Assessment of learning2
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Assessment of Learning

Assessment of Learning

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    Assessment of learning2 Assessment of learning2 Presentation Transcript

    • Assessing and Evaluating the Portfolios
    • The Portfolio as an Assessment Tool A portfolio is a collection of student work with a common theme or purpose. The use of portfolios is not new. Portfolios have been common in the fine and performing arts for years in seeking support for one’s work, to document change or improvement in style and performance, or to gain admission to special schools.
    • The Portfolio as an Assessment Tool Portfolios are often described as a more authentic means of assessment than the traditional classroom test. Rather than showing that the learner knows what has been taught, the portfolio demonstrates that the student can do what has been taught.
    • Portfolio Assessment For example, we may identify the component parts of a short story on an objective test. But the inclusion of a short story in a portfolio documents our ability to write a short story.
    • According to Paulson, Paulson and Meyer, (1991, p. 63): "Portfolios offer a way of assessing student learning that is different than traditional methods. Portfolio assessment provides the teacher and students an opportunity to observe students in a broader context: taking risks, developing creative solutions, and learning to make judgments about their own performances."
    • Portfolio Assessment However, describing portfolio assessment as authentic suggests that other forms of assessment are less valid, or inappropriate. That is not the case. Different methods of assessment are useful for different purposes. Portfolio assessment is most appropriate when learning can be best demonstrated through a product.
    •  Decide on a purpose or theme. General assessment alone is not a sufficient goal for a portfolio. It must be decided specifically what is to be assessed. Portfolios are most useful for addressing the student’s ability to apply what has been learned. Therefore, a useful question to consider is, What skills or techniques do I want the students to learn to apply? The answer to this question can often be found in the school curriculum.
    • Consider what samples. Consider what samples of student work might best illustrate the application of the standard or educational goal in question. Written work samples, of course, come to mind. However, videotapes, pictures of products or activities, and testimonials are only a few of the many different ways to document achievement.
    • Determine how samples will be selected. A range of procedures can be utilized here. Students, maybe in conjunction with parents and teachers, might select work to be included, or a specific type of sample might be required by the teacher, the school, or the school system.
    • Decide whether to assess the process and the product or the product only. Assessing the process would require some documentation regarding how the learner developed the product. For example, did the student use the process for planning a short story or utilizing the experimental method that was taught in class? Was it used correctly? Evaluation of the process will require a procedure for accurately documenting the process used. The documentation could include a log or video of the steps or an interview with the student.
    • Develop an appropriate scoring system. Usually this is best done through the use of a rubric, a point scale with descriptors that explain how the work will be evaluated. Points are allotted with the highest quality work getting the most points. If the descriptors are clear and specific, they become goals for which the student can aim. There should be a separate scale for each standard being evaluated.
    • Share the scoring system with the students. Qualitative descriptors of how the student will be evaluated, known in advance, can guide learning and performance. Engage the learner in a discussion of the product. Through the process of discussion the teacher and the learner can explore the material in more depth, exchange feelings and attitudes
    • Grade Description 1-3 ♣ Shows limited awareness of portfolio goals ♣ Has difficulty understanding the process of revision ♣ Demonstrates little evidence of progress overtime ♣ Limited explanation of choices made ♣ Has difficulty relating to self/peer assessment 4-7 ♣ Reflects awareness of some portfolio goals ♣ Understands the process of revision to a certain extent ♣ Demonstrates some evidences of progress overtime ♣ Explains choices made in a relevant way ♣ Relates to self/peer assessment 8-10 ♣ Reflects awareness of portfolio goals ♣ Understands the process of revision ♣ Demonstrates evidences of progress overtime ♣ Fully explains choices made ♣ Reaches high level of reliability in self/peer assessment ♣ Draws conclusions about his/her learning
    • 1-3 ♣ Shows limited awareness of portfolio goals ♣ Has difficulty understanding the process of revision ♣ Demonstrates little evidence of progress overtime ♣ Limited explanation of choices made ♣ Has difficulty relating to self/peer assessment
    • 4-7 ♣ Reflects awareness of some portfolio goals ♣ Understands the process of revision to a certain extent ♣ Demonstrates some evidences of progress overtime ♣ Explains choices made in a relevant way ♣ Relates to self/peer assessment
