Connections The declaration of independence The Declaration of the rights of man and of the citizen Individual Rights and Freedoms “…among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation” “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed…with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness” Rule of Law “…whenever any From of Government becomes destructive…it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government” “A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people” Individual Rights and Freedoms 1. Men are born and remain free and equal in rights 2. The Aim of all political association is the preservation of the natural and imprescriptibly rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression. 4. Liberty consists in the freedom to do everything which injures no one else 9. …all persons are held innocent until they shall have been declared guilty 11. The free communication of ideas and opinions Private Property 2. (continued) These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression. 17. Since property is an inviolable and sacred right, no one shall be deprived thereof except where public necessity...shall clearly demand it Rule of Law 6. Law is the expression of the general will…It must be the same for all, whether it protects or punishes 7. No person shall be accused, arrested, or imprisoned except in the cases and according to the forms prescribed by law
Individual Rights and Freedoms
All men are born free and equal; Rights of liberty, life, happiness; Rights of security, property; Freedom of opinion, religion, speech.
Rule of Law
Every individual is equal before the law and all citizens are subject to the law
Classical Liberal Thinkers of Influence Karl Marx: the present organization of society must be destroyed, even through violent revolution, if necessary, because only through such destruction can a better political, economic, and social organization be achieved. To establish this new format of society, working men must be organized and take up the struggle against the capitalists who defraud them. The proletariat is arrayed against capitalism. This struggle, according to Marx will end in victory for the proletariat, that is, in the triumph of universal Socialism. John Mill individual rights and freedoms including freedom of speech. The only limitations should be if one’s actions could harm another John Locke Believed humans had inalienable natural rights (Life, liberty, security, private property) Government accountability to the people Ownership and protection of private property Believed in a Social contract Advocate for Rule of law and protection of civil liberties, rights, and freedoms are under a constitution
Rejections to Liberalism [Cooperation] –Reject Individual Rights and Freedoms 1. Use of Secret Police to enforce the rules of the government. Germany: Gestapo, Soviet Union: KGB [Both had one party rule] --Rejection of Individual Rights and Freedoms. 2. Only one party was allowed to exist; had one single, charismatic leader. [Collective Interest]-Rejects Individual Rights and Freedoms 3. Central control of all organizations (schools, arts, clubs, the economy.) 4. The governments in both nations, began creating workhouses, providing jobs for all citizens. The catch with these jobs is the citizens HAD to work. There was no choice, even small children were put to work in the factories because they were small and useful for some of the most dangerous jobs. Nazi Germany: Reactionary Soviet Union: Revolutionary
Circumstances to Which People Have Found Communism or Fascism Appealing Communism and Fascism have been appealing to people only when the current system is failing. Both in Russia and Germany the peoples desperation caused by the failing of the current government system triggered the desire for a different system. Conditions in Germany before Fascism Treaty of Versailles Took away a large portion of the most profitable land from Germany Reparation payments kept the German economy from being able to recover Faith in the government was lost. The Depressions Destroyed the already struggling German economy. These left the Germans with poor quality of life, starvation and unfair working conditions led to a desperate environment. One where the people were looking for a new system, because they blamed the current government for their failing system. Conditions in Russia Before Communism
Opposition to government, unstable- assasinations communists and social revolutionaries
Nobles were very rich peasants were very poor, out of date farming methods and famines. Factory conditions in the industrial revolution were very poor. Living conditions were poor
War chaos; 15 million deaths, inflations and famine.
Russians were starving, didnt have homes, etc and this made them desperate for a better way of doing things. Communisms strategy of ‘common good’ and everyone getting a fair share would have been particularly appealing at this point. It was a matter of time before revolution.
Elements Which Can Be Considered Liberal Fascism There is a fake sense of competition created by the governments policies, which encourage citizens to use their property and money for the national interest, or as the government sees fit. communism Lenin’s new economic policy (temporary and replacing the policies of war communism) allowed for the ownership of small factories to given back to owners as well as the trading of small goods was permitted. When Stalin took over the Soviet Union, he abolished this policy . This can be categorized under private property.
