Imposing Liberalism By: Breanna, Danea and Brenna
Modern Liberalism What principals can reasonably be imposed on non-liberal societies? Self Interest: As human beings we have a natural tendency to concentrate on our own personal interests over someone else's, therefore, imposing Self interest on a non-liberal society should be accepted without much difficulty but will need the guidance from the nation’s government on keeping the citizen’s self interest in cooperation with the liberal principal of individual rights and freedoms. Competition: Competition is a part of human nature. When one person does something, another strives to do it better, faster or more efficient. This natural characteristic, in cooperation with economic freedom, will help develop this principal of liberalism within the nation. Private Property: Humans generally feel a sense of ownership towards things that are important to them. This natural human characteristic will allow for non-liberal nations to accept the imposition of Private Property, but will require government support due to the large responsibility private property can entail. Economic Freedom: As individuals, we all have specific talents, skills, and attributes that allow us to stand out from others. The benefit of this diversity is that individuals can sell their labour, ideas or products, as well as purchase these things from others. With economic freedom , there is a need for government intervention with a welfare state to set regulations and ensure a basic standard of living for its citizens.
Modern Liberalism Which principles of Modern liberalism can only be embraced through domestic support or instigation? Rule of law: This concept is an important principal to ensure is embraced by a non-liberal nation because every individual should be treated equally according to the law. With domestic support and/or instigation from a liberal nation through guidance of how to corporate the rule of law within their government system it can be embraced by non-liberal nations. Individual Rights and Freedoms Non-liberal nations may not understand that individuals deserve to have certain rights and freedoms. It is up to the nation’s government and other liberal nations to encourage the rights and freedoms individuals deserve to have, as long as it does not harm others. Economic Freedom: As individuals, we all have specific talents, skills, and attributes that allow us to stand out from others. The benefit of this diversity is that individuals can sell their labour, ideas or products, as well as purchase these things from others. With economic freedom , there is a need for government intervention with a welfare state to set regulations and ensure a basic standard of living for its citizens. Welfare State: A welfare state should be able to be created through the instigation of a liberal nation, and will create government policies that modify the market forces to ensure economic stability and a basic standard of living for the citizens.
Canada in Afghanistan – What Should Canada’s Role Be? http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2009/02/10/f-afghanistan.html http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2009/02/10/f-afghanistan.html Part One Canada’s Goals Globalization and Sustainable Prosperity for All http://afghanistan-canada-solidarity.org/files/images/TF%201-08%20019-REDUCED.jpg
Priority One: (Security) How is Canada Providing Help? Canada is training the Afghan National Army to promote law and order to Kandahar. Providing up to $99 Million Dollars over three years to go towards training, mentoring, and equipment. Canada has provided funding for infrastructure (outposts), and police salaries. What are two goals that Canada has for this part of the mission by 2011? The ANP demonstrates an increase capacity to promote law and order. The ANA with support will be able to conduct operations and sustain a more secure environment in key districts. http://www.militaryphotos.net/forums/showthread.php?165988-Today-s-Pix-Monday-September-28th-2009&p=4442541
Priority Two: (Basic Services) How is Canada Providing Help? Help the Afghan government to provide education, roads, etc. Create jobs for the Afghan people , including agricultural promotion. Expanding and repairing 50 schools in Kandahar over 3 years. What are two goals that Canada has for this part of the mission by 2011? The hope that provincial administration will be able to provide more basic services in Kandahar. Improving the irrigation/water systems to help the agriculture industry grow. http://www.unops.org/english/whatwedo/Locations/Europe/afghanistan-operations-centre/AGOC-news/Pages/Uruzgan-work-continues-despite-strong-insurgent-presence.aspx
Priority Three: (Humanitarian Aid) How is Canada Providing Help? Providing food for vulnerable populations as well as refugees. Providing Vaccinations such as polio , and measles. Aid in the clearance of mines from the province and educate on mine awareness. What are two goals that Canada has for this part of the mission by 2011? The hope that access to humanitarian assistance will continue to occur throughout Kandahar. institutions plan and coordinate emergency assistance http://www.life.com/image/694169
Priority Four: (Border) How is Canada Providing Help? Training boarder officials Providing equipment so that the boarder officials may do their job. Contributing to a dialogue across the boarder so that either side may communicate with one another. What are two goals that Canada has for this part of the mission by 2011? Afghan and Pakistan will continue to exercise stronger capacity to manage the border. Continue with economic development in the boarder area. http://www.nato.int/isaf/media/photo/2009/090403b/pages/090403b-002.html
