The Robina Residential Archipelago

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The Robina Residential Archipelago

  1. 1. An analysis of Walkability in a late 20 th Century Master Planned suburb on Australia’s Gold Coast Nigel Cartlidge Nigel Cartlidge Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009
  2. 2. An analysis of Walkability in a late 20 th Century Master Planned suburb on Australia’s Gold Coast The study area of Robina/Robina Woods The factors affecting connectivity Mapping pedestrian mobility The Route Deviation Index (RDI) Nigel Cartlidge Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009 Contents
  3. 3. Nigel Cartlidge <ul><li>The study examined the barriers to urban connectivity in Robina </li></ul><ul><li>Robina was chosen as a prominent example of new settlement planning and development in late 20 th century Australia </li></ul><ul><li>The residential suburb of Robina Woods was chosen for its central position in that development </li></ul><ul><li>Walkability was chosen as the primary tool for analysing the future sustainability of the suburb </li></ul>An analysis of Walkability in a late 20 th Century Master Planned suburb on Australia’s Gold Coast Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009
  4. 4. Nigel Cartlidge Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009 Robina/Varsity Lakes Study Area Google Earth™ image <ul><li>Sprawl has 3 Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Low Density Development </li></ul><ul><li>Low Mix of Use Development </li></ul><ul><li>Low Connectivity </li></ul>
  5. 5. Nigel Cartlidge Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009 Robina/Varsity Lakes Study Area Google Earth™ image <ul><li>Robina is a car dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Sprawl development </li></ul><ul><li>It has a density of 12.94 dph (GCCC, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>It has widely separated land uses </li></ul><ul><li>It has low levels of connectivity </li></ul>
  6. 6. Nigel Cartlidge Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009 Robina/Varsity Lakes Study Area Google Earth™ image The edge city spatial layout of Robina Town Centre
  7. 7. Nigel Cartlidge Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009 Robina/Varsity Lakes Study Area Google Earth™ image Pacific Motorway
  8. 8. Nigel Cartlidge Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009 Robina/Varsity Lakes Study Area Google Earth™ image Rail Line to Brisbane Pacific Motorway
  9. 9. Nigel Cartlidge Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009 Robina/Varsity Lakes Study Area Google Earth™ image Rail Line to Brisbane Pacific Motorway Robina Town Centre Layered barriers to pedestrian access
  10. 10. Nigel Cartlidge Robina Woods Study Area Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009 <ul><li>Ten residences were selected as representative of a geographical spread in the suburb </li></ul><ul><li>All three internal destinations and seven theoretically walkable local destinations were identified </li></ul>
  11. 11. Nigel Cartlidge Robina Woods Study Area Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009 The four lane median strip highways and the golf course constrain and define the suburb
  12. 12. Nigel Cartlidge The Layered Barriers to Pedestrian Connectivity Factors affecting connectivity Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009
  13. 13. Nigel Cartlidge An analysis of Walkability in a late 20 th Century Master Planned suburb on Australia’s Gold Coast <ul><li>The study focused on selected aspects of the barriers to connectivity created in Robina: </li></ul><ul><li>Time and distance </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity of origins to destinations </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial layout of the development </li></ul><ul><li>Route choice </li></ul>Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009
  14. 14. Nigel Cartlidge An analysis of Walkability in a late 20 th Century Master Planned suburb on Australia’s Gold Coast <ul><li>The study focused on selected aspects of the barriers to connectivity created in Robina: </li></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>Car focused design </li></ul><ul><li>The physical barriers to permeability </li></ul>Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009
  15. 15. Nigel Cartlidge Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009 Town centre aligned to the motorway and heavy rail line A residential core separated from needs Amenities and facilities on the edges of the development Truncated routes Un-walkable distances Land uses and routes Spatial & Physical Barriers
  16. 16. Nigel Cartlidge Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009 Google Earth™ images Spatial & Physical Barriers
  17. 17. Nigel Cartlidge Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009 Google Earth™ images Wide Roads & Fences Spatial & Physical Barriers
  18. 18. Nigel Cartlidge Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009 Google Earth™ images Wide Roads & Fences Roundabouts as crossings Spatial & Physical Barriers
  19. 19. Nigel Cartlidge Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009 Google Earth™ images Wide Roads & Fences Roundabouts as crossings Open Space & Car Parks Spatial & Physical Barriers
  20. 20. Nigel Cartlidge Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009 Google Earth™ images Wide Roads & Fences Roundabouts as crossings Open Space & Car Parks Loops & Lollipops Spatial & Physical Barriers
  21. 21. Nigel Cartlidge The car focused design limits pedestrian mobility Arterial Roads Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009
