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Comp tia n+_session_02

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  • To be given
  • To be given
  • You need to explain about contention-based and controlled media access methods as given in Page no 43 of CG. You need to compare the different media access methods as given in page no 44 of CG.
  • You have to tell about the advantages and disadvantages of token-based media access as given in Page no. 46 of CG
  • You need to tell the method in which data is transmitted between nodes using CSMA/CD method as given in page no. 47 of CG
  • You need to tell the method in which data is transmitted between nodes using CSMA/CA method as given in page no. 48 of CG
  • You need to tell the method in which data is transmitted between nodes using CSMA/CA method as given in page no. 48 of CG
  • To discuss about modulation and demodulation techniques. More slides have to be added here
  • To discuss about modulation and demodulation techniques. More slides have to be added here
  • To discuss about modulation and demodulation techniques. More slides have to be added here
  • To discuss about modulation and demodulation techniques. More slides have to be added here
  • To discuss about modulation and demodulation techniques. More slides have to be added here
  • You need to tell: How the six bytes long address is divided? About OUI, Universal LAN MAC address How to determine the MAC address of the computer? As given in pages 61 and 62 of CG
  • You need to explain network address with an example as given in page no 65 of CG.
  • You need to tell about DNS, NetBIOS and WINS as given the page no 66 of CG
  • 1.You need to tell about how the packet is transmitted ad given in th page no 68 of CG. 2. You need to tell about the Ethernet Header and Ethernet footer contents of the packet as given in the page nos 69- 70 of CG
  • You need to tell that radio and television broadcasts and public address systems operate in simplex node. This node is not used in networking
  • You need to give examples such as walkie-talkies and citizen band (CB ) radios.
  • You need to give examples such as telephone systems.
  • You need to give example of dial-up modem connections.
  • You need to give of physical bus and star networks as an example of multipoint connections.
  • You need to tell the method in which data is transmitted between nodes using CSMA/CA method as given in page no. 48 of CG
  • You need to tell about connection service types compared to everyday communication methods ad given in page no 74 and 75 of CG
  • You need to explain Even and Odd Parity and Internal Computer Parity Checking as explained in page no 78 of CG
  • You need to tell the CRC considerations as given in page no 78 in CG
  • You need to explain the example of buffering emphasizing flooding as given in page no 79 of CG.
  • You need to explain fixed and sliding length windows as given in page 80 of CG.
  • You need to explain fixed and sliding length windows as given in page 80 of CG.
  • Transcript

    • 1. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Objectives In this session, you will learn to: Identify the primary network transmission methods. Identify the main types of media access methods. Identify the major network signaling methods. Identify the elements of the data addressing and delivery process. Identify common network connection mechanisms. Identify techniques for ensuring reliable network data delivery. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 1 of 51
    • 2. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Transmission Methods The primary transmission mechanisms that are implemented on the networks are: Unicast transmission Broadcast transmission Multicast transmission Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 2 of 51
    • 3. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Unicast Transmission • Unicast transmission is a transmission method in which data is transferred from a specific source address to a specific destination address. Receives transmission Ignores transmission Ignores transmission Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 3 of 51
    • 4. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Broadcast Transmission • Broadcast transmission is a transmission method in which data goes from a source node to all other nodes on a network. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 4 of 51
    • 5. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Multicast Transmission • Multicast transmission is a transmission method in which data is sent from a server to specific nodes that are defined as members of a multicast group. Multicast group Multicast group Ignores transmission Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 5 of 51
    • 6. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Media Access Methods • The media access method determines whether or not a particular node can place data on the network at a given time. • Two categories of media access methods are: Contention-based or competitive media access Controlled or deterministic media access Central device determines access Contending for access Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 6 of 51
    • 7. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Media Access Methods (Contd.) The common media access methods are: Multiplexed Media Access Polling Token-Based Media Access Carrier Sense Multiple Access/ Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Carrier Sense Multiple Access/ Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) Contention Domains Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 7 of 51
    • 8. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Multiplexed Media Access • Multiplexing is a controlled media access method in which a central device combines the signals from multiple nodes and transmits the combined signal across the medium. • The different methods of multiplexing are: Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM) Frequency-Division Multiplexing (FDM) A central device called as multiplexer or mux is used to manage the multiplexing process. mux Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 8 of 51
    • 9. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Polling • Polling is a controlled media access method in which a central device contacts each node in turn to see whether it has data to transmit. Client polled for data • Demand priority is a polling technique in which nodes signal their state—either ready to transmit or idle—to a hub. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 9 of 51
    • 10. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Token-Based Media Access • Token-based media access is a media access method in which computers pass a special sequence of bits called a token between them. Node with token can transmit Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 10 of 51
    • 11. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Carrier Sense Multiple Access/ Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) is a contention-based media access method in which nodes can transmit whenever they have data to send. They detect and manage the inevitable collisions that occur when multiple nodes transmit at once. 5. Wait 1. Data to transmit 4. Collision 2. Check network 3. Transmit Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 11 of 51