Priority Five: (National Institutions) How is Canada Providing Help? Provide support for the elections including a voting registry. Provide technical expertise training to select national institutions and departments. Work together with other international donors to provide technical and financial resources to support the Independent Elections Commission. What are two goals that Canada has for this part of the mission by 2011? national, provincial, and local institutions will be able to carry out democratic governance in public programs. The government is able to carry out democratic elections. http://zunia.org/post/afghanistans-election-challenges/
Priority Six: (Reconciliation) How is Canada Providing Help? Aid in the development of Afghan government-led mechanisms . Help the Afghan government to be able to communicate with the people. Provide financial aid in upwards of 14 million dollars. What are two goals that Canada has for this part of the mission by 2011? national and provincial Afghan government initiatives will encourage political reconciliation and receive timely support from Canada. Improve the ability of the Afghan government to communicate with the people. http://www.upi.com/enl-win/e15ab20f3e9d52942b6633b73cb370bb/
Signature Project 1 – (Dahla Dam Irrigation System). Why is this an important project for the people of Afghanistan? Eighty percent of the Afghan population live along the dam and is their source of water for farms. With years of neglect the dam is in a terrible shape and has left the irrigation system at a reduced capacity. What is Canada doing to help? Find at least 2 pieces of information to place here. replacing generators and repairing water valves to improve the control of water flow. fixing gates to control the flow of water from the Arghandab River into the canal system http://www.afghanistan.gc.ca/canada-afghanistan/multimedia/afcam-cameraf/007/0002432-108-009.aspx
Signature Project 2 – (Education). Why is this an important project for the people of Afghanistan? With one of the worlds lowest education levels, providing education will help Afghan citizens gain employment and educating women may benefit their immediate families to come out of poverty. What is Canada doing to help? Find at least 2 pieces of information to place here. expand or repair 50 schools in key districts of Kandahar province. build the capacity of the Ministry of Education to deliver quality educational services. http://www.devex.com/articles/a-former-street-child-offers-disadvantaged-young-afghans-education-a-better-life
Signature Project 3 – (Polio eradication). Why is this an important project for the people of Afghanistan? Polio affects children under the age of 5 and can lead to eventual death. This disease is wide spread in Afghanistan, and many children may be affected due to transmission of the disease. What is Canada doing to help? Find at least 2 pieces of information to place here. establishing vaccination points at major border crossings. Provide financial support, up to 60 million, and providing the vaccine. http://southasia.oneworld.net/ShowCategory?b_start:int=10&type=Article&id=42
Part 2: Canada in Afghanistan – What Should Our Role Be? Who Are Our Troops Struggling Against in Our Efforts to Help Afghanistan? Is this a fight worth fighting? Key Questions:
Who Are the Taliban? Read the first paragraph on the Wikipedia page about the Taliban and then answer the following questions. 1. What does the word Taliban actually mean? The word Taliban means Student. 2. When did they form the government of Afghanistan and who forced them from power? The formed the government in 1996 and the U.S. government overthrew them in 2001. 3. Click on the links for the following concepts and then define them in your own words: Insurgency: an armed refusal against some form of authority. Guerilla War: a small group that uses war like tactics to harass a larger less mobile group. 4. The Taliban as a social and political “movement” (group) is made up of “volunteers” from which Afghan tribe and people of what neighboring countries to Afghanistan? The volunteers come from nearby Islamic countries such as Uzbeks, Tajiks, Chechens, Arabs, and Punjabis. The group is also made up of those belonging to different ethnic Pashtun tribes 5. Where does the US government believe that the Taliban’s headquarters is (city and country). Quetta, Pakistan.
Taliban Leadership and Organization 1. Who is considered by many as the current “leader” of the Taliban? Mullah Mohammed Omar 2. Follow the link to his page and then answer the following questions: This man is on the US government’s most wanted list for what 3 activities? Sheltering Osama bin-Laden Sheltering the al-Qaeda network in the years prior to and the period during and immediately after the September 11 attacks. Directing the Taliban in their war against HamidKarzai's Government and foreign NATO troops in Afghanistan. What is one of the only physical details really known about this man? He is missing one eye. How did he get this physical feature? He lost his eye either in 1986 or 1989 in the Battle of Jalalabad http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohammed_Omar Obtaining a photo of Mullah Omar is very difficult because he is a leader of the country and is on the U.S. most wanted list. Not being able to get a photo keeps the secrecy of the leader.
