contains methods that have no implementation. ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 14 of 23
  • 15. CollaborateFrom the Expert’s Desk In this section, you will look at some FAQs on OOPs. ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 15 of 23
  • 16. CollaborateFAQs • What are the examples of the object-oriented programming languages? The examples of the object-oriented programming languages are: Simula, C++, Python, Smalltalk, CLOS, and Java. • What are the primary object-oriented methodologies used currently? The primary object-oriented methodologies are: BON, FUSION, HOOD, IBM, and UML. ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 16 of 23
  • 17. CollaborateFAQs (Contd.) • How did object-orientation evolve? The object-orientation evolved with the evolution of Simula that provided features, such as objects, classes, and inheritance. Simula was the first object-oriented programming language. Simula 1 was a simulation language and Simula 67 was referred as Simula. Smalltalk was another language having various features, such as classes, inheritance, and graphical user environment. ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 17 of 23
  • 18. CollaborateFAQs (Contd.) • Class B inherits features from its base class, class A. Class C is a sub class of class B and inherits features from class B. How many times will the features of class A appear in class C? The following figure shows the class hierarchy for classes A, B, and C. Class B inherits features from its base class, Class A. These features occur only once in Class B. Class C inherits features from its base class, Class B. The features inherited by Class C include the features that Class B inherited from Class A. Therefore, the features of Class A appear only once in Class C. ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 18 of 23
  • 19. CollaborateChallenge3. Match the following: a. Java i. Structured Programming Language b. Pascal ii. Procedural Programming Language c. C iii. Object Oriented Programming d. LISP iv. Imperative Programming Language e. FORTRAN v. Functional Programming Language ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 19 of 23
  • 20. CollaborateChallenge(Contd.)3. Make words from the jumbled letters in the box given below and match them with their description : a. An object is an_______ of a class b. The attribute of a class is represented by _________. c. ________ feature of object-oriented programming is also called information hiding. d. An object of class has a unique________. e. A _____ class is not instantiated. Canniest Tdaa bmreem Noitaluspacne Entiityd srctaabt ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 20 of 23
  • 21. CollaborateChallenge(Contd.) 1. Solve the following crossword: ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 21 of 23
  • 22. CollaborateChallenge(Contd.) Across: 34    Type of Inheritance in which there is one base class and one sub class (6) 55    The characteristic of an object that refers to a change of the state of the object over a period of time (8) 69 ________is an example of procedural programming (5) Down: 2 A program that can be divided into small user-defined units(6) 5 The type of inheritance in which there is more than on level of inheritance. (10) ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 22 of 23
  • 23. CollaborateSolutions to Challenge • a-iii, b-ii, c-i, d-v, e-iv • A. instance, b. data member, c. encapsulation, d. identity, e. abstract • Across: 34 Single, 55 Behavior, 69 COBOL Down: 2 Module, 5 Multilevel ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 23 of 23