    • 12. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Carrier Sense Multiple Access/ Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) • Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) is a contention-based media access method in which nodes can transmit whenever they have data to send. • The steps that they take to ensure media is unused are: 5. Transmit 6. Monitor for jam signal 1. Data to transmit 4. Wait 4. Wait 2. Check network 3. Jam signal Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 12 of 51
    • 13. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Contention Domains • A contention domain, also called a collision domain, is a group of nodes on a contention-based network that compete with each other for access to the media. Contention Domain A Contention Domain B Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 13 of 51
    • 14. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Signaling Methods The electronic signals that are put onto the communication media of the networks are categorized as: Analog Signals Digital Signals The signaling techniques used in network communication are: Digital Data Transmission Serial Data Transmission Parallel Data Transmission Baseband Transmission Broadband Transmission Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 14 of 51
    • 15. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Analog Signals An analog signal is one that oscillates over time between maximum and minimum values and can take on any value between those limits. The signaling techniques used in network communication are: Cycle Phase Amplitude Cycle Peak Frequency Phase Wavelength Amplitude Valley Wavelength One-second frequency Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 15 of 51
    • 16. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Digital Signals A digital signal is one that oscillates between two discrete values over time, never holding an interim value. The discrete values in digital signals are either ones and zeros. The units of digital data are given specific names: Crumb Bit + Nibble Byte 0 Word - Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 16 of 51
    • 17. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Modulation and Demodulation • A modulation is a process in which the lower frequency data signal is superimposed over the carrier’s waveform. • The demodulation is a process in which the receiver decodes the signal, removing the data from the carrier. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 17 of 51
    • 18. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Digital Data Transmission Digital transmissions use voltage differences to directly represent the 1s and 0s that make up the data and are not modulated over a carrier. Data is converted into a digital waveform using the following techniques: On-off keying: Is a digital transmission encoding scheme in which a change in voltage from one state to another within a predetermined interval is symbolized by a 1. Manchester encoding: Is a digital transmission encoding scheme which represents the transition from a positive to a ground with a 0 and the transition from a ground to a positive with a 1. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 18 of 51
    • 19. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Serial Data Transmission • With serial data transmission, bits are transmitted, one per clock cycle, across a single transmission medium. • Synchronization, start/stop, and error correction bits are transmitted in line with data bits, limiting the overall throughput of data. • Serial transmissions can delineate bytes by using either synchronous or asynchronous techniques. • The following devices are connected over a serial transmission port: Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 19 of 51
    • 20. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Parallel Data Transmission • With parallel data transmission, multiple bits are transmitted across multiple transmission lines. • Synchronization, start/stop, and error correction bits are transmitted in line with data bits are mainly sent over additional transmission lines, improving overall throughput of data • The following devices uses the parallel transmission mode: Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 20 of 51
    • 21. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Baseband Transmission • In baseband transmissions, digital signaling is used to send data over a single transmission medium using the entire bandwidth of that medium. Sender Receiver Digital signal Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 21 of 51
    • 22. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Broadband Transmission • In broadband transmissions, analog signaling is used to send data over a transmission medium using a portion of the bandwidth of that medium. Sender Receiver Analog signal Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 22 of 51
    • 23. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Data Addressing and Delivery Data to be transferred within the network is packaged and addressed, so that it can be accurately delivered to its intended destination. The various data addressing and delivery mechanisms that are used are: MAC Address Network Address Network Names Packets Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 23 of 51
    • 24. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods MAC Address • A MAC address, also called a physical address, is a unique, hardware-level address assigned to every networking device by its manufacturer. • A MAC address is six bytes long, with : The first three bytes known as Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI) The last three bytes known as Universal LAN MAC address Six bytes long Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : 00-00-86-47-F6-65 OUI Universal LAN MAC address Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 24 of 51
    • 25. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Activity 3-1 Activity on Identifying the Local MAC Address Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 25 of 51
    • 26. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Network Address • A network address is a protocol-specific identifier assigned to a node. • A network address includes two parts: Network portion Node portion Network portion Node portion IP Address. . . . . . . . . : 192.168.100.100 Subnet Mask . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.0 Separates network from node Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 26 of 51
    • 27. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Activity 3-2 Activity on Identifying the Local Network Address Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 27 of 51
    • 28. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Network Names • A network name is a word or phrase assigned to a node to help users and technicians more easily recognize the device. • Naming services are methods that map network names to network addresses, such as: Domain Name System (DNS) NetBIOS Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) Descriptive host name IP address mapping Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 28 of 51
    • 29. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Activity 3-3 Activity on Identifying the Local Computer Name Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 29 of 51
    • 30. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Packets • A packet, also called a datagram, is a unit of data sent across the network. • All packets are made up of three components, such as: Header Data Trailer or footer Header Data Footer Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 30 of 51
