Anahi academic-presentation

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  • Boundaries are used more aggressively during times when the groups/institutions are challenged or threatened by others WHERE TO ADD??
  • ADD SOMETHING TO SURVIVAL OF JUDAISM…HELPED JEWS FOLLOW A SET OF RULES FOR LIFE TO KEEP THEIR IDENTITY
  • Anahi academic-presentation

    1. 1. SEXUAL TABOOS IN WESTERN SOCIETY: A LOOK AT THE USE OF BOUNDARIES By Anahi Casillas
    2. 2. Ask Yourself: <ul><li>Where have Western societies learned to be intolerant of homosexuals, transvestites and other sexual deviants? </li></ul><ul><li>How have the sexual taboos been maintained? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Many Western societies today have an intolerance for homosexuality, transvestism and to a lesser extent other sexual deviances. Davies’ academic article, “Sexual Taboos and Social Boundaries,” helps us better understand the existence of sexual taboos. The taboos are the result of main groups or institutions creating and maintaining social boundaries to preserve their identity. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Who Has Been Influential? <ul><li>Religious Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Old Testament Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Parsees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern British Armed Forces </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. What is Important About Boundaries? <ul><li>Using boundaries is vital to the survival of groups/institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps them distinguish themselves from others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preserves their individual identity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clearly defines homosexuality and transvestism as morally incorrect </li></ul><ul><li>Threats and challenges make the use of boundaries more aggressive </li></ul>
    6. 6. Religion Old Testament Jews: How Were Sexual Taboos Created? <ul><li>Established boundaries helped to distinguish between Jews and irreligious people </li></ul><ul><li>Social boundaries influenced the creation of biblical texts </li></ul><ul><li>Contrary to what is commonly believed biblical texts do not influence sexual taboos alone </li></ul>
    7. 7. Religion Old Testament Jews: Why distinguish Jews from Heathen? <ul><li>Jews believed they were God’s chosen people </li></ul><ul><li>Survival of Judaism during exile in Babylonia depended on maintaining their identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resulted in the development of boundaries that defined moral rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped keep heathen people out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules served as a guide to distinguish right from wrong to remain a chosen one </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Religion Old Testament Jews: How Did Social Boundaries Influence Biblical Texts? <ul><li>According to Davies, “if religious…leaders decide out of ideological commitment, organizational necessity, or a sense of external threat to strengthen the boundaries of their group…they tend in consequence to impose harsh penalities on forms of sexual behavior that breach social or symbolic boundaries” (1060). </li></ul>
    9. 9. Religion Old Testament Jews: How Did Social Boundaries Influence Biblical Texts? <ul><li>Exile externally threatened Judaism’s identity which is why boundaries were established </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To strengthen the boundaries the Book of Leviticus included sexual taboos: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ You shall not lie with a man as with a woman: that is abomination…If a man has intercourse with a man as with a woman, they both commit an abomination. They shall be put to death’ (1033). </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Religion Old Testament Jews: How Have the Boundaries Been Maintained? <ul><li>Mentioning sexual taboos in the Old Testament will forever guide Judaism followers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains the intolerance for homosexuality, transvestism and other sexual deviances. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of these boundaries have carried on to influence Western societies today </li></ul>
    11. 11. Religion The Parsees: How Were Sexual Taboos Created? <ul><li>Highly similar to the Jews, the Parsees “survived in exile by maintaining strict social boundaries between themselves and their neighbors” (1037). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Included social boundaries in the Zoroastrian’s Vendidad to create sexual taboos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Vendidad is the religious code </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Entitles anyone to take the law into his own hands and to cut off the heads of the sodomites and to rip up their bellies” (1038). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Religion The Parsees: How Have the Boundaries Been Maintained? <ul><li>Zoroastrianism requires strict obedience of moral and ritual rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules are mentioned in the Vendidad which is read and followed by all true Parsees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teaches the sexual taboos </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Present and future followers of Zoroastrianism will forever have the Vendidad available to maintain sexual taboos </li></ul>
    13. 13. Religion Christianity: How were Sexual Taboos Created? <ul><li>Christians had a need to defend their identity against: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslims in Jerusalem during the 12 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During this time Christianity was a group in exile defending the furthest frontier of Christendom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heretical teachings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Challenged the special powers and position of the clergy </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Religion Christianity: How Did They Preserve Their Identity? <ul><li>Against the Muslims: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual boundaries were sharply defined against homosexual acts, which were a reminder of their threatened identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“‘… Drastic legislation’ against homosexual behavior (was) enacted during the 12 th century” (Davies 1042) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Those who were accused of engaging in homosexual acts were burnt </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Religion Christianity: How Did They Preserve Their Identity? <ul><li>Against the Heretical Teachings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharpened religious boundaries to distinguish between Orthodox and Heredic Christians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed sexual boundaries to maintain hierarchical boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Christian hierarchy is dominated by males and homosexual relationships can potentially blur the boundaries between power and status </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Religion Christianity: How Were Boundaries Maintained? <ul><li>Incorporation of homosexual intolerance in biblical texts has and will forever influence present and future followers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saint Paul denounced homosexuality in the first letter to the Corinthians stating that ‘none who are guilty either of adultery or of homosexual perversion…will possess the Kingdom of God’ (Davies 1041) </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Institutions British Armed Forces: How Were Sexual Taboos Created? <ul><li>Needed to preserve the hierarchical division identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection was offered by boundaries against homosexuality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Homosexuality threatens to blur the lines between different powers in the armed forces </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Institutions British Armed Forces: How Were Boundaries Maintained? <ul><li>Rejection of the Sexual Offences Act of 1967 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Act would legalize homosexuality in the armed forces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Military leaders hold the same view towards homosexuality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Undermines the discipline of the armed forces </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. References <ul><li>Davies, Christie. “Sexual Taboos and Social Boundaries.” The American Journal of Sociology 87.5 (1982): 1032-1063. Print. </li></ul>

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