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  1. 1. Goals and Techniques for Teaching Reading
  3. 3. decodes attaches connects mental representation forms hypotheses makes decisions words meaning text information upcoming information purpose for reading
  4. 4. The three stages are: pre-reading while-reading post-reading. THE READING PROCESS
  5. 5. The purpose of pre-reading (also called Lead- in) is to facilitate while-reading activities. predicting, setting the scene, skimming, and scanning 1. Pre-reading activities
  6. 6. Predicting will get the reader’s mind closer to the theme of the text. Ways of predicting: predicting based on the title, predicting based on vocabulary, predicting based on the T/F questions. PREDICTING
  7. 7. Setting the scene means getting the students familiar with the cultural and social background knowledge relevant to the reading text. The culture-bound aspect of the text can start at the beginning with the title. e.g.: SETTING THE SCENE
  8. 8. Skimming means reading quickly to get the gist, i.e. the main idea of the text. Some suggestions: Ask general questions. e.g. ―Why did the writer write the article?‖ Ask the students to choose a statement from 3-4 statements. Ask the students to put subtitles for different parts of the text into the right order. e.g.: SKIMMING
  9. 9. Scanning means to read to locate specific information. The key point in scanning is that the reader has something in his mind and he or she should ignore the irrelevant parts when reading. SCANNING
  10. 10. While-reading activities focus on the process of understanding rather than the result of reading. Information transfer activities Reading comprehension questions Understanding references Making inferences 2. While-reading activities
  11. 11. Questions for literal comprehension. (Answers directly and explicitly available in the text) Questions involving reorganization or reinterpretation. (Require Ss to obtain literal information from various parts of the text and put it together or reinterpret it) Questions for inferences. (what is not explicitly stated but implied) Questions for evaluation or appreciation. (making a judgement about the text in terms of what the writer is trying to convey) READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS
  12. 12. All natural language, spoken or written, uses referential word such as pronouns to refers to people or things already mentioned previously in the context. e.g. on p. 131: UNDERSTANDING REFERENCES
  13. 13. Making inferences means ―reading between the lines‖, which requires the reader to use background knowledge in order to infer the implied meaning of the author. e.g. What can you infer from the following? MAKING INFERENCES
  14. 14. Post-reading tasks should provide the students with opportunities to relate what they have read to what they already know or what they feel. In addition, post-reading task should enable students to produce language based on what they have learned. 3. Post-reading activities
  15. 15. ACTIVITY -1
  17. 17. Language Reading Thinking
  18. 18. Reading IS Thinking “The purpose of reading is understanding.”
  19. 19. ―Once thought of as the natural result of decoding plus oral language, comprehension is now viewed as a much more complex process involving knowledge, experience, thinking and teaching.‖ (Linda Fielding and P. David Pearson, 1994)
  20. 20. 6. Decide What’s Important 7. Make Inferences Then Draw Conclusions 8. Summarize and Synthesize 1. Connect to the Text 2. Ask Questions 3. Expand Vocabulary 4.Predict &
  21. 21. Making Connections: A Bridge From the New to the Known Text to Self Text to Text Text to World
  22. 22. Asking Questions: The Strategy That Propels Readers Forward “Questioning is the strategy that keeps readers engaged. When readers ask questions, they clarify understanding and forge ahead to make meaning. Asking questions is at the heart of thoughtful reading.” ~Harvey and Goudvis
  23. 23. “The larger the reader’s vocabulary (either oral or print), the easier it is to make sense of the text.” Report of the National Reading Panel
  24. 24. “Research suggests that when students make predictions their understanding increases and they are more interested in the reading material.” Fielding, Anderson, Pearson, Hanson
  25. 25. Visualizing: A Tool to Enhance Understanding “Visualizing is a comprehension strategy that enables readers to make the words on a page real and concrete.” Keene and Zimmerman
  26. 26. “Thoughtful readers grasp essential ideas and important information when reading. Readers must differentiate between less important ideas and key ideas that are central to the meaning of the text.” Harvey and Goudvis
  27. 27. “Inferring is at the intersection of taking what is known, garnering clues from the text, and thinking ahead to make a judgment, discern a theme, or speculate about what is to come.” Harvey and Goudvis
  28. 28. The Evolution of Thought Synthesizing is putting together separate parts into a new whole….a process akin to working a jigsaw puzzle. Harvey and Goudvis
  29. 29. “If confusion disrupts meaning, readers need to stop and clarify their understanding. Readers may use a variety of strategies to “fix up” comprehension when meaning goes awry.” Harvey and Goudvis
  30. 30. “Fluency is important because it frees students to understand what they read.” Report of the National Reading Panel
  31. 31. CAUTION! “Although these strategies tend to be introduced independently, readers rarely use these in isolation when reading. These thoughts interact and intersect to help readers make meaning and often occur simultaneously during reading.” Harvey and Goudvis
  32. 32. Strategic skills needed in reading • Distinguishing the main idea from supporting details; • Skimming: reading for the gist or main idea; • Scanning: reading to look for specific information; • Predicting: guessing what is coming next;
  33. 33. Using Authentic Materias And
  34. 34. 1. The reading material must be authentic: It must be the kind of material that students will need and want to be able to read when traveling, studying abroad, or using the language in other contexts outside the classroom. USING AUTHENTIC MATERIALS
  35. 35. 2. The reading purpose must be authentic: Students must be reading for reasons that make sense and have relevance to them. "Because the teacher assigned it" is not an authentic reason for reading a text. USING AUTHENTIC MATERIALS
  36. 36. 3. The reading approach must be authentic: Students should read the text in a way that matches the reading purpose, the type of text, and the way people normally read. This means that reading aloud will take place only in situations where it would take place outside the classroom, such as reading for pleasure. The majority of students' reading should be done silently. USING AUTHENTIC MATERIALS
  37. 37. Reading Aloud…
  38. 38. What is a Read Aloud? • A Read Aloud is simply that—times in the school day when a teacher has planned to read orally to a group of students. • Read Aloud is a strategy in which a teacher sets aside time to read orally to students on a consistent basis from texts above their independent reading level but at their listening level.