    • 31. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Activity 3-1 Activity on Identifying the Local MAC Address Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 31 of 51
    • 32. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Network Connection Mechanisms A network connection is first established between the two nodes that want to share data. The network connection mechanisms are: Simplex Mode Half Duplex Mode Full Duplex Mode Point-to-Point Connections Multipoint Connections Radiated Connections Connection Services Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 32 of 51
    • 33. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Simplex Mode • Simplex mode of communication is the one-way transmission of information with the full use of bandwidth of the medium for transmission. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 33 of 51
    • 34. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Half Duplex Mode • Half duplex mode communications permit two-way communications, but in only one direction at a time. Sender Receiver Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 34 of 51
    • 35. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Full Duplex Mode • Full duplex mode communications permit simultaneous two-way communications. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 35 of 51
    • 36. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Point-to-Point Connections • A point-to-point connection is a direct connection between two nodes. Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 36 of 51
    • 37. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Multipoint Connections • Multipoint connections are connections between many nodes. Each multipoint connection has more than two endpoints. Receiver Detector Sender Detector Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 37 of 51
    • 38. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Radiated Connections • A radiated, or broadcast, connection is a wireless point-to- point or multipoint connection between devices. • Wireless LAN, infrared, and Wi-Fi networks are all radiated connections. Wireless access point User Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 38 of 51
    • 39. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Connection Services • Connection services ensure reliable delivery by detecting and attempting to correct transmission problems. • The following connection services are used: Unacknowledged connectionless service Acknowledged connectionless service Connection-oriented service Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 39 of 51
    • 40. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Reliable Delivery Techniques • Reliable delivery techniques ensure that the data that is properly packaged and addressed is transmitted completely and accurately across the network. • When the delivery techniques are implemented they perform the following functions: Error Detection Parity checking Cyclic Redundancy Check Flow Control Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 40 of 51
    • 41. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Error Detection • Error detection is the process of determining if transmitted data has been received correctly and completely by attaching extra bits in the form of an error detection code (EDC) to the original contents. Data sent with EDC in footer Receiver generates an EDC and compares it with the one sent in the footer Do they Yes match? No Process data Request data be EDAC attempts to retransmitted rebuild data Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 41 of 51
    • 42. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Parity Parity checking operates on a word-by-word basis and can only reliably determine if a single bit has been changed or not. Compare bytes with parity bits Types of parity checking techniques are: Even and Odd Parity Internal Computer Parity Checking Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 42 of 51
    • 43. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Cyclic Redundancy Check A cyclic redundancy check (CRC) uses a predefined mathematical operation to calculate a CRC code. Compare CRCs Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 43 of 51
    • 44. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Flow Control • Flow control is a class of techniques for optimizing the exchange of data between systems. • The types of flow control techniques commonly used in computer networking are: • Buffering • Data Windows Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 44 of 51
    • 45. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Flow Control (Contd.) • Buffering is a flow control technique in which received data is stored in a temporary high speed memory location, called a buffer, until the main system components are ready to work with the data. Network cache High-speed data Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 45 of 51
    • 46. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Flow Control (Contd.) • Data windows provides a flow control technique where multiple packets are sent as a unit called a block or window and the recipient acknowledges each window rather than each packet, resulting in higher throughput. • Types of data windows are: Fixed length windows Sliding windows Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 46 of 51
    • 47. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Flow Control (Contd.) Fixed and Sliding Windows Fixed window = Always same size Fixed window Buffer Wasted buffer Sliding windows = Optimized for buffer First window Optimized buffer Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 47 of 51
    • 48. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Summary In this session, you learned that: • The primary transmission mechanisms that are implemented on the networks are: • Unicast transmission • Broadcast transmission • Multicast transmission • The common media access methods are: Media Access Methods Multiplexed Media Access Polling Token-Based Media Access Carrier Sense Multiple Access/ Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Carrier Sense Multiple Access/ Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) Contention Domains Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 48 of 51
    • 49. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Summary (Contd.) • The electronic signals that are put onto the communication media of the networks are categorized as: Analog Signals Digital signals The signaling techniques used in network communication are: Digital Data Transmission Serial Data Transmission Parallel Data Transmission Baseband Transmission Broadband Transmission Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 49 of 51
    • 50. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Summary (Contd.) • The data addressing and delivery mechanisms are: MAC Address Network Address Network Names Packets The network connection mechanisms are: • Simplex Mode • Half Duplex Mode • Full Duplex Mode • Point-to-Point Connections • Multipoint Connections • Radiated Connections • Connection Services Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 50 of 51
    • 51. CompTIA N+ Certification: Network Communications Installation Installing Windows XP Professional Using Attended Methods Summary (Contd.) • The reliable delivery techniques are: Error Detection Parity Cyclic Redundancy Check Flow Control Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 51 of 51