Origins of the Taliban Scroll down the main Taliban Wikipedia page until you find the heading Origins in order to answer the following questions: What are the two competing stories about the creation of the Taliban? After the Soviet agreed to cut off support for Afghanistan, the government forces largely sided with Jamiat-e Islami, who in mid-April began to advance on Kabul. At the same time however the forces of GulbuddinHekmytar and Hezb-e Islami began to approach the city from the South. Fighting soon broke out between the two factions. In early 1993 the fighting changed course as Wahdat aligned with Hezb-e Islami, resulting in large casualties on both sides as the two groups attempted to take control of West Kabul. Later that same year, the Taliban movement sprung out of Kandahar and by early 1995 had taken control of most of the country south of Kabul, forcing Hezb-e Islami to abandoned its positions and artillery. Although the Taliban was initially unable to take Kabul, its victory in Herat allowed it to make inroads in the North. The Taliban is a Sunni Islamist political movement that governed Afghanistan from 1996 until they were overthrown in late 2001 during Operation Enduring Freedom. The movement is made up of members belonging to different ethnic Pashtun tribes, along with a number of volunteers from nearby Islamic countries such as Uzbeks, Tajiks, Chechens, Arabs, Punjabis and others. THINKING QUESTION: Of the 2 stories a supporter would choose to believe which one? A supporter would believe the first story because it says nothing about the Taliban getting defeated. Of the 2 stories an opponent would probably choose to believe which one? A person who opposes the Taliban would agree with the second story because it talks about the defeat of the Taliban by the U.S. government. http://open.salon.com/blog/ohdannyboy/2009/02/08/the_taliban_i_heart_guns
Taliban Treatment of Women For the following slides please follow this link Taliban Treatment of Women Read the very first paragraph and then summarize the Taliban’s quotation about its reasons for harsh treatment of women below: The treatment of women is so bad because they feel that this treatment will lead to a secure environment and that the dignity of women will be inviolable. Under the Gender Policies heading, summarize the 8 points about the treatment of women by the Taliban provided: The treatment that women receive under the Taliban rule is very strict. They are not aloud to be out in public, unless with a blood relative. Women should not be seen or heard, and are not aloud to be in any public gatherings.
Dress Code and Mobility Dress code stuff: What is the name for the traditional outfit that women had to wear in Taliban Afghanistan? A Burkha What was the main reason for this strict control of women's’ dress? The women must wear a Burkha because bright or tight clothing may be sexually attractive and they would also be cursed by the Islamic Sharia, and should never expect to go to heaven 1. Scroll back up the page to find the definition of “mahram”. an unmarriageable kin with whom sexual intercourse would be considered incestuous and punishable. What are some other restrictions that women faced regarding moving around the cities and countryside in Afghanistan under the Taliban? (3) Women are not aloud to ride bikes or taxi’s even with their Mahram. Segregated busses were introduced so that women would not be on the same bus as men. Those women who did not have a father, husband, brother, or Mahram were virtually under house arrest because they were banned from going out alone. Those women in the countryside were affected less because a certain level of freedom is required for them to continue with their chores and farm work, but when they go into the city, the same rules apply to them as those living in the city. Why would an all girls’ orphanage be practically a prison under this system? The all girls orphanage would be a prison because women are not aloud to leave the house or go out into public without their father, husband, or Mahram. If the orphanage is an all girl orphanage, there is no male to allow the girls to go outside. http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/an/local/CTVNews/20091007/091007_burka?hub=CP24Home
Employment and Education Were women allowed to be educated under Taliban law? What age did they have to stop going to school? Women were aloud education under the Taliban rule but the were banned from attending school when they were eight years old. Find the quote that illustrates that the Taliban actually thought that they had increased women’s rights in Afghanistan “no other country has given women the rights we have given them. We have given women the rights that God and His Messenger have instructed, that is to stay in their homes and to gain religious instruction in hijab [seclusion]”. Were women allowed to work at all under the Taliban rules (tricky question)? Women were aloud to work under the Taliban rules, but they could only work in hospitals or as a humanitarian worker. These jobs were the exception to the ban because women were vital in ensuring the continuance of gynecological, ante-natal and midwifery services. Besides these two professions, women were banned from all other work. What industries were particularly hit hard by the Taliban’s work policies for women? Pick 2. Elementary education was hit very hard because most of the elementary school teachers were women . When there were no longer aloud to work, there was a shortage of teachers. The medical profession was affected also because before the Taliban rule, there had been around 200 female staff working in Kabul's Mullalai Hospital, and after the Taliban rule just 50 remained.
Health Care and Forced Confinement Give 2 reasons it was really tough for women to receive health care when the Taliban ruled Afghanistan. Only one hospital remained in Kabul at which they could seek treatment, and for many, this hospital may be hours away. Because less females were working in the health care profession, and males were banned from treating females, women who were seeking treatment had to have their mahram with them to get medical attention. A study done in 1991 concluded that roughly what percentage of Afghan women they surveyed were showing signs of mental distress and depression? 97% had signs of serious depression. 71% reported a decline in there well being. Describe 3 other cultural prohibitions that were imposed on women or about women if Taliban ruled Afghanistan.