  39. 39. What reading aloud activities could you use? Different types of reading aloud for different purposes: • Interactive reading aloud to teach particular reading strategies. • Dramatic reading to teach how to vary intonation, pause, tonal and expression patterns. • Scaffolded reading with a better reader, paired or shared reading with a peer to teach reading actions. • Solo reading, reading aloud to self or on tape to teach fluency. • Choral reading (chorus), small group or whole class to teach fluency. • Shared reading, read plays, novels, poems etc with other readers. • Repeated or multiple readings of the same text to teach fluency.
  40. 40. To prepare /select texts for reading aloud • Choose appropriate text; texts at the reader’s instructional or independent reading levels; that is, they can read at least 90 % of the words accurately • Check readability of texts; readability measures such as Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level • Plan to have individual students read aloud in small bursts initially; each reader reads 1 or 2 sentences.
  41. 41. What might students/reader do while reading aloud? The reader can: • point to words while reading, run finger along the text, use fingers to segment words or guide reading • re-read sentences or sections to improve fluency or that didn’t make sense, difficult to understand. • self-correct errors by re-reading, self-correct pronunciation.
  42. 42. What might students do while reading aloud? The reader can: • pause to comprehend at the end of each sentence; the reader can paraphrase, ask questions, consolidate (―so what that says, is…‖), predict what’s going to happen next • read at their pace and vary the pace to match difficulty of material • experiment while reading – predict what the text might be about , guess unfamiliar words • re-read to understand main idea.
  43. 43. Self talk to automatize reading aloud • What can I do before I start reading? • What is the purpose? Why am I reading this? • What do I know about this topic? • What will I do when I come to a word I don’t understand? • What will I do when I don’t understand an idea? • What should I be doing when someone is reading? • What should I be able to do after I have read the text? • Physically, what do I do when I read? • What will I look for as I read?
  44. 44. Teacher Preparation for Read Aloud • Highlight places to stop, question, make predictions, or make connections. • Write discussion questions before the lesson. • Practice reading the selection using gestures and voice intonation. • Plan before, during, and after reading activities to enhance comprehension.
  45. 45. Read Aloud Challenges and Solutions • The biggest challenge teachers have during Read Aloud is inattention by some children, which can interfere with other students’ listening. In order to get the most from Read Alouds you need to set up an explicit classroom routine. • Plan where and how the children are going to sit and where you will sit or stand. Be sure each child can see the book and make sure they know that everyone will get to see the pictures. The teacher should be elevated in order to monitor students, especially those sitting in the back. • Use cues to settle the children and consistently use them. Examples: “1,2,3 Eyes on me.” “I wiggle my fingers; I wiggle my toes; I wiggle my shoulders; I wiggle my nose. Now all the wiggles are out of me, and I’m as quiet as I can be. (Shhhhhh….) • Read the book ahead of time. By familiarizing yourself with the book you will know the story line, rhythm of the words, vocabulary, pronunciation, and characters. This familiarity will allow you to involve the children by having eye contact while you read. • Start every read aloud by introducing the title, author, and unknown vocabulary/concepts. If you have read other books by that author discuss that with the children.
  46. 46. Read Aloud Challenges and Solutions • Present literature to children with a planned introduction and conclusion. Use the introduction to create interest and set the mood for the story. • Choose books that are exciting enough to hold childrens’ interest and short enough to fit their attention spans. Their attention span will grow throughout the year. • Read everyday. • Use cues to give children ways to control their behavior themselves. Example: Move your finger across your mouth, tell the children that the signal means to be quiet or put on your listening ears. Use these consistently. Example: If a child isn’t listening, say their name in the story. Children love to hear their names in the book. • Encourage participation. • Let the children know that you can’t wait to read to them every day!