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  • You need to tell about: Special Addresses in default address classes. Available Host and Network address As given in page no. 176 of CG.
  • You need to tell: A custom TCP/IP subnet has a custom subnet mask ANDed to the IP address, so that what the node sees as its local network is a subset of the whole default network address block as given in he page no. 178 of CG.
  • You need to tell:The custom subnet mask borrows node bits in a contiguous block from the left side of the node portion of the address, and uses them as network bits. This divides a single network address into multiple networks, each containing fewer nodes, as given in the page no 178 of CG. How to determine available Host addresses as given in page no 179 of CG.
  • You need to tell : 1. CIDR can also be referred to as classless routing or supernetting as given in page no 181 in CG
  • You need to tell about Store and Forward delivery of packets as given in page no. 187 of CG.
  • You need to tell the working of Internet protocol as given in page no. 188 of CG
  • You need to tell how the IP address is resolved to MAC address using ARP as given in page no. 199 of CG.
  • To be modified..
  • You need to tell about DHCP Relay Agent Recovering IP Addresses as given in page no 200 of CG
  • You need to tell : APIPA is available on Windows 2000, Windows Me, Windows 2003, and Windows XP systems. Because APIPA requires no administrative configuration, APIPA addressing could be used for small office or home networks where local subnet communication is all that is required, as given in page no. 201 of CG
  • You need to tell about Ping options and Ping Blocking as given in page no. 201 of CG.

Comp tia n+_session_05 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services Objectives In this session, you will learn to: Describe a default IP addressing scheme. Create custom IP addressing schemes. Identify the major protocols and utilities in the TCP/IP protocol suite. Configure a computer to get its IP address statically and dynamically. Identify host name resolution methods on a TCP/IP network. Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 1 of 38
  • 2. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services Default IP Addresses TCP/IP addresses are controlled to ensure that there are no duplicate addresses worldwide. Companies and Internet Service Providers (ISP) lease addresses for their networks and customers to gain Internet access. TCP/IP 139.80.100.10 139.90.100.10 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 139.80.100.20 139.90.50.10 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 2 of 38
  • 3. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services The ICANN • An international organization called the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) controls the leasing and distribution of IP addresses on the Internet. • The IP address of every node on the Internet must be unique. ICANN 139.80.0.0 208.123.45.0 Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 3 of 38
  • 4. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services IP Address Classes • The TCP/IP suite defined five blocks of addresses, called IP address classes, for specific network uses and sizes. Address Class Range Default Subnet Mask Networks/Nodes Class A 1.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255 255.0.0.0 126 networks of up to 16,777,214 nodes each 128.0.0.0 to 191.255. Class B 255.255.0.0 16,382 networks of up to 65,534 nodes each 255.255 192.0.0.0 to 223.255.255 . Class C 255.255.255.0 2,097,150 networks of up to 254 nodes each 255 224.0.0.0 to All members of the multicast session share the same Class D None 239.255.255.255 IP address 240.0.0.0 to Class E None Strictly for research and experimentation purposes 255.255.255.255 Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 4 of 38
  • 5. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services Private Nonroutable Addresses ICANN has set aside three nonroutable address ranges that a company can use internally to enable their network nodes to communicate with one another using TCP/IP. The private, nonroutable IP address ranges are: 10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255 Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 5 of 38
  • 6. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services Custom IP Addresses • Custom IP Addresses can be created by the network administrators. • Class B networks are at times divided into multiple subnetworks due to fixed number of default networks and hosts available on Class B. • Multiple small subnets can be combined into highly subnetted network using Class C networks. Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 6 of 38
  • 7. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services TCP/IP Subnets • A TCP/IP subnet is a class of leased addresses that has been divided up into smaller groups to serve the network’s needs. 203.175.10.0 203.175.10.1 - 62 203.175.10.65 - 126 203.175.10.129 - 190 203.175.10.193 - 254 255.255.255.192 255.255.255.192 255.255.255.192 255.255.255.192 Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 7 of 38
  • 8. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services Custom Subnet Masks • Custom subnet masks are used to separate a single IP address block into multiple subnets. 203.175.10.0 Class C network address 11001011.10101111.00001010.00000000 Custom subnet 255.255.255.192 mask 11111111.111111111.11111111.11000000 Borrowed bits Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 8 of 38
  • 9. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSMs) • VLSM is used to create subnets containing different numbers of nodes. • VLSM uses the custom subnet mask to provide the number of nodes required for each subnet. 203.175.10.0 255.255.255.254 Subnet 1 Subnet 2 Subnet 3 6 addresses 14 addresses 30 addresses 5 nodes 12 nodes 28 nodes 255.255.255.248 255.255.255.240 255.255.255.224 Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 9 of 38