    • 8-10 ♣ Reflects awareness of portfolio goals ♣ Understands the process of revision ♣ Demonstrates evidences of progress overtime ♣ Fully explains choices made ♣ Reaches high level of reliability in self/peer assessment ♣ Draws conclusions about his/her learning
    • TIPS! ♣ Each portfolio entry needs to be assessed with reference to its specific goals. Since the goals and weighting of the various portfolio components have been clearly fixed in advance, assessing the portfolio is not difficult.
    • TIPS! Self and peer assessment can be used too, as a tool for formative evaluation, with the students having to justify their grades with reference to the goals and to specific pages in the portfolio. This actually makes the teacher’s job of assessing portfolio much easier, because the pupil has done the groundwork of proving how far each goal is met in the portfolio.
    • TIPS! ♣ After all the efforts that your students have invested in their portfolios, it is recommended that the teacher provides feedback on the portfolios that is more than just a grade. One possibility is to write a letter about the portfolio, which details strengths and weaknesses and generates a profile of a students’ ability, which is then added to the portfolio.
    • TIPS! ♣ The finished portfolio may be due only at the end of the semester, but it is good idea to set regular dates at which time several portfolio-ready items will bbe handed in, so the students know whether they are on the right track
    • TIPS! ♣ Another option is to prepare certificates which comment on the portfolio strengths and weaknesses.
    • Challenges • Reliability: It can be quite difficult to establish scoring systems that are reliable over raters or time. Reliability across raters is especially important if major decisions are to be based on the assessment outcome.
    • Challenges • Time: The use of portfolios for assessment is time consuming in terms of hours needed to produce the product, time to develop a workable scoring system, and training for the evaluator(s).
    • Challenges • Depth, not breadth: Portfolio assessment offers the opportunity for depth but not breadth with regard to academic material covered. A written test can include questions from an entire unit with a sample of items from all areas taught. Because of the time it takes to produce products, it is not possible to have a portfolio that represents every aspect of a unit.
    • Challenges • Fairness: It may be difficult for the evaluator to control outside influences on the product such as parental assistance and access to resources like computers. If the assessment contributes to high stakes decision making, lack of equity in resources can be a significant problem.
    • Challenges • Contributions to learning: The use of the portfolio for assessment purposes could detract from its most important contributions to the learning process, such as honest teacher-student communication, forthright selfassessment, and working toward one’s personal best.
    • Key ingredients to Classroom Portfolio Assessment Make sure students “own” their portfolios Decide what kind of work to collect Collect and store work samples Select criteria by which to evaluate work samples 5. Require students to continually evaluate their own products 6. Schedule and conduct portfolio conferences 7. Involve parents in the portfolio assessment process 1. 2. 3. 4.
    • Purposes of Portfolios 1. Documentation of student progress  Working portfolios 2. Showcasing student accomplishments  Celebration portfolios 3. Evaluation of student status
    • Student-Teacher Conferences
    • The main philosophy embedded in portfolio assessment is “shared and active assessment”. To this end, the teacher should have short individual meetings with each pupil, in which progress is discussed and goals are set for a future meeting. Throughout the process, the student and the teacher keep careful documentation of the meetings noting the significant agreements and findings in each individual session.
    • Through meetings of this kind, the formative evaluation process for portfolio assessment is fascilitated. Indeed, the use of portfolio assessment takes time but in the end, the gains are well worth the time and effort expended by the teacher.
    • Finally, student-teacher conferences can also be used for summative evaluation purposes when the students present his final portfolio product and where final grades are determi8ned together with the teacher. Even at this stage, students can negotiate for the appropriate grade to be given using as evidence the minutes of the regular student-teacher conferences.
    • Below is a list of helpful hints for setting up student-teacher conferences. ♣ The teacher should look at student work beforehand ♣ A checklist or feedback form should accompany the work ♣ Comments should be specific to the work and elaborated on during the conference ♣ The teacher should focus on two to three items that need work and be prepared to share examples on how to improve them ♣ Plenty of positive feedback should be shared throughout the conference ♣ Time for the student to ask questions and give input should be allotted ♣ Student should be able to take the feedback form/checklist with them at the end of the conference to use as a reference in making revisions
    • The main goal should be to meet with the students two or more times during the course of a project. This way, students are given multiple opportunities to make sure they are on the right track and make necessary improvements to their work. Using formal conferencing along with informal feedback, students are protected from failure and set up for success.