The Extent to Which the Rejections of Liberalism are Justified Nazi Germany Germany struggled to overcome the economic and political turmoil that they were faced with after World War One. They suffered inflation and the unemployment rates increased dramatically. The lack of faith in the present government led to the development of political organizations that called for extreme changes. The people of Germany became desperate and were willing to give up anything for a stable and powerful country once again; even if it meant losing their Individual Rights and Freedoms. When Hitler was becoming more and more powerful and influential, people became drawn to his idea of social reform. He promised to gain political power, obtain national glory, and economic help that was greatly needed after the depression. Hitler had a strong political party that became known as the Nazis, who used aggressive nationalism and militarianism in order to increase authority in Germany. Even though Hitler's technique was very aggressive and terrorizing, the citizens of Germany were desperate to feel glorified especially after being in such turmoil after World War One. Hitler’s promises for a prosperous, orderly, and harmonious society was quickly supported by large masses of German citizens. Hitler's extreme reactionary ideologies were supported because the citizens would rather give up some aspects of liberalism than continuously live in severe economic turmoil. Soviet communism Joseph Stalin was a radical ruler who focused mainly on developing the Soviet Union’s industrial and military powers. The majority of the years as a dictator, Stalin used the forces of terror to further his dictatorship and increase his power. Stalin rejected many principles of liberalisms throughout his reign of power, competition is just one of the many. During Stalin’s years of dictator, he allowed no one to oppose his decisions. He began to jail or execute those who had helped him rise to power, in fear of them threatening his rule of power. Stalin also was responsible for the death of millions of Soviet peasants who opposed his program for government controlled farms, rejecting yet another principle of liberalism, private property. Even though Joseph Stalin’s way of running the government and country was very radical and forceful, there were intelligent reasoning behind his techniques. Stalin did not allow any one to oppose his decisions because he felt so strongly about developing the country the way he believed it could potentially become. Although Stalin rejected many principles of liberalism, the previously underdeveloped country became one of the world’s greatest industrial and military powers. Soviet Communism and Stalin’s reign of power was an era where Soviet citizens, as well as much of the world, were fearful of the possibility of Communism becoming a common form of government.
Comparing the Present to the Past
The Taliban/Reactionary Rejection of Liberalism The Taliban wanted to establish a “puritanical caliphate” that neither recognized nor tolerated forms of Islam different from their own They scorned democracy or any secular or pluralistic political process as an offense against Islam. The Taliban’s version of Islamic law is historically inaccurate, contradictory, self-serving and fundamentally deviant from current interpretations of Islamic law and practice. As civil war was damaging Afghanistan, Afghans were desperate for a stable force that would put an end to the violence. The Taliban’s most original aims were to restore peace, disarm the population, enforce Sharia law and defend the integrity and Islamic character of Afghanistan. Beginning in 1994, The Taliban rose to power and established their brutal, totalitarian rule over 90 percent of the country, in part by leading a genocidal campaign against Afghanistan’s Shiite, or Hazara.
Taliban Rules, Decrees, Laws and Prohibitions
Lawbreakers were beaten, flogged, shot or beheaded.
A few examples of Taliban rules, decrees and prohibitions as posted in Afghanistan in 1996.
Islam as a rescuing religion has determined specific dignity for women, Islam has valuable instructions for women. Women should not create such opportunity to attract the attention of useless people who will not look at them with a good eye. Women have the responsibility as a teacher or coordinator for her family. Husband, brother, father have the responsibility for providing the family with the necessary life requirements (food, clothes etc). In case women are required to go outside the residence for the purposes of education, social needs or social services they should cover themselves in accordance with Islamic Sharia regulation. If women are going outside with fashionable, ornamental, tight and charming clothes to show themselves, they will be cursed by the Islamic Sharia and should never expect to go to heaven. The Religious Police have the responsibility and duty to struggle against these social problems and will continue their effort until evil is finished.
20 the Century Counterpart:
Germany’s Reactionary Rejection to Liberalism. 20th century counterpart
After WWI Germany was governed by a Social Democratic government. The Government was forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles after the War, which stated that Germany too blame for the war.
Because of the treaty, economic conditions of the nation crashed terribly, and the people were left beat and broken down. Many blamed their government for the downfalls and for the humiliation of the country. This caused the people to have resent for their government and the voters began to lean towards a liberal democratic system.
They began to associate liberal policies with the powerful victors of WW1, Britain, France and the US. They also began to believe that it was liberalism that defeated Germany in the War.
In the early 1920’s, Germany had to officially admit defeat, they could not continue paying the reparations of the Treaty. France and Belgium moved into Germany, with the intent of claiming the reparations from Germany. Workers and owners in the area went on strike, halting manufacturing and causing inflation to sky rocket.
American Banks began to loan money to Germany, in order to partially stabilize the economy as well as allow for the reparations to continue being paid, however this left Germany with a massive debt.
The NAZI Part and Hitler saw this as an opportunity to gain the trust of the German people.
Hitler declared that it was the responsibility of the state to provide every citizen with chance to earn a living.
Hitler and his party appealed to the Germany people, because of the thought of returning to an authoritarian style of government, which Germany had in the past.
The NAZI Party promised to return to the ways of the past, which the German people saw as better.
Unfortunately as history show, the NAZI party was the cause of the Holocaust, a mass display of death and racism.
In Conclusion: The Taliban’s movements and actions during their rule of Afghanistan, although were stated to be directed towards restoring peace, disarming the population, enforcing Sharia law and defending the integrity and Islamic character of Afghanistan, their behavior is seen as unacceptable and without justification. The harsh rules set on Afghans, especially women, although may have been seen as good intentions to the Taliban, were very unfair and extreme. The NAZI Party’s actions from which they gained power of Germany is justified, because they saw the opportunity for change. When Hitler gained power, he improved life for Germans and the economy by providing jobs through infrastructure projects, as well as land for farmers. However, the actions which followed in the 1930’s and 40’s cannot be justified because they are based solely on racist policies, that the Aryan(Pure German) race was superior to all others. The treatment and execution of over 20 million Jewish people, as well as others including Gays, gypsies, and other “undesirables” is completely unjustified.