  • 10. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services Classless Inter Domain Routing (CIDR) • CIDR is a subnetting method that treats a VLSM as a 32-bit binary word. • CIDR notation combines the network address with a single number to represent the number of one bits in the mask. • With CIDR, multiple class-based networks can be represented as a single block. 192.168.12.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.13.0 192.168.12.0 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.254 192.168.12.0/23 Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 10 of 38
  • 11. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services The TCP/IP Protocol Suite The TCP/IP protocol suite consists of complementary protocols and standards that work together to provide the functionality that make the TCP/IP networks very popular. The TCP/IP protocol suite defines how applications on separate nodes establish a connection and track communications. Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 11 of 38
  • 12. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services The TCP/IP Network Model TCP/IP is a four-layer network model that loosely follows the seven-layer OSI model. OSI model Application TCP/IP model Presentation Application Session Transport Transport Internet Network Network Data-link Physical Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 12 of 38
  • 13. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services TCP and UDP Transport Protocols The TCP/IP Protocol suite includes two transport-layer protocols: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) TCP/IP model – Connection-oriented – Guaranteed delivery Application Application User Datagram Protocol (UDP) – Connectionless TCP/UDP – Best-effort delivery TCP/UDP Internet Internet Network Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 13 of 38
  • 14. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services The Internet Protocol (IP) • IP assigns the correct destination address to a data packet. TCP/IP model TCP/IP model Application Application 203.175.10.25 Transport Transport 203.175.10.50 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 IP IP Network Network IP manages addressing Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 14 of 38
  • 15. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) • ARP supports the Internet Protocol by resolving IP addresses to MAC addresses. TCP/IP model Application Transport IP address IP 203.175.10.25 ARP MAC address 00–aa–00–62–c6–09 Network Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 15 of 38
  • 16. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) • ICMP is a service added to the IP protocol that attempts to report on the condition of a connection between two nodes. Sending node Receiving node Flood warning 1 Data 2 Receiving node buffers fill 3 Source quench message Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 16 of 38
  • 17. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) • IGMP supports multicasting in a routed environment. TCP/IP model Application Transport IP IGMP Network Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 17 of 38
  • 18. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services Ports • In TCP and UDP networks, a port is the endpoint of a logical connection. • All ports are assigned a number in a range from 0 to 65,535. • Port numbers are given as: Well-Known Ports: 0 to 1,023 Registered Ports: 1,024 to 49,151 Dynamic or Private Ports: 49,152 to 65,535 Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 18 of 38
  • 19. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services Sockets • A socket is a piece of software within an operating system that connects an application with a network protocol, so that the application can request network services from the operating system. • The socket address uses the form: {protocol, local-address, local-process} {tcp , 193.44.234.3 , 53} Local IP address Protocol Port number (DNS) Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 19 of 38
  • 20. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services Static and Dynamic Addressing TCP/IP address information can be assigned to nodes on the network: – Statically, by manually entering addressing information on each individual network node. – Dynamically, by using the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service. Static DHCP Dynamic Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 20 of 38
  • 21. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services Static IP Address Assignment Configuring TCP/IP statically on a network requires manual assignment of IP address information on every node. Advantages: Used in systems with dedicated functionality Disadvantages: Time consuming Prone to errors Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 21 of 38
  • 22. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) DHCP is a network service that provides automatic assignment of IP addresses and other TCP/IP configuration information on network nodes that are configured as DHCP clients. DHCP requires a DHCP server configured with at least one DHCP scope. 192.168.100.151 192.168.100.150 192.168.100.152 DHCP Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 22 of 38
  • 23. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services The DHCP Lease Process The following figure shows the steps in the DHCP lease process: DHCP server DHCP client DHCP discover DHCP offer DHCP request DHCP acknowledge Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 23 of 38
