CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and N...
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  • You need to tell about the OSI mnemonic “All People Seem To Need Data Processing.”
  • You need to tell how the transport layer provides reliable data transmission as given in CG.( Pg no has to be given)
  • You need to tell about the OSI mnemonic “All People Seem To Need Data Processing.”
  • You need to tell about: My Network places Establishing the browsing list Hidden shares Mapped Network Drives as given on page no-132 and 133 of CG.
  • You need to tell about: Browsing using Active Directory. Universal Naming Convention.
  • You need to also tell about the : 1. Media type codes for the 10Base specifications as given in the page no 139 of CG. 2. Ethernet speeds, types, and Specifications as given in the page no 140 of CG.
  • You need to also tell about the history of Token ring as given in pg. no. 142 of CG.
  • You need to also tell about Token Ring Access Priority as given in pg.no. 143 of CG.
  • You need to also tell about MSAU functionality as given in pg.no. 144 of CG.
  • You need to also tell about MSAU functionality as given in pg.no. 144 of CG.
  • You need to also tell the importance of Dual Ring as given in page n. 148 of CG
  • You need to tell the difference between DAS and SAS as given in page no. 148 of CG.
  • You need to explain the different wireless network technologies as given in the CG
  • You need to also tell about : Binding order How to view Protocol Bindings as given in page no 162 of CG.
  • You need to tell about the Dotted Decimal notation as given in page no 166 of CG.
  • You need to also tell about default subnet masks as given in the page no 168 of CG.
  • Comp tia n+_session_04

    1. 1. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP Objectives In this session, you will learn to: Identify the purpose and components of the OSI model. Identify ways that network clients access network resources. Identify the components of an Ethernet network implementation. Identify the components of a Token Ring network implementation. Identify the components of a FDDI network implementation. Identify the components of a wireless network implementation. View the protocols bound to a network interface card in Windows Server 2003. View the TCP/IP information for your computer. Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 1 of 53
    2. 2. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP The OSI Model • The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is a seven-layer framework that defines and describes how software or hardware operating at that layer will act on the data packet being sent. Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data-link Physical Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 2 of 53
    3. 3. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP The OSI Layers The OSI model comprises of seven layers: Application Layer Presentation Layer Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 3 of 53
    4. 4. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP The OSI Layers (Contd.) • Application Layer Provides services and utilities that enables: Application programs to access a network and its resources. Applications to save files to the network server or print to network printers. Resource advertising that each system is available for network use. Application Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 4 of 53
    5. 5. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP The OSI Layers (Contd.) • Presentation Layer Provides services and utilities that enables: • Translation of data so that it can be moved on the network. • Data compression and encryption. Application Presentation Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 5 of 53
    6. 6. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP The OSI Layers (Contd.) • Session Layer Provides services and utilities that enables: Establishing the connection between network devices. Maintaining the connection and then terminating it when appropriate. Controlling how, when, and for how long a device transmits. Application Presentation Session Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 6 of 53
    7. 7. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP The OSI Layers (Contd.) • Transport Layer Provides services and utilities that enables: • Reliable data transmission. • Some error correction and sending acknowledgements. • Gateways to operate at this layer. Application Presentation Session Transport Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 7 of 53
    8. 8. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP The OSI Layers (Contd.) • Network Layer Provides services and utilities that enables: • Addressing and ensures delivery of packets across a network. • Protocol address to be attached to the data packet that is used by routing devices to make their decisions. • Routers and some switches to operate at this layer. Application Presentation Session Transport Network Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 8 of 53
    9. 9. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP The OSI Layers (Contd.) • Data-link Layer Provides services and utilities that enables: • Individual frames move from one device to another without error. • Bridges and some switches to operate at this layer. The Data-link layer can be divided into two sections: • Logical Link Control (LLC) • Media Access Control (MAC) Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data-link Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 9 of 53
    10. 10. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP The OSI Layers (Contd.) • Physical Layer Provides services and utilities that enables: • Movement of data bits on and off the physical cabling media. • Network adapters, hubs, and wireless access points operate at this layer. Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data-link Physical Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 10 of 53
    11. 11. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP The OSI Process When data is sent to a network, it is added to the top layer of the OSI model first. When data is received, it goes through the reverse process. Application Application Presentation Presentation Session Session Transport Transport Network Network Data-link Data-link Physical Physical Packet flow Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 11 of 53
    12. 12. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP Network Resources • A network resource is any device that is external to the client computer and is accessible by multiple users. Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 12 of 53
    13. 13. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP Network Browsing • Network browsing is the act of searching through an automated information system to locate or acquire a resource without necessarily knowing the existence of that resource. Network browsing Network resources Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 13 of 53
    14. 14. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP Network Searching • Network searching is a built-in function that enables users to find network resources such as printers and servers by name or by location. Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 14 of 53
