CollaborateKnowledge Byte    In this section, you will learn about:         •   Object-Oriented Analysis and Design       ...
CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis and Design    •    Consists of object-oriented analysis and object-oriented design.   ...
CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.)    •    A stage of the SDLC consists of well-defined activities and ...
CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.)    •    The four phases of SDLC are:           • Inception          ...
CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.)         •   Inception               • This is the first phase of the...
CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.)         •   Elaboration                • This is the second phase of...
CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.)         •   Construction               • This is the third phase of ...
CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.)         •   Transition               • This is the last phase of the...
CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.)    •    Various Types of Inheritance          • Multilevel          ...
CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.)         •   Multilevel Inheritance               • A class is derive...
CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.)         •   Hybrid Inheritance               • A derived class exhib...
CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.)         •   Hierarchical Inheritance               • More than one s...
CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.)         •   Multipath Inheritance               • Combination of mul...
CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.)    •    Abstract Classes and Methods          • A class that cannot ...
CollaborateFrom the Expert’s Desk    In this section, you will look at some FAQs on OOPs. ©NIIT                        Col...
CollaborateFAQs    •    What are the examples of the object-oriented programming languages?         The examples of the ob...
CollaborateFAQs (Contd.)    •    How did object-orientation evolve?         The object-orientation evolved with the evolut...
CollaborateFAQs (Contd.)    •    Class B inherits features from its base class, class A. Class C is a sub class of        ...
CollaborateChallenge3.   Match the following:     a.  Java                 i. Structured Programming Language     b.  Pasc...
CollaborateChallenge(Contd.)3.   Make words from the jumbled letters in the box given below and match them with     their ...
CollaborateChallenge(Contd.)    1.   Solve the following crossword: ©NIIT                        Collaborate   Lesson 1C /...
CollaborateChallenge(Contd.)    Across:    34    Type of Inheritance in which there is one base class and one sub class (6...
CollaborateSolutions to Challenge    •    a-iii, b-ii, c-i, d-v, e-iv    •    A. instance, b. data member, c. encapsulatio...
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Dacj 1-1 c

  1. 1. CollaborateKnowledge Byte In this section, you will learn about: • Object-Oriented Analysis and Design • Various Types of Inheritance • Abstract Classes and Methods ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 1 of 23
  2. 2. CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis and Design • Consists of object-oriented analysis and object-oriented design. • In object-oriented analysis, the end users and the developers of the system analyze the requirements of the new system. • The Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a set of phases that divides the entire process of building a large program or application into smaller and more manageable units. ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 2 of 23
  3. 3. CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.) • A stage of the SDLC consists of well-defined activities and methods needed to perform various tasks, such as: • Collecting information about the software that needs to be developed • Documenting the retrieved information • Creating design documents • Implementing and coding the software • Testing the software • Deploying the software ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 3 of 23
  4. 4. CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.) • The four phases of SDLC are: • Inception • Elaboration • Construction • Transition ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 4 of 23
  5. 5. CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.) • Inception • This is the first phase of the SDLC process. • Understanding the problem and the methods for solving it. • Specifying the scope, objectives, and requirements of the software system. • Specifying the estimates of the resources needed. • Planning a schedule of the various stages in the project. ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 5 of 23
  6. 6. CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.) • Elaboration • This is the second phase of the SDLC process. • Elaborating the system specification obtained from the inception phase • Analyzing the problem • Describing the system’s requirements by creating a model of the system • Analyzing the requirements for the project • Developing the project plan ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 6 of 23
  7. 7. CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.) • Construction • This is the third phase of the SDLC process. • Elaborating the solution specification obtained from the elaboration phase • Building and developing the software system • Completing implementation and testing of the software system • Analyzing the requirements for the project • Extending the functions of the system based on test results ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 7 of 23