  • 24. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) APIPA is a service that enables a DHCP client computer to configure itself automatically with an IP address in the range of 169.254.0.1 to 169.254.255.254 APIPA is used when none of the DHCP servers respond to the client’s DHCP discover broadcast. 169.254.46.128 169.254.16.21 DHCP not available 169.254.3.22 DHCP Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 24 of 38
  • 25. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services The Ping Utility • The ping command is used to verify the network connectivity of a computer. • Ping checks the host name, IP address, and that the remote system can be reached. • Ping uses ICMP ECHO_REQUEST datagrams to check connections between hosts by sending an echo packet, then listening for reply packets. Resolving FQDN to IP address Four responses from remote host Network statistics Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 25 of 38
  • 26. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services IP Configuration Utilities The following IP configuration utilities can be used by operating system to see TCP/IP configuration information: Utility Name Operating Systems and Function Supported on Windows Me, Windows 98, and Windows 95. Winipcfg Displays the network card driver, adapter address, IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway. The More Info button displays additional information about the IP configuration. Supported on Windows Server 2003, Windows XP, Windows 2000, Windows NT, and NetWare. Ipconfig Displays connection-specific DNS suffix, IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway. Must be run from a command line. To display additional information about the IP configuration, use the /all parameter with the command. Supported on Linux and UNIX. Ifconfig Displays the status of the currently active network interface devices. Using options, you can dynamically change the status of the interfaces and change the IP address. Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 26 of 38
  • 27. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services Activity 7-1 Activity on Manually Assigning IP Addresses Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 27 of 38
  • 28. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services Activity 7-2 Activity on Using APIPA Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 28 of 38
  • 29. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services Activity 7-3 Activity on Assigning IP Addresses with DHCP Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 29 of 38
  • 30. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services Host Name Resolution Each node on the network is assigned a descriptive name along with an IP address. Descriptive names are easier for users to remember. Host name resolution is the service that resolves the descriptive name to the corresponding IP address. Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 30 of 38
  • 31. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services Host Names • A host name is the unique name given to a network node on a TCP/IP network. • The host name combined with the host’s domain name forms the node’s fully qualified domain name (FQDN). Fully qualified domain name (FQDN) server03.ourglobalcompany.com Host name Domain name Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 31 of 38
  • 32. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services Activity 7-4 Activity on Identifying the Local Host Name Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 32 of 38
  • 33. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services Activity 7-5 Activity on Viewing a Sample HOSTS File Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 33 of 38
  • 34. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services The Domain Name System (DNS) • DNS is a TCP/IP name resolution service that translates FQDNs into IP addresses. .com .org Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 34 of 38
  • 35. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services The DNS Hierarchy DNS names are built in a hierarchical structure. The hierarchical structure is represented as shown in the following figure: “.” Root .gov .com .edu .org everythingforcoffee ourglobalcompany citizensinfo books training FQDN = training.ourglobalcompany.com Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 35 of 38
  • 36. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services The DNS Name Resolution Process In the DNS process, DNS servers work together as needed to resolve names on behalf of DNS clients. “.” Root .gov .com .edu .org everythingforcoffee ourglobalcompany citizensinfo FQDN = training.ourglobalcompany.com DNS client Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 36 of 38
  • 37. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services The HOSTS File • A HOSTS file is a plain text file configured on a client machine containing a list of IP addresses and their associated host names, separated by at least one space. IP address Host name At least one space Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 37 of 38
  • 38. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network with TCP/IP and Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended TCP/IP Services Summary In this session, you learned that: The default IP address classes are Class A,B,C, D, and E. The IP addresses can be customized by either subnetworking an existing network or by combining a multiple small subnets into one highly subnetted network. The TCP/IP protocol suite defines how applications on separate nodes establish a connection and track communications. The IP addresses can be assigned manually by an administrator or can be assigned automatically by using DHCP service. The host name resolution is a service that maps the descriptive names to the corresponding IP address. Ver. 1.0 Session 5 Slide 38 of 38