    15. 15. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP Ethernet Networks Ethernet technology is the most popular networking technology used today. Both large and small-sized networks use Ethernet technology to provide both backbone and end-user services. Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 15 of 53
    16. 16. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP Ethernet • An Ethernet network is a segmented LAN technology that uses Ethernet NICs and twisted pair, coax, or fiber media. • Ethernet is used to connect computers, printers, and servers within the same building or campus. Ethernet LAN within a single building Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 16 of 53
    17. 17. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP Switched Ethernet • Switched Ethernet is a LAN technology that connects host computers and network segments by using switches. Switched connection utilizes full bandwidth Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 17 of 53
    18. 18. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP Ethernet Frames • Ethernet frames control data sent between two nodes. • Each frame consists of several fields as shown in the following figure: 8 bytes 6 bytes 6 bytes 2 bytes 46 1500 bytes 4 bytes Preamble Destination Source Frame Data CRC address address type Footer Header = 22 bytes Data payload Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 18 of 53
    19. 19. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP The IEEE 802. x Standard • The 802.x standards are a family of networking standards developed by the IEEE in 1980 • Subcategories of 802.x Standard are: 802.2 Standard 802.3 Standard 802.5 Standard 802.2 802.x Standard 802.3 802.5 Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 19 of 53
    20. 20. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP 802.3 Standards • The 802.3 specification standardizes Ethernet and expands it to include a wide range of cable media. 802.3 Standard Media type Transmission speed Signal type 10 Mbps Baseband 100 Mbps Broadband 1000 Mbps Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 20 of 53
    21. 21. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP 802.2 Standards • The 802.2 standard was developed to address the need for MAC-layer addressing in bridges. • The 802.2 standard specifies frame size and rate. Application Presentation Session Transport 802.2 Standard Network LLC Data-link MAC Physical Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 21 of 53
    22. 22. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP The 10Base Standards • The 10Base standards describe the type of media used and the speeds at which each type of media operates. • The 10Base standard contains three components as shown in the figure. 10 Mbps 100 Mbps 1000 Mbps 10Base Standard Signal type 100BaseTX Speed Media Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 22 of 53
    23. 23. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP Token Ring Networks Token Ring technology is used in high performance industrial networks. Token Ring technology is widely used for contention-based networking. Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 23 of 53
    24. 24. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP Token Ring Standards • There are two Token Ring standards that are very similar: IBM Token Ring and IEEE 802.5. Token Ring Characteristics IBM Token Ring IEEE 802.5 Transmission speed 4/16 Mbps 4/16 Mbps Physical topology Star Not specified Number of nodes per ring STP-260; UTP-72 250 Media type STP/UTP listed as Category 1, 2, or 3 cable Not specified Signaling Baseband Baseband Access method Token passing Token passing Encoding Differential Manchester Differential Manchester Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 24 of 53
    25. 25. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP Token States • There are four states that a token can be in while on the network: Available state Captured state Acknowledged state Reserved state Available Captured Reserved Acknowledged Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 25 of 53
    26. 26. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP Multi Station Access Units ( MSAUs) Multi Station Access Units (MSAUs) are wired together to form one large ring using patch cables and lobe cables for connections. IBM Token Ring network stations are directly connected to MSAUs. MSAU MSAU Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 26 of 53
    27. 27. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP Token Ring Failure Recovery Token Ring networks take on a start configuration when a device is turned off or disconnected from the network. In such situations, the MSAU bypass the disconnected devices. Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 27 of 53
    28. 28. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP Beaconing • Beaconing is a process used to ensure that all systems on a ring are responsive. Upstream neighbor notifies network Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 28 of 53
    29. 29. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Networks • FDDI is used in the network that uses a ring topology. • FDDI networks is used in situations that require redundant, high capacity netwroking with fault tolerance. Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 29 of 53
    30. 30. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP FDDI • Fiber Distributed Data Interface, or FDDI, is a networking technology that uses a dual fiber ring operating at 100 Mbps. One ring carries control signals One ring carries data Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 30 of 53
    31. 31. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP FDDI Connection Devices Nodes are connected to the FDDI network in one of two ways: Dual attached stations (DAS) Single attached stations (SAS) DAS SAS Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 31 of 53
    32. 32. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP FDDI Failure Recovery DAS nodes provide fault tolerance measures that detect loss of connectivity and then loop back the signal—a process known as auto-reconfiguration. SAS nodes, the concentrator provides fault tolerance through isolation. Auto-reconfiguration Isolation Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 32 of 53
    33. 33. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP Wireless Technologies and Standards Wireless networks are the networks that connect without using a physical cable. Wireless networks are relatively easier to install and have a lot of flexibility. Wireless networks provides roaming users both in business and leisure environments to have freedom to work from anywhere. Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 33 of 53
    34. 34. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP When to Use Wireless Technologies Types of wireless technologies are: Infrared Radio Microwave Infrared Radio Microwave Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 34 of 53