  8. 8. CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.) • Transition • This is the last phase of the SDLC process • Integrating different modules • Delivering the integrated modules • Deploying the integrated modules • Correcting problems in the deployed modules ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 8 of 23
  9. 9. CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.) • Various Types of Inheritance • Multilevel • Hybrid • Hierarchical • Multipath ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 9 of 23
  10. 10. CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.) • Multilevel Inheritance • A class is derived from an inherited class. Class A Parent Class for Class B Class B Parent Class for Class C Class C ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 10 of 23
  11. 11. CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.) • Hybrid Inheritance • A derived class exhibits two or more than two types of inheritance. ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 11 of 23
  12. 12. CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.) • Hierarchical Inheritance • More than one subclass can be derived from a single base class. Class A Parent Class for Classes B, C, and D Class B Class C Class D ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 12 of 23
  13. 13. CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.) • Multipath Inheritance • Combination of multiple and hierarchical inheritance . ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 13 of 23
  14. 14. CollaborateObject-Oriented Analysis andDesign(Contd.) • Abstract Classes and Methods • A class that cannot be instantiated. • Contains methods that have no implementation. ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 14 of 23
  15. 15. CollaborateFrom the Expert’s Desk In this section, you will look at some FAQs on OOPs. ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 15 of 23
  16. 16. CollaborateFAQs • What are the examples of the object-oriented programming languages? The examples of the object-oriented programming languages are: Simula, C++, Python, Smalltalk, CLOS, and Java. • What are the primary object-oriented methodologies used currently? The primary object-oriented methodologies are: BON, FUSION, HOOD, IBM, and UML. ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 16 of 23
  17. 17. CollaborateFAQs (Contd.) • How did object-orientation evolve? The object-orientation evolved with the evolution of Simula that provided features, such as objects, classes, and inheritance. Simula was the first object-oriented programming language. Simula 1 was a simulation language and Simula 67 was referred as Simula. Smalltalk was another language having various features, such as classes, inheritance, and graphical user environment. ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 17 of 23
  18. 18. CollaborateFAQs (Contd.) • Class B inherits features from its base class, class A. Class C is a sub class of class B and inherits features from class B. How many times will the features of class A appear in class C? The following figure shows the class hierarchy for classes A, B, and C. Class B inherits features from its base class, Class A. These features occur only once in Class B. Class C inherits features from its base class, Class B. The features inherited by Class C include the features that Class B inherited from Class A. Therefore, the features of Class A appear only once in Class C. ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 18 of 23
  19. 19. CollaborateChallenge3. Match the following: a. Java i. Structured Programming Language b. Pascal ii. Procedural Programming Language c. C iii. Object Oriented Programming d. LISP iv. Imperative Programming Language e. FORTRAN v. Functional Programming Language ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 19 of 23
  20. 20. CollaborateChallenge(Contd.)3. Make words from the jumbled letters in the box given below and match them with their description : a. An object is an_______ of a class b. The attribute of a class is represented by _________. c. ________ feature of object-oriented programming is also called information hiding. d. An object of class has a unique________. e. A _____ class is not instantiated. Canniest Tdaa bmreem Noitaluspacne Entiityd srctaabt ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 20 of 23
  21. 21. CollaborateChallenge(Contd.) 1. Solve the following crossword: ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 21 of 23
  22. 22. CollaborateChallenge(Contd.) Across: 34    Type of Inheritance in which there is one base class and one sub class (6) 55    The characteristic of an object that refers to a change of the state of the object over a period of time (8) 69 ________is an example of procedural programming (5) Down: 2 A program that can be divided into small user-defined units(6) 5 The type of inheritance in which there is more than on level of inheritance. (10) ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 22 of 23
  23. 23. CollaborateSolutions to Challenge • a-iii, b-ii, c-i, d-v, e-iv • A. instance, b. data member, c. encapsulation, d. identity, e. abstract • Across: 34 Single, 55 Behavior, 69 COBOL Down: 2 Module, 5 Multilevel ©NIIT Collaborate Lesson 1C / Slide 23 of 23

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