Punishments for Breaking Taliban Laws Read the information about the types of punishments women (and men) were subjected to in Afghanistan during the Taliban’s rule and summarize 2 extreme examples below: The tip of a woman’s thumb was cut off because she was caught wearing nail varnish. 225women were caught breaking the dress code and the women were lashed on their legs and backs for their misdemeanor. Who is the woman in the photo on this part of the web-page? Zarmina What is happening to her? She is being publicly executed because she was found guilty of killing her husband Where is it happening? Kabul’s Ghazi Sport stadium What crime is she accused of? Killing her husband What happened to her for 3 years before this event? She was imprisoned and tortured What organization took the film this photo is a screenshot from? The Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan.
Women’s Resistance to the Taliban What is RAWA? a women's organization in Afghanistan that promotes women's rights and secular democracy. Who was the founder of RAWA and what happened to her? It was founded by Meena KeshwarKamal. She was assassinated for her political activities. What does RAWA work for? 3 main things. Acquiring human rights for women Continuing the struggle against the government of Afghanistan so women can participate fully. Strives for multilateral disarmament. Explain what the Golden Needle Sewing School was. A underground school for women in Herat, Afghanistan, during the rule of the Taliban. How did women “sneak in” 2 details. The women would arrive in burqas with their bags full of sewing materials. Under their materials they would hide notebooks and pens. Why was the area that this school was in one of the most oppressed by the Taliban? 2 reasons. it was a cultured city mostly Shi'a. (the Taliban opposed).
Now that you know … Write a personal reaction on this slide (3-4 sentences) in which you express your opinion about the treatment of women in Afghanistan by the Taliban. How does it make you feel? Why? I feel that the treatment of women in Afghanistan is disgusting. To have a form of government that has the ability to beat and execute women in streets and take away almost every right they have should never exist. Learning about the situation of the women in Afghanistan make me really appreciate what rights and freedoms I have here in Canada because I could not even begin to imagine what it would be like to never go out of the house alone.
Do we … As citizens of a country in which we are relatively free, safe, and equal do we have the responsibility to help places like Afghanistan become more like us? Why or why not? Explain your answer in 3 – 4 sentences. I believe that Canada does have a responsibility to help countries such as Afghanistan because the women in countries such as Afghanistan should not be treated the way they are. I don’t believe that we should help them become more like us in some areas such as religion, but in areas such as rights and freedoms we should help them achieve the rights and freedoms we have here in Canada.
Failed Imposition of Liberal Democracy The Islamic Republic of Iran is an example of failed imposition of Liberal Democracy in the 20th century, although it was not the Islamic people who rejected these principles. In 1925, Reza Khan declared himself as Shah and Iran became ruled by a powerful monarch. After WWII, a liberal democracy was established in 1941 by the U.S. and the U.N. The Iranians were very much in favor of this democracy. They were given rights and freedoms, with rule of law and economic freedom along with them, as well as competition, private property, and self-interest. The people were being treated more fairly as well as their economy was thriving. In 1951 the elected Prime Minister nationalized the oil companies in Iran. This caused a stir internationally as the U.S. could no longer get oil from Iran. The United States decided that although they viewed the Shah, who had fled to Russia, as a potentially dangerous and unpredictable ruler, if he was in power again they would have access to Iran’s oil. In 1953 they formed a coup and brought back the Shah who began to govern Iran in an increasingly authoritarian manner. The United States, who usually stands for freedom, rights, and democracy, abandoned their principles and supported a monarchy so that they could supply themselves with oil. Under this form of government, Iranians were stripped of their rights and democratic way of life they had come to know over the past 12 years. They were persecuted and beaten by police and had no way of escaping this horror. In 1979 the citizens pulled together a revolution. They overthrew the monarchy and chose the only option they had left; a theocracy. With an Islamic Republic government system, they were promised rights and freedoms and other principles of liberalism they had once known, and so it is the direction they chose to go. The government now established in Iran is not very different from a monarchy now, however the principles of liberalism were not rejected by the people. In fact, those principles are exactly what they wanted. The reason a liberal democracy failed is because the U.S. and U.N. overthrew the government to better their own countries, so they really were rejecting the principles of liberalism themselves. (U.S. Department of State, 2009)
Bibliography U.S. Department of State. (2009, September). Background Note: Iran. Retrieved April 27, 2010, from U.S. Department of State Diplomacy in Action: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5314.htm