    35. 35. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP What is a WAP? A WAP, or wireless access point, is a wireless connectivity device that enables multiple wireless nodes to communicate with each other and with other networks. Wireless and wired networks can coexist in the same environment. Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 35 of 53
    36. 36. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP The IEEE 802.11 Standard • 802.11 standard is a family of specifications developed by the IEEE for wireless LAN technology. • 802.11 specifies an over-the-air interface between a wireless client and a base station or between two wireless clients. • 802.11 defines the access method as CSMA/CA. Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 36 of 53
    37. 37. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP 802.11 Modes • There are two components to the 802.11 standard: Infrastructure mode Ad-hoc mode Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 37 of 53
    38. 38. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP Bluetooth • Bluetooth is a wireless protocol that is used to communicate from one device to another in a small area, usually less than 30 feet. 30 feet Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 38 of 53
    39. 39. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP Families of Protocols • Network Protocols are rules by which computers within a network communicate among themselves. Common network protocol Formats data packets Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 39 of 53
    40. 40. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP Network- and Transport- Layer Protocols The Network and Transport layers contain several protocol families, such as: Reliability protocols Connection protocols Routing protocols Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 40 of 53
    41. 41. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP Application-, Presentation-, and Session-Layer Protocols The Application-, Presentation-, and Session-layers contain several protocol families, such as: Terminal-emulation protocols File-access and file-transfer protocols Email protocols Remote-action and multiple-session protocols Network-management protocols Task-to-task protocols Codeset-and-data-structure protocols Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 41 of 53
    42. 42. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP Protocols Bindings • Assigning a protocol to a network interface card is referred to as protocol binding. Network interface Protocols bound to the network interface Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 42 of 53
    43. 43. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP Activity 6-1 Activity on Identifying Families of Protocols Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 43 of 53
    44. 44. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP The TCP/IP Protocol • The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is a nonproprietary, routable network protocol suite that enables computers to communicate over all types of networks. TCP/IP Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 44 of 53
    45. 45. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP The IP Address • An IP address is a 32-bit binary number assigned to a computer on a TCP/IP network. Binary 11010000.01111011.00101101.00010010 Decimal 208.123.45.18 Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 45 of 53
    46. 46. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP The Subnet Mask • A subnet mask is a 32-bit number that is assigned to each host address. • A subnet mask divides the 32-bit binary IP address into network and node portions. Network portion Node portion Decimal IP address 172.16.10.101 Binary IP address 10101100.00001000.00001010.01100101 Subnet mask 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000 Binary network ID 10101100.00001000.00000000.00000000 Decimal network ID 172.16.0.0 Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 46 of 53
    47. 47. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP Subnet Mask Structure To conform to TCP/IP standards, subnet masks must follow the rules as shown in the following figure: Subnet mask 255.255.255.0 Subnet mask in binary 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 Ones always start at Ones must be Zeros always start bit 32 contiguous at bit 1 Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 47 of 53
    48. 48. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP Binary ANDing There are two rules in the binary AND operation: Zero AND any value equals zero. One AND one equals one. 0 0 1 1 AND 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 48 of 53
    49. 49. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP Distinguishing Local and Remote Addresses Subnet mask is used by the network client to determine whether a data packet is bound for the local subnet or must be routed to a remote subnet. Different networks Destination is remote 139.87.10.2 139.87.30.103 255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0 139.87.10.0 139.87.30.0 Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 49 of 53
    50. 50. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP The Default Gateway • The default gateway is the IP address of the router that will route remote traffic from the computer’s local subnet to remote subnets. 139.87.10.1 139.87.10.10 Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 50 of 53
    51. 51. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP IP Address Assignment Rules For a valid node addressing on a TCP/IP network: Nodes on a local subnet must have unique node IDs. Nodes on different subnets can have the same node IDs if the network IDs are different. The node address cannot be all ones or all zeros. The IP address 127.0.0.1 is reserved for testing and cannot be used as a node ID. TCP/IP 139.80.100.10 139.90.100.10 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 139.80.100.20 139.90.50.10 255.255.0.0 255.255.0.0 Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 51 of 53
    52. 52. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP Activity 6-2 Activity on Identifying the Characteristics of a TCP/IP Protocol Suite Implementation Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 52 of 53
    53. 53. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network ImplementationsInstallation with Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended and NetworkTCP/IP Summary In this session, you learned that: • The OSI model comprises of seven layers. • The clients access resources on a live network by: • Network browsing • Network searching Ethernet network is used in both large and small-sized networks to provide both backbone and end-user services. Token Ring technology is widely used for contention-based networking. FDDI networks is used in situations that require redundant, high capacity netwroking with fault tolerance. Wireless networks are the networks that connect without using a physical cable. The TCP/IP is a nonproprietary, routable network protocol suite that enables computers to communicate over all types of networks. Ver. 1.0 Session 4 Slide 53 of 53

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