  22. 22. Nigel Cartlidge The car focused design limits pedestrian mobility Arterial Roads Collector Roads Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009
  23. 23. Nigel Cartlidge The car focused design limits pedestrian mobility Arterial Roads Collector Roads Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009 Crossings
  24. 24. Nigel Cartlidge The location of private open space The inappropriate location, size and shape of Golf Courses or other private open spaces is an unacceptable long term land use especially if it forms barriers to all forms of mobility. Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009
  25. 25. Nigel Cartlidge Mapping Pedestrian Mobility The study adopted a walking speed of 4.5km/h, giving a walking distance of 375m in five minutes. Based on a study of older pedestrian speeds (US Roads 2008). The study rejected the common practice of drawing pedshed circles on maps and sought to establish actual route times through mapping. “ Design for the young and you exclude the old: design for the old and you include the young” Dr Bernard Isaacs quoted in “Healthy Spaces and Places”. The metric: The distance someone can walk in five minutes Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009
  26. 26. Nigel Cartlidge Compared to the reality for residence 6 in actual permeability Proximity of origins to destinations determines walkability Traditional 400 & 800m pedsheds centered on the Primary School Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009
  27. 27. Nigel Cartlidge Proximity of origins to destinations determines walkability Physical barriers to pedestrian mobility include limited route choice Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009 Residence 10: 550m in a straight line from Varsity College (H) is 2410m by road separated by 22m of golf course buggy track Residence 6: 660m in a straight line from Robina Town Centre (A) is 4080m by road. Blocked by the golf course and Robina Parkway
  28. 28. Nigel Cartlidge Route structure is a shared problem for all forms of mobility Impermeable barriers are formed by the spatial layout Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009
  29. 29. The Route Deviation Index (RDI) The Route Deviation Index is the variation between the straight line distance and the actual travel distance as a percentage of the straight line distance. The route deviation maps sought to measure the distortion caused by the route structure and the impermeable barriers. These maps were used to produce a mean average and range of RDI for each destination A benchmark RDI was established by analysing the RDI of a grid road system in a suburb of Vancouver Canada Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009
  30. 30. Nigel Cartlidge The spatial layout of the arterial road system used in Robina Woods was compared to the grid system employed in a suburb of Vancouver. Suburb of Vancouver RDI 135 to 140 Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009
  31. 31. Nigel Cartlidge The spatial layout of the arterial road system used in Robina Woods was compared to the grid system employed in a suburb of Vancouver. Suburb of Vancouver RDI 135 to 140 Robina Woods RDI 108 to 1045 The relative scale, disconnect, lack of amenity, permeability and route choice in Robina Woods is shown in these two images Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009
  32. 32. The Route Deviation Index (RDI) The mean RDI for the selected ten residences to Robina Town Centre is 239 with a RDI range of 117 for residence 2, to 618 for residence 6 Robina Town Centre RDI map Varsity College RDI map The mean RDI for the selected ten residences to Varsity College is 220 with a RDI range of 147 for residence 2, to 438 for residence 6 The Town Centre The Local State School Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009
  33. 33. Nigel Cartlidge <ul><li>Using the grid system RDI as a benchmark it is possible to calculate the excess travel costs and CO2 emissions imposed on residents by the arterial road system. </li></ul><ul><li>A family of four living in residence 6 making 5 round trips to Robina Town Centre and Varsity College will travel 47.96kms extra each week, this will cost them: </li></ul><ul><li>$31.46 and 5.07 kgs of CO2 if driving a Honda Civic Hybrid 1.3 CVT </li></ul><ul><li>$38.27 and 7.19 kgs of CO2 if driving a Ford FG Falcon XT </li></ul><ul><li>(RACQ 2008) & (timeforchange.org 2008). </li></ul>The spatial layout and the arterial road system imposes costs on people and the environment Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009
  34. 34. Nigel Cartlidge Conclusions The residents of Robina Woods have little or no option but to travel by car to the amenities, facilities and employment they need within or outside of their residential suburb. There is a lack of destinations within the suburb to meet residents needs locally. There are layers of barriers to pedestrian mobility in the car focused urban design utilised in the development of Robina. Walking speed and achievable distances should be reduced to promote equity in planning and pedestrian mapping needs to replace the 400m circle. The Route Deviation Index (RDI) could be adopted to as a measurement tool to analyse and improve urban layouts. Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009
  35. 35. Nigel Cartlidge An analysis of Walkability in a late 20 th Century Master Planned suburb on Australia’s Gold Coast “ Sprawl is bad aesthetics, it is bad economics. Five acres being made to do the work of one, and to do it very poorly.&quot; William Whyte, January 1958. Second Gold Coast Urban Design